Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 14 MARCH 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding fly ash.
1. It contains heavy metals from coal, a large amount of PM 2.5 and black carbon.
2. Net reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas and other adverse air emissions when it’s used to replace or displace manufactured cement is one of major environmental benefits of its utilization.
3. It currently is being utilized in manufacturing of Portland cement, bricks/blocks/tiles manufacturing, road embankment construction and low-lying area development, etc.
4. It consists primarily of oxides of silicon, aluminium iron and calcium.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

2. Which of the following statement is incorrect in reference to the Military Balance report?
(a) This report recently is released by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
(b) Global spending on defence rose by four percent in 2019, the largest growth in 10 years.
(c) Both the U.S. and China increased spending by 6.6%, to $684.6 billion and $181.1 billion respectively.
(d) None of the above

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).
1. Gurdwara Reform Movement was led to the formation of SGPC and its legal recognition by the Sikh Gurdwaras Act 1925.
2. It members are directly elected by a Sikh electorate, comprising of only men aged over 18 and who are registered as voters under the provisions of Sikh Gurdwara Act,1925.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements regarding Annual Financial Statement.
1. A vote-on-account only deals with the expenditure in Government’s budget, while an interim budget includes both expenditure and receipts.
2. Though both the Houses of Parliament discuss the Budget, only LokSabha votes on it.
3. It is necessary as well compulsory in nature.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Which of the following place in news and country of location is correctly matched?
Place in news Country of location
1. Damascus Syria
2. Pathein Vietnam
3. Ankara Turkey
Choose the correct option.
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 3 only

1.Answer-d
Explanation
Fly Ash
Fly ash is a major source of PM 2.5 (fine, Respirable pollution particles) in summer. It becomes air borne, and gets transported to a radius of 10 to 20 kms. It can settle on water and other surfaces.
Composition: Fly ash contains heavy metals from coal, a large amount of PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC).
Health and environmental hazards:
Toxic heavy metals present: All the heavy metals found in fly ash nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, lead, etc—are toxic in nature. They are minute, poisonous particles accumulate in the respiratory tract, and cause gradual poisoning.
Radiation: For an equal amount of electricity generated, fly ash contains a hundred times more radiation than nuclear waste secured via dry cask or water storage.
Water pollution: The breaching of ash dykes and consequent ash spills occur frequently in India, polluting a large number of water bodies.
Effects on environment: The destruction of mangroves, drastic reduction in crop yields, and the pollution of groundwater in the Rann of Kutch from the ash sludge of adjoining Coal power plants has been well documented.
The issues which impede its full-scale utilization in India:
Indian fly ash is primarily of the calcareous or class C variety, implying that it possesses not only pozzolanic, but also hydraulic (self-cementing) properties. In contrast, European fly ash is of a silicious or class F variety, implying an absence of hydraulic properties.
BIS revised the maximum and minimum blending standards. While the BIS is in line with the American standards on blended cement, the European and South African standards allow the blending of fly ash up to 55%.
The pricing of fly ash is increasingly becoming a contentious issue that is hampering its gainful utilisation.
Imperfections typical of quasi-markets, such as information asymmetry and high transaction costs, vested interests, technical and technological limitations, and the lack of regulatory oversight and political will, have impeded the flow of fly ash to its most value-adding use.
How can it be utilised?
Fly ash is a proven resource material for many applications of construction industries and currently is being utilized in manufacturing of Portland cement, bricks/blocks/tiles manufacturing, road embankment construction and low-lying area development, etc.
There is need for education and awareness generation.
Road contractors and construction engineers need to know the benefits of using fly ash in construction.
Measures need to be taken to reduce the cost of construction of roads using fly ash by way of tax structure, subsidies and transportation services.
There is also a need to prevent the ash from coming to the power plant by washing the coal at its place of origin.
The government should also come out with a policy to encourage fly ash use in cement plant.

 

2.Answer-a
Explanation
Global spending on defence rose by four percent in 2019, the largest growth in 10 years, led by big increases in the U.S. and China, says the Military Balance report by the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Both the U.S. and China increased spending by 6.6%, the report said, to $684.6 billion and $181.1 billion respectively.

3.Answer-a
Explanation
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC)-
It is directly elected by an electorate of the Sikh Nation, male and female above 18 years of age who are registered as voters under the provisions of Sikh Gurdwara Act 1925. This act enables SGPC to control all the Historical Gurdwaras as well as Gurdwaras under Section 87 of this act. The elections to SGPC are held after every five years. SGPC is also called Parliament of the Sikh Nation. Now apart from the management of Gurdwaras, it runs many prestigious educational institutions including Medical colleges, Hospitals and many charitable trusts.
The Akali movement or the Gurdwara Reform Movement was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras (the Sikh places of worship) in India during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of the Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).
The Akalis also participated in the Indian independence movement against the British Government, and supported the non-cooperation movement against them

 

4. Answer-d
Explanation-

Annual financial statement
Annual Financial Statement is a document presented to the legislative assembly of the state every year under Article 202 of the Constitution of India.
Annual Financial Statement is a document presented to the Parliament every year under Article 112 of the Constitution of India, showing estimated receipts and expenditures of the Government of India for the coming year in relation to revised estimates for the previous year as also the actual amounts for the year prior to it.
The receipts and disbursements are shown under three parts in which Government Accounts are to be kept viz.,(i) Consolidated Fund, (ii) Contingency Fund and (iii) Public Account.
Under the Constitution, Annual Financial Statement has to distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure. Government Budget, therefore, comprises of Revenue Budget and Capital Budget.
The estimates of receipts and expenditure included in the Annual Financial Statement are for the expenditure net of refunds and recoveries, as will be reflected in the accounts.
The estimates of receipts and disbursements in the Annual Financial Statement are shown according to the accounting classification prescribed by Comptroller and Auditor General of India under Article 150 of the Constitution, which enables Parliament and the public to make a meaningful analysis of allocation of resources and purposes of Government expenditure.
If the Budget is not passed within the announced date, Article 116 of the Constitution empowers the LokSabha to pass the Vote-On-Account, a document which covers only the expenditure incurred.
A “vote-on-account” only deals with the expenditure in Government’s budget, while an “interim budget” includes both expenditure and receipts.

 

5.Answer-b
Explanation-
1. Damascus Syria
2. Pathein Myanmar
3. Ankara Turkey