Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 17 April 2020

FOR PREVIOUS UPDATE ON CURRENT QUESTION CLICK HERE

1. Consider the following statements about Rakhigarhi.
1. This site is located in the Sarasvati river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar River.
2. The ASI team unearthed a fire altar, parts of a city wall, drainage structures as well as a hoard of semi-precious beads from here.
3. This site was excavated by Shri Amarendra Nath of ASI.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

1.Answer-d
Explanation-
Rakhigarhi
Centre is moving ahead with its plan to develop Rakhigarhi as a tourist hub and set up a museum.
As part of encroachment removal at the Rakhigarhi heritage site, 152 households are being shifted to flats.
Background
Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman had announced the government’s plan to fund five on-site museums, including the under-construction museum initiated by the Haryana government at Rakhigarhi, in her Budget speech on February 1.
Other sites mentioned in the Budget — Hastinapur in Uttar Pradesh, Shivsagar in Assam, Dholavira in Gujarat and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu.
What’s the issue now?
Rakhigarhi’s rise as a site of ancient curiosity has disrupted the villager’s life to an extent.
The ASI has been able to get under its control just 83.5 acres of the 350-hectare site that spans 11 mounds, after first taking over the site in 1996, due to encroachments and pending court cases.
About Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi, in Haryana, became an archaeological hotspot when Amarendra Nath, former director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), undertook excavations at the site in 1997.
The ASI team unearthed a fire altar, parts of a city wall, drainage structures as well as a hoard of semi-precious beads.
Villagers subsequently began to see the significance of the terracotta shards that littered Rakhigarhi.
It is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times. The village also has havelis that are a couple of hundred years old.
The site is located in the Sarasvati river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar River.
In May 2012, the Global Heritage Fund, declared Rakhigarhi one of the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia.
The site of Rakhigarh is one of the five known biggest townships of Harappan civilization on Indian sub-continent. Other four are Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Ganveriwala in Pakistan and Dholavira (Gujrat) in India.
Five interconnected mounds spread in a huge area form the Rakhigarhi’s unique site. Two mounds, out of five, were thickly populated. This site was excavated by Shri Amarendra Nath of ASI.
The archaeological excavations revealed mature Harappan phase represented by planned township having mud-brick as well as burnt-brick houses with proper drainage system. The ceramic industry represented by red ware, which included dish-on-stand, vase, jar, bowl, beaker, perforated jar, goblet and handis.
Animal sacrificial pit lined with mud brick and triangular and circular fire alters on the mud floor have also been excavated that signifies the ritual system of Harappans.
A cylindrical seal with five Harappan characters on one side and a symbol of an alligator on the other is an important find from this site.
Other antiquities included blades; terracotta and shell bangles; beads of semiprecious stones, terracotta, shell and copper objects; animal figurines, toy cart frame and wheel of terracotta; bone points; inscribed steatite seals and sealings. The excavations have yielded a few extended burials, which certainly belong to a very late stage, may be the medieval times.

 

2. Which of the following Hill and State is correctly matched?
Hill State (s)
1. Lushai Hills: Mizoram and Tripura
2. Khasi Hills: Meghalaya
3. Mishmi Hills: Arunachal pradesh
4. Abor Hills: Assam
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above

2.Answer-b
Explanation-
Hill State (s)
Lushai Hills: Mizoram and Tripura
Khasi Hills: Meghalaya
Mishmi Hills: Arunachal Pradesh
Abor Hills: Arunachal Pradesh


3. Consider the following statements with respect to the SPICE-2000.
1. It is not a bomb, but a ‘guidance kit’ that is attached to a standard warhead or bomb.
2. It is manufactured by the Russian defence technology company.
3. It does work so with the help of a “unique scene-matching algorithm”.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Answer-c
Explanation-
SPICE-2000
Indian Air Force Mirage-2000 jets reportedly used SPICE-2000 bombs during the mission to destroy JeM’s Balakot terrorist training camp
SPICE-2000 is not a bomb, but a ‘guidance kit’ that is attached to a standard warhead or bomb.
SPICE, manufactured by the Israeli defence technology company Rafael, is short for ‘Smart, Precise-Impact and Cost-Effective’
The SPICE guidance kit consists of two pieces — one is attached to the bomb’s head and the other is attached at the end.
The first piece has a camera located at its tip while the second piece is essentially a fin allowing a bomb outfitted with SPICE-2000 to glide.
The two SPICE-2000 pieces are then attached to a bomb and the memory chip is inserted into the SPICE kit. Fighter jets carrying the SPICE-2000 ‘smart bombs’ then take off for the mission.
The yellow key-like part you see here is a memory chip inserted into a SPICE-2000 kit.
Once the fighter jets reach a pre-determined location and height, they drop these smart bombs. The SPICE-2000’s onboard computer then takes over and uses the data stored in the memory chip to glide the bomb towards the target.
At the top right is a satellite image fed into the SPICE-2000 computer. In the centre above is the feed from the camera. Imagery in this feed is cross-referenced with the data on the memory chip.
The SPICE-2000 does so with the help of what maker Rafael calls a “unique scene-matching algorithm”. So, essentially the SPICE-2000 dramatically increases the probability of a successful and accurate ‘hit’ and makes a fighter pilot’s life a whole lot easier.
After all, the SPICE-2000 maker has made an impressive claim: Bombs outfitted with the kit have an accuracy rate of just three meters.
That, by the way, is less than the space between your home’s floor and roof.

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Bar Association of India (BAI).
1. It was established in August 1959 and was given statutory status by Parliament under the Advocates Act, 1961.
2. BAI consists of members elected from each state bar council, and the Attorney General of India and the Solicitor General of India who are ex officio members.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Answer-c
Explanation-
About the Bar Association of India
The Bar Association of India is Federation of the Supreme Court, High Court, District Court and other local Bar Associations, Law Societies in India and the Society of Indian Law Firms (SILF), cumulatively representing as a voluntary body almost the entire legal profession, apart from having a distinguished individual membership.
The genesis of the Association lies in the recommendations of a Committee formed to constitute an All India Bar following a resolution passed during the All India Law Conference organized by the Indian Law Institute. This recommendation was preceded by a detailed questionnaire being sent by the ILI under the initiative of then Chief Justice of India as the President ILI, which revealed a countrywide desire for formation of such a body.
These suggestions were considered at a meeting of the Organization Committee of the Association which passed and adopted the Constitution of the Association in the light of the suggestions receives by it and the first executive committee of its Constituted on 8th August 1959. Thereafter the Association was registered under the Societies Registration Act on 25th September, 1959”.
The Bar Association of India was inaugurated on April 2, 1960 by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Shri M.C. Setalvad was also the first President of the Bar Association of India.
The Bar Association of India has always been at the forefront of introducing new ideas and instilling a culure of inquiry, debate and discussions on the issues vital to the Indian Legal profession, Justice delivery mechanism and maintaining and promoting the Rule of Law by organizing on regular basis seminars, workshops, national and international conferences.
The Association is also credited with having successfully organized mega conferences as a host organization for the International Bar Association, Commonwealth Lawyers Association, the Union International Des Avocats (UIA), Law Asia and the Inter-Pacific Bar Association and has recently with China, was co-initiater and founder of BRICS Legal Forum.
Its members are elected from amongst the lawyers in India and as such represents the Indian bar.
It prescribes standards of professional conduct, etiquettes and exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over the bar.
It also sets standards for legal education and grants recognition to Universities whose degree in law will serve as a qualification for students to enrol themselves as advocates upon graduation.
The Bar Council of India consists of members elected from each state bar council, and the Attorney General of India and the Solicitor General of India who are ex officio members.
The members from the state bar councils are elected for a period of five years.
It was given statutory body by Parliament under the Advocates Act, 1961.
The following statutory functions under Section 7 cover the Bar Council’s regulatory and representative mandate for the legal profession and legal education in India:
 To lay down standards of professional conduct and etiquette for advocates
 To lay down procedure to be followed by its disciplinary committee and the disciplinary committees of each State Bar Council
 To safeguard the rights, privileges and interests of advocates
 To promote and support law reform
 To deal with and dispose of any matter which may be referred to it by a State Bar Council
 To promote legal education and to lay down standards of legal education. This is done in consultation with the Universities in India imparting legal education and the State Bar Councils
 To organise legal aid to the poor
 To recognise on a reciprocal basis, the foreign qualifications in law obtained outside India for the purpose of admission as an advocate in India
 To manage and invest the funds of the Bar Council
 To provide for the election of its members who shall run the Bar Councils.

 

5. Consider the following statements regarding the writs jurisdiction in India.
1. The Supreme Court and High courts can issue prerogative writs under Article 32 of the Constitution.
2. The writ of mandamus cannot be issued unless the legal duty is of public nature, and to whose performance the applicant of the writ has a legal right.
3. All the writ petitions can only be filed by Aggrieved individual except for Quo Warranto which can be filed by any individual irrespective of whether he/she is aggrieved or not.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Answer-a
Explanation-
Writs in the Indian Constitution
The Constitution of India allows Supreme Court and High Courts under Articles 32 and 226 respectively to issue writs to enforce the Fundamental Rights made available by the Part III of the Constitution.
What is a Writ?
A Writ is a formal written order issued by the Court in the name of the sovereign power. Any warrant, orders, directions, and so on, issued by the Supreme Court or the High court are called writs.
What is a Writ Petition?
If any of your Fundamental Rights are violated a writ petition can be filed in the High Court (Article 226) or the Supreme Court (Article 32) of India.
Imp Note: The writ jurisdiction of the High Court’s (Article 226) on a writ petition is wider as it extends to the constitutional rights too.
Who can file the Writ Petitions?
All the writ petitions can only be filed by Aggrieved individual except for Quo Warranto which can be filed by any individual irrespective of whether he/she is aggrieved or not.
In case of Habeas Corpus the any other individual on behalf of the aggrieved person can file the writ petition.
Public Interest Litigation and Judicial Activism:
The traditional rule of “Locus Standi” that a person, whose right is infringed alone can file a petition, has been considerably relaxed by the Supreme Court in its recent decisions.
Now, the court permits public interest litigation at the instance of public spirited citizens for the enforcement of constitutional o- legal rights. Now, any public spirited citizen can move/approach the court for the public cause (in the interests of the public or public welfare) by filing a petition in Supreme Court under Art.32 of the Constitution; in High Court under Art.226 of the Constitution;
Writs available in India
Both the Articles 32 and 226 provide five types of writs namely writ of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari and quo-warranto. These are known as prerogative writs in English Law because they had originated in the King’s prerogative power of superintendence over the due observance of law by his officers and tribunals.
The prerogative writs are extra-ordinary remedies intended to be applied in exceptional or rare cases in which ordinary legal remedies are not adequate.