Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 20 MARCH 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding State of India’s Birds 2020 (SoIB).
1. Over a fifth of India’s bird diversity has suffered strong long-term declines over a 25-year period.
2. 101 species have been categorised as being of High Conservation Concern endemics.
3. Among widely known species, the common sparrow has a stable population overall.
4. Migratory shorebirds, along with gulls and terns, seem to have declined the most among water birds.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

2. Consider the following statements regarding plasma and its therapy.
1. Plasma along with water, salt, and enzymes, also contains important components like antibodies, clotting factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen.
2. Plasma therapy can help to reduce the virus load in critically ill patients of COVID-19.
3. People with the blood type AB are in the greatest demand for plasma donation because their plasma can be used by anyone.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Varkari Movement.
1. The teachers responsible for establishing and supporting the movement through its history include Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Tukaram, and Chokhamela.
2. It is geographically associated with the Indian states of Maharashtra and northern Karnataka.
3. Varkaris worship Vithoba (also known as Vitthal), the presiding deity of Pandharpur.
4. Though a devotee of Vitthal, a Varkari is recluse.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. Consider the following statements with respect to Delimitation Commission.
1. The Commission is a powerful and independent body whose orders cannot be challenged in a court of law.
2. The orders of this commission are laid before the LokSabha and the respective State Legislative Assemblies and modifications in these orders are permitted.
3. The orders of the Commission come into force on a date to be specified by the Election Commission of India.
4. Delimitation is commonly used in the context of drawing boundaries for Assembly and LokSabha Constituencies based on the recent census
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

5. Consider the following statements regarding the appointment of The Chief Justice and Judges of the High Courts.
1. The Chief Justice and Judges of the High Courts are to be appointed by the President under clause (1) of Article 217 of the Constitution.
2. The Chief Justice of High Courts is appointed as per the policy of having Chief Justices from outside the respective States.
3. Additional Judges can be appointed by the President under clause (1) of Article 224 of the Constitution. When the need for this arises, the State Government should first obtain the sanction of the Central Government for the creation of such additional posts.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

1.Answer-d
Explanation-
State of India’s Birds 2020 (SoIB)
The State of India’s Birds 2020 (SoIB), a new scientific report was jointly released by 10 organisations. It was produced using a base of 867 species, and analysed with the help of data uploaded by birdwatchers to the online platform, eBird.
Key Findings:
Over a fifth of India’s bird diversity, ranging from the Short-toed Snake Eagle to the Sirkeer Malkoha, has suffered strong long-term declines over a 25-year period.
More recent annual trends point to a drastic 80% loss among several common birds.
For every bird species that was found to be increasing in numbers over the long term, 11 have suffered losses, some catastrophically.
Of 101 species categorised as being of High Conservation Concern endemics such as the Rufous-fronted Prinia, Nilgiri Thrush, Nilgiri Pipit and Indian vulture were confirmed as suffering current decline.
Among widely known species, the common sparrow, long seen as declining in urban spaces, has a stable population overall, although they have become rare in cities and urban areas.
Raptors overall are in decline, with ‘open country’ species such as the Pallid and Montagu Harriers, White-bellied Sea Eagle and Red-necked Falcon suffering the most.
Migratory shorebirds, along with gulls and terns, seem to have declined the most among waterbirds.

 

2.Answer-d
Explanation
Chinese doctors using ‘plasma therapy’
Chinese health officials on Monday urged patients who have recovered from COVID19 to donate blood so that plasma can be extracted to treat others who are critically ill. Plasma from patients who have recovered from a spell of pneumonia triggered by the virus contains antibodies that can help reduce the virus load in critically ill patients,
What Is Plasma?
Plasma is the often forgotten part of blood. White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are important to body function.
But plasma also plays a key role. This fluid carries the blood components throughout the body.
Facts about plasma
Plasma is the largest part of your blood. It makes up more than half (about 55%) of its overall content.
When separated from the rest of the blood, plasma is a light yellow liquid. Plasma carries water, salts and enzymes.
The main role of plasma is to take nutrients, hormones, and proteins to the parts of the body that need it.
Cells also put their waste products into the plasma. The plasma then helps remove this waste from the body.
Blood plasma also carries all parts of the blood through your circulatory system.
How does plasma keep you healthy?
Plasma is a critical part of the treatment for many serious health problems.
Along with water, salt, and enzymes, plasma also contains important components. These include antibodies, clotting factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen.
When you donate blood, healthcare providers can separate these vital parts from your plasma. These parts can then be concentrated into various products. These products are then used as treatments that can help save the lives of people suffering from burns, shock, trauma, and other medical emergencies.
The proteins and antibodies in plasma are also used in therapies for rare chronic conditions. These include autoimmune disorders and hemophilia.
Donating plasma
During the actual blood donation process, your blood is drawn through a needle placed in a vein in one arm. A special machine separates the plasma and often the platelets from your blood sample. This process is called plasmapheresis. The remaining red blood cells and other blood components are then returned to your body, along with a little saline (salt) solution.
People with the blood type AB are in the greatest demand for plasma donation. They make up just 2 in 50 people, their plasma is universal. This means their plasma can be used by anyone.

 

3.Answer-a
Explanation-
Varkari Movement
Varkari is a religious movement (sampraday) within the bhakti spiritual tradition of Hinduism. It is geographically associated with the Indian states of Maharashtra and northern Karnataka.
In the Marathi language of Maharashtra, vari means ‘pilgrimage’ and a pilgrim is called a varkari.
Every year, Varkari walk hundreds of miles to the holy town of Pandharpur, gathering there on ekadashi (the 11th day) of the Hindu lunar calendar month of Aashaadha (which falls sometime in July).
Another pilgrimage is celebrated on the ekadashi of the month of Kartik (which falls sometime in November).
Varkaris worship Vithoba (also known as Vitthal), the presiding deity of Pandharpur. Vithoba is a form of Krishna, an avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu. Because of this association with Vishnu, Varkari is a branch of Vaishnavism.
The teachers responsible for establishing and supporting the movement through its history include Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Tukaram, and Chokhamela.
Features of a Varkari (Principles on which he lives)
A Varkari is a strict vegetarian, wears a mala or rosary of Tulasi beads, round his neck. Though a devotee of Vitthal, a Varkari is no recluse. He will have his family and vocation. But he will follow all the rules of a pious life, visit Pandharpur every year, preferably in the month of Ashadh (rainy season) with his family and friends. Varkaris usually move in groups, irrespective of caste and creed, performing bhajans and singing songs of saints, associated with Vitthal and Pandhari (short form of Pandharpur). “Pundalika Varada Panduranga Hari Vitthal!” is the ecstatic exclamation in between songs. Fasting on ekadashi (Twice in a month), brahmacharya (self-restraint) during student life,   

 

 

4.Answer-b
Explanation-
Delimitation Commissions
Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body.
The job of delimitation is assigned to a high power body. Such a body is known as Delimitation Commission or a Boundary Commission.
The Delimitation Commission in India is a high power body whose orders have the force of law and cannot be called in question before any court.
These orders come into force on a date to be specified by the President of India in this behalf.
The copies of its orders are laid before the House of the People and the State Legislative Assembly concerned, but no modifications are permissible therein by them.
How delimitation is carried out?
Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.
Under Article 170, States also get divided into territorial constituencies as per Delimitation Act after every Census.
Once the Act is in force, the Union government sets up a Delimitation Commission.
The first delimitation exercise was carried out by the President (with the help of the Election Commission) in 1950-51.
The Delimitation Commission Act was enacted in 1952.
Delimitation Commissions have been set up four times — 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002 under the Acts of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002.
There was no delimitation after the 1981 and 1991 Censuses.
Composition-
Retired Supreme Court judge
Chief Election Commissioner
Respective State Election Commissioners
Functions-
To determine the number and boundaries of constituencies to make population of all constituencies nearly equal.
To identify seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, wherever their population is relatively large.
In case of difference of opinion among members of the Commission, the opinion of the majority prevails.
Current Position of Delimitation
In the 2009 General elections, 499 out of total 543 Parliamentary constituencies were newly delimited constituencies.
This affected the National Capital Region of Delhi, The Union territory of Pondicherry and all other states except J&K, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Manipur and Nagaland.

 

5.Answer-d
Explanation-
What is the Collegium system?
The Collegium of judges does not figure in the Constitution. It is the Supreme Court’s invention.

Constitution says judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President and speaks of a process of consultation. Therefore, Collegium is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges. Collegium also recommends the transfer of Chief Justices and other judges.
How did this come into being?
1. ‘First Judges Case’ (1981) ruled that the “consultation” with the CJI in the matter of appointments must be full and effective. However, the CJI’s opinion should have primacy.
2. Second Judges Case (1993) introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”. It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the Supreme Court.
3. Third Judges Case (1998): SC on President’s reference expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.
Procedure followed by the Collegium:
1. The President of India appoints the CJI and the other SC judges.
2. For other judges of the top court, the proposal is initiated by the CJI.
3. The CJI consults the rest of the Collegium members, as well as the senior-most judge of the court hailing from the High Court to which the recommended person belongs.
4. The consultees must record their opinions in writing and it should form part of the file.
5. The Collegium sends the recommendation to the Law Minister, who forwards it to the Prime Minister to advise the President.
6. The Chief Justice of High Courts is appointed as per the policy of having Chief Justices from outside the respective States.
7. The Collegium takes the call on the elevation.
Appointment of CJI for High Courts:
1. High Court judges are recommended by a Collegium comprising the CJI and two senior-most judges.
2. The proposal, however, is initiated by the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned in consultation with two senior-most colleagues.
3. The recommendation is sent to the Chief Minister, who advises the Governor to send the proposal to the Union Law Minister.
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