Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 18 April 2020

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1. ICoSDiTAUS-2020 frequently seen in the news recently, which of the following statement is incorrect regarding this?
(a) It is an International Conference on Anti-microbial resistance (AMR) Drugs.
(b) The conference adopted the New Delhi Declaration on Collection and Classification of Traditional Medicine (TM) Diagnostic Data for AMR Drugs.
(c) The conference was jointly organized by the Ministry of AYUSH and the WHO during 25- 26 February 2020 at New Delhi.
(d) None of the above statement is correct.

  1. Answer-a
    Explanation
    ICoSDiTAUS-2020
    ICoSDiTAUS-2020, the two-day International Conference on Standardisation of Diagnosis and Terminologies in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha Systems of Medicine concluded in New Delhi today with adopting the ‘New Delhi Declaration on Collection and Classification of Traditional Medicine (TM) Diagnostic Data.’
    The sixteen countries which came together for the cause of traditional medicine at this conference are Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Serbia, Curacao, Cuba, Myanmar, Equatorial Guinea, Qatar, Ghana, Bhutan, Uzbekistan, India, Switzerland, Iran, Jamaica, and Japan.
    ICoSDiTAUS-2020 is the biggest ever international event dedicated to standardisation of Diagnosis and Terminologies of Traditional Medicine in terms of the broad level of participation covering virtually all the continents. The inaugural address of Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, WHO South East Asia Regional Office (SEARO) on 25 February set the tone for the conference and underlined the power of TM systems and their significance in addressing the public health challenges of the 21 century.
    Samira Asma, Assistant Director General, WHO, joined in through video conference and emphasised the potential of strategic use of data and evidence to advance TM systems into public health. Rajesh Kotecha, Secretary, AYUSH, in his talk in the inaugural session explained the extent of the contribution being made in traditional medicine systems in India in the effort to achieve universal health coverage.

 

2. Consider the following statements regarding the use of Armed Forces for public security.
1. The procedure for use of Armed Forces to disperse a mob bent on violence is provided in Sections 130 to 132 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) of 1973.
2. The Armed Forces are called in by the civil power when public security is in manifest danger.
3. The Defence Service Regulations specifies that requisition for help from the civilian power to the Armed Forces officer should either be in writing or by telegram.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

2. Answer-d
Explanation-
The Armed Forces are called in by the civil power when public security is in “manifest danger” from an unlawful assembly which is refusing to disperse despite the efforts of police forces.
The procedure for use of Armed Forces to disperse a mob bent on violence is provided in Sections 130 to 132 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) of 1973.
The Defence Service Regulations also act as an extensive guide to procedure for calling in the Armed Forces and also how they should operate while on duty, especially if they have to use fire power to restore peace.
Chapter 10 of the CrPC under the title ‘Maintenance of Public Order and Tranquility’ provides the step by step process for calling in the Armed Forces for help.
The first provision in the chapter, Section 129, deals with the dispersal of a violent mob using civil forces. However, if this happens to fail, Section 130 steps in. The provision empowers the “Executive Magistrate of the highest rank,” in situations of gravest danger to public security, to write to “any officer in command of any group of persons belonging to the Armed Forces to disperse the assembly with the help of the Armed Forces under his command.”
Rioters can also be arrested or confined in order to either disperse the mob or punish them in accordance with the law.
The provision allows the Armed Forces officer in command concerned to comply with the Magistrate’s requisition for aid in a manner “as he thinks fit.” But in dispersing the unlawful assembly and restoring calm, the Armed Forces should use as “little force” as possible and causing as “little injury to person and property as may be consistent with dispersing the assembly and arresting and detaining such persons.”
Section 131 considers a situation in which the Executive Magistrate is somehow incommunicado and the riot situation is full blown.
In such cases, “any commissioner or gazetted officer of the Armed Forces may disperse the unlawful assembly with the help of the Armed Forces under his command.” But the officer has to comply with the instructions of the Magistrate once communication is established with the latter.
Section 132 protects the officers and members of the Armed Forces from prosecution for acts done in good faith in the course of their duties to contain the riot.
The Defence Service Regulations specifies that requisition for help from the civilian power to the Armed Forces officer should either be in writing or by telegram.
The Forces should immediately come to the aid of the civil power for maintenance of law and order.
The strength and composition of the force, the amount of ammunition, arms and equipment to be taken and the manner of carrying out the operations are matters for the Armed Forces alone.

 

3. Which of the following statement is not correct regarding the National Technical Textiles Mission?
(a) Technical textiles are textiles materials and products manufactured primarily for technical performance and functional properties rather than aesthetic characteristics.
(b) The Mission aims at improving penetration level of technical textiles in the country.
(c) This has three components viz. Research, Innovation and Development, Export Promotion and Education, Training and Skill Development.
(d) All statements are correct.

3. Answer-c
Explanation
National Technical Textiles Mission
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has recently given its approval to set up a National Technical Textiles Mission with a total outlay of Rs 1480 Crore, with a view to position the country as a global leader in Technical Textiles.
The Mission would have a four year implementation period from FY 2020-21 to 2023-24.
Four components of National Technical Textiles Mission:
1. Research, Innovation and Development
2. Promotion and Market Development
3. Export Promotion
4. Education, Training and Skill Development
Background of Technical Textiles
• Technical textiles are textiles materials and products manufactured primarily for technical performance and functional properties rather than aesthetic characteristics.
• Technical Textiles products are divided into 12 broad categories (Agrotech, Buildtech, Clothtech, Geotech, Hometech, Indutech, Mobiltech, Meditech, Protech, Sportstech, Oekotech, Packtech) depending upon their application areas.
• India shares nearly 6% of world market size of 250 Billion USD.
• However, the annual average growth of the segment is 12%, as compared to 4% world average growth.
• Penetration level of technical textiles is low in India at 5-10%, against 30-70% in advanced countries.
• The Mission aims at improving penetration level of technical textiles in the country.

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding the National Security Council (NSC).
1. The NSC is an executive government agency tasked with advising the Prime Minister’s Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
2. The NSC is headed by the Prime Minister and the National Security Advisor (NSA) is its Secretary.
3. India’s national security management structure is a three-tiered structure which are comprised of Strategic Policy Group, National Security Advisory Board and Secretariat represented by the Joint Intelligence Committee.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Answer-d
Explanation
National Security Council (NSC)
The National Security Council (NSC) in India is the executive agency responsible for advising the Prime Minister’s Office on issues of national security and strategic interest. The National Security Council is an important body in India with a powerful responsibility.
The NSC was established in 1998 by the government of AB Vajpayee. Brajesh Mishra served as the country’s first National Security Advisor (NSA). Before the NSC was formed, these functions were carried out by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister.
The NSC is the apex agency in the country handling internal and external security, conventional and non-conventional defence, military affairs, counter-insurgency, space and high technology, economy, counter-terrorism and environment.
The NSC is headed by the Prime Minister and the NSA is its Secretary. The headquarters of NSC is in New Delhi and the current NSA is Ajit Doval.
National Security Council Members
Apart from the NSA, the other members are:
1. Deputy National Security Advisor (DNSA)
2. Minister of Defence
3. Minister of External Affairs
4. Minister of Home Affairs
5. Minister of Finance
6. Deputy Chairman of the NITI Aayog
Other members can be invited to attend its monthly meetings as and when required.
The NSA is a powerful office and it is to him/her that various intelligence agencies such as RAW, IB, etc. report to rather than directly to the Prime Minister.
National Security Council Organizational Structure
India’s national security management structure is a three-tiered structure. The three tiers are comprised of:
1. Strategic Policy Group
2. National Security Advisory Board
3. Secretariat represented by the Joint Intelligence Committee
Strategic Policy Group
• It is the first tier in the three-tier system of the NSC.
• It is the core decision-making apparatus of the NSC.
• The Chairman of the SPG now is the NSA. Earlier, it was the Cabinet Secretary.
• The SPG will assist the NSC, and also perform long-term strategic review of the security affairs of the country.
• It is the chief mechanism for coordination among the different ministries and for the integration of inputs for the formulation of security policies.
• SPG meetings will be convened by the NSA and the implementation of the decisions of the SPG by the Ministries and Departments, and the State governments, will be coordinated by the Cabinet Secretary.

 

5. Consider the following statements about Thiruvalluvar.
1. Thiruvalluvar, also called Valluvar, was a Tamil poet-saint, believed to have lived between 3rd-4th century or 8th-9th century.
2. He had contributed the Tirukkural or ‘Kural’ to the Sangam literature.
3. Tirukkural is comprised of couplets which are divided into three books i.e. Aram, Porul and Kamam.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Answer-d
Explanation-
Thiruvalluvar
Thiruvalluvar, also called Valluvar, was a Tamil poet-saint. The period when he lived is debated, as is his religious identity.
He is believed to have lived between 3rd-4th century or 8th-9th century.
He is thought to be linked to Jainism. However, Hindus have also claimed that Thiruvalluvar belonged to hinduism. Dravidian groups also count him as a saint, as he dismissed the caste system.
He had contributed the Tirukkural or ‘Kural’ to the Sangam literature.
Tirukkural is comprised of 133 sections of 10 couplets each is divided into three books: Aram (virtue), Porul (government and society), and Kamam (love).
The Tirukkural has been compared to the great books of the world’s major religions.
Sangam Literature
The word ‘Sangam’ is the Tamil form of the Sanskrit word Sangha which means a group of persons or an association.
The Tamil Sangam was an academy of poets who flourished in three different periods and in different places under the patronage of the Pandyan kings.
The Sangam literature which was largely consolidated from the third Sangam, throws information on conditions of life of people around the beginning of the Christian era.
It deals with the secular matter relating to the public and social activities like government, war charity, trade, worship, agriculture, etc.
Sangam literature consists of the earliest Tamil works (such as the Tolkappiyam), the ten poems (Pattupattu), the eight anthologies (Ettutogai) and the eighteen minor works (Padinenkilkanakku) and the three epics.