Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 23 MARCH 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding with the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC).
1. It is an independent body which is only responsible for the Parliament.
2. The CVC was set up by the Government on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, headed by Shri K. Santhanam.
3. The Commission was given statutory status by the enactment of The CVC Act, 2003.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Consider the following statements regarding Rann of Kutch.
1. It is connected to the Arabian Sea through Kori Creek in the west and the Gulf of Kachchh in the east, and is very close to sea level.
2. The Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary is spread across the little Rann of Kutch.
3. Small grass-covered areas, known as baits, forms the flora and is an important source to support the fauna of the region.
4. The Rann of Kachchh comprises a unique example of Holocene sedimentation.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

3. Consider the following statements regarding Forest Fires.
1. The youngest mountain ranges of Himalayas are the most vulnerable stretches of the world susceptible to forest fires.
2. Fire can play a vital role in keeping the forests healthy, recycling nutrients, helping tree species regenerate, removing invasive weeds and pathogens, and maintaining habitat for some wildlife.
3. The increase in ammonium and nitrate concentrations in many ecosystems has also been reported as a result of fire incidences.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Consider the following statements regarding Central Information Commission (CIC).
1. The terms of service of the CIC, including her/his pay and perks, will be the same as that of the Cabinet Secretary.
2. The CIC and the ICs now have a fixed tenure of just three years while earlier a fixed term of five years.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

5. Which of the following Missile system and Manufacturing Country is correctly matched?
Missile system Manufacturing Country
1. Ra’ad-II Iran
2. Arrow Pakistan
3. Fateh-313 Saudi Arab
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 3 and
(d) None
5.Answer-d
Explanation-
Missile system Manufacturing Country
1. Ra’ad-II Pakistan
2. Arrow Israel
3. Fateh-313 Iran

 

1. Answer-d
Explanation
Central Vigilance Commission

The CVC was set up by the Government in February, 1964 on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, headed by Shri K. Santhanam, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance.
CVC are conceived to be the apex vigilance institution, free of control from any executive authority, monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government and advising various authorities in Central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilant work.
Consequent upon promulgation of an Ordinance by the President, the Central Vigilance Commission has been made a multi member Commission with “statutory status” with effect from 25th August, 1998.
The CVC Bill was passed by both the houses of Parliament in 2003 and the President gave its assent on September 11, 2003. Thus the CVC, Act 2003 (No45 0f 2003) came into effect from that date.
The Commission shall consist of:
The Central Vigilance Commissioner and the Vigilance Commissioners are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a Committee consisting of the Prime Minister (Chairperson), the Minister of Home Affairs (Member) and the Leader of the Opposition in the House of the People (Member).
The term of office of the Central Vigilance Commissioner and the Vigilance Commissioners is four years from the date on which they enter their office or till they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
 A Central Vigilance Commissioner – Chairperson;


 Not more than two Vigilance Commissioners – Members;
Roles & Functions:
1. Exercise superintendence over the functioning of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) insofar as it relates to the investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; or an offence under the Cr.PC for certain categories of public servants – section 8(1)(a);
2. Give directions to the Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) for superintendence insofar as it relates to the investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 – section 8(1)(b);
3. To inquire or cause an inquiry or investigation to be made on a reference by the Central Government – section 8(1)(c);
To inquire or cause an inquiry or investigation to be made into any complaint received against any official belonging to such category of officials specified in sub-section 2 of Section 8 of the CVC Act, 2003 – section 8(1)(d);
4. Review the progress of investigations conducted by the DSPE into offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 or an offence under the Cr.PC – section (8)(1)(e);
5. Review the progress of the applications pending with the competent authorities for sanction of prosecution under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 – section 8(1)(f);
Tender advice to the Central Government and its organizations on such matters as may be referred to it by them – section 8(1) (g);
6. Exercise superintendence over the vigilance administrations of the various Central Government Ministries, Departments and Organizations of the Central Government – section 8(1)(h);
7. Shall have all the powers of a civil court while conducting any inquiry – section 11;
8. Respond to Central Government on mandatory consultation with the Commission before making any rules or regulations governing the vigilance or disciplinary matters relating to the persons appointed to the public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or to members of the All India Services – section 19.
9. The CVC is the Chairperson and the Vigilance Commissioners (Members) of the Committee, on whose recommendations, the Central Government appoints the Director of Enforcement – section 25.
10. The Committee concerned with the appointment of the Director of Enforcement is also empowered to recommend, after consultation with the Director of Enforcement appointment of officers to the posts of the level of Deputy Director and above in the Directorate of Enforcement – section 25;
11. The CVC is also the Chairperson and the Vigilance Commissioners (Members) of the Committee empowered to recommend after consultation with the Director (CBI), appointment of officers to the post about the level of SP and above except Director and also recommend the extension or curtailment of tenure of such officers in the DSPE (CBI) – Section 26 and Section 4C of DSPE Act, 1946.
Commission’s Jurisdiction under CVC Act
1. Members of All India Service serving in connection with the affairs of the Union and Group A officers of the Central Government
2. Officers of the rank of Scale V and above in the Public Sector Banks
3. Officers in Grade D and above in Reserve Bank of India, NABARD and SIDBI
4. Chief Executives and Executives on the Board and other officers of E-8 and above in Schedule ‘A’ and ‘B’ Public Sector Undertakings
5. Chief Executives and Executives on the Board and other officers of E-7 and above in Schedule ‘C’ and ‘D’ Public Sector Undertakings
6. Managers and above in General Insurance Companies
Senior Divisional Managers and above in Life Insurance Corporations
7. Officers drawing salary of Rs.8700/- p.m. and above on Central Government D.A. pattern, as on the date of the notification and as may be revised from time to time in Societies and other Local Authorities
Governance
The CVC has its own Secretariat, Chief Technical Examiners’ Wing (CTE) and a wing of Commissioners for Departmental Inquiries (CDI). For investigation work, CVC has to depend on two external sources CBI and Chief Vigilance Officers (CVO).

 

2. Answer-d
Explanation
Kutch Desert

Hundreds of Flamingoes fly in from the Rann of Kutch, Gujarat every year in December and leave by the end of March.
The Asia’s largest oil refinery is located at Jamnagar owned by Reliance Industries in the Gulf of Kutch.
Kutch Desert covers a vast area of 45,612 sq. km and is bounded to the north and northwest by Sindh (Pakistan), west and southwest by the Arabian Sea, and to the northeast by Rajasthan.
The Rann of Kachchh comprises a unique example of Holocene sedimentation. It covers large tracts of 23,000 sq. km and has been arbitrarily divided into two parts namely the Great Rann and Little Rann.
Kachchh furnishes an interesting example of four diverse geomorphic types of terrain namely (i) the Rann, (ii) the low lying Banni plains, (iii) the hilly region, and (iv) the coastal plains. Such physiographic diversity is a reflection of geology, climate and sea level changes in this region
It is connected to the Arabian Sea through Kori Creek in the west and the Gulf of Kachchh in the east, and is very close to sea level.
The Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in the Indian state of Gujarat, is the largest wildlife sanctuary in the country. It is spread in the entire area of the little Rann of Kutch where small grass-covered areas, known as baits, forms the flora and is an important source to support the fauna of the region.
Holocene Epoch
Holocene Epoch is the latest interval of geologic time, covering approximately the last 11,700 years of Earth’s history.
The sediments of the Holocene, both continental and marine, cover the largest area of the globe of any epoch in the geologic record.
The Holocene is unique because it is coincident with the late and post-Stone Age history of humankind. The influence of humans is of world extent and is so profound that it seems appropriate to have a special geologic name for this time.

 

3. Answer-d
Explanation
Forest Fires
Fire can play a vital role in keeping the forests healthy, recycling nutrients, helping tree species regenerate, removing invasive weeds and pathogens, and maintaining habitat for some wildlife.
As populations and demands on forest resources have grown, the cycle of fire has spun out of balance. So, there is a need to improve the prevention and management of unwanted forest fires.
Forest fires have become an issue of global concern. In many other countries, wildfires are burning larger areas, and fire seasons are growing longer due to global warming.
Globally, forest fires release billions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere, while hundreds of thousands of people are believed to die due to illnesses caused by exposure to smoke from forest fires and other landscape fires.
Tackling forest fires is significant for India as it has set ambitious policy goals for improving the sustainability of its forests. As part of the National Mission for Green India under India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, the government has committed to increase forest and tree cover.
Further, under its Nationally Determined Contribution, India has committed to bringing 33 percent of its geographical area under forest cover and to create additional sinks of 2.5 billion to 3 billion tons worth of CO2 stored in its forests by 2030. So, prevention and management of forest fires is important to achieve these goals.
The Himalayan forests, particularly, Garhwal Himalayas have been burning regularly during the last few summers, with colossal loss of vegetation cover of that region.
The youngest mountain ranges of Himalayas are the most vulnerable stretches of the world susceptible to forest fires. The forests of Western are more frequently vulnerable to forest fires as compared to those in Eastern Himalayas. This is because forests of Eastern Himalayas grow in high rain density. With large scale expansion of chirr (Pine) forests in many areas of the Himalayas the frequency and intensity of forest fires has increased.
Impact of Fire
 Fire severely affects the survival and establishment of many shrub species
 Soil heating due to fire changes its chemical, physical and microbial properties
 The increase in ammonium and nitrate concentrations in many ecosystems has also been reported as a result of fire incidences
 The most damaging impact of forest fire on ecosystem is very evident in the Himalayas, where hill existing between the heights of 1000 to 1800 meters are dominated by pine forests and seems to be more fire prone
 Degradation of water catchments areas resulting into loss of water
 Loss of wildlife habitat and depletion of wildlife
 Loss of natural vegetation and reduction of forest cover
 Global warming
 Micro-climate change
 Soil erosion
 Deteriorating Biological Environment
 Adverse impact on Health System
 Socio-economic impact due to loss of valuable timber resources and associated cultural wealth
 Carbon sequestration potential gets adversely affected.
 Threat to Life and Property
 Reducing Tourism Values
Key Findings
Forest fires in India are both widespread and concentrated
 At least 60 percent of districts in India are affected by forest fires each year.
 While states in the Northeast account for the greatest share of fire detections, the largest area affected by fire is in the Central region.
Fire potential and behavior is shaped by a combination of natural and social factors
 India’s monsoons are largely responsible for the seasonal nature of forest fires in the country. Forest fires peak during the dry months of March or April before the arrival of the monsoon.
 Nearly all forest fires in India, as in other parts of the world, are caused by people as important goods and services obtained from forests (such as fodder for their livestock) are generated or gathered through the aid of fire.
 Shifting societal and cultural practices also play a role, as with the use of fire in traditional shifting cultivation (jhum).
A vacuum exists at the level of national policy
 A cohesive policy framework with a clear strategic direction provides the foundation for successful Forest Fire Prevention and Management (FFPM) which is absent at the policy level.
 Though MoEFCC had issued national guidelines on FFPM in 2000, they are no longer being implemented.
 A shortage of dedicated funding for FFPM at the central and state level has been a perennial issue, which has been documented by the Comptroller and Auditor General in various states.
India has robust detection systems for forest fires
 Using satellite data, Madhya Pradesh was the first state to develop an SMS-based system to alert field staff of active fires burning in their area. Since then, Forest Survey of India (FSI) has rolled out a nationwide system.
 Satellite-based detection has helped fill a gap left by under-resourced ground detection. As these satellite systems continue to be upgraded, they would benefit from greater integration, including the increased collection of field-based reporting for verifying satellite-derived fire alerts, as well as improved data sharing between the states and FSI.
Post-fire management is not being treated as part of the FFPM process
 Post-fire data collection is an essential part of the fire management process and crucial to producing informed FFPM plans and policies.
 A lack of standard protocols for collecting and reporting information on fires, including their causes, has made it impossible to aggregate data across states.
 The states will need help from MoEFCC and the research community in developing standard methods and protocols for assessing ecological impacts and economic damages from fire. 

4.Answer-c
Explanation-
Central Information Commission
Under the provision of Section-12 of RTI Act 2005 the Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, constitute a body to be known as the CIC. The CIC shall consist of the CIC and such number of Central Information Commissioners not exceeding 10 as may be deemed necessary.
Eligibility and process of appointment of CIC/IC-
Section 12(3) of the RTI Act 2005 provides as follows.
(i) The Prime Minister, who shall be the Chairperson of the committee;
(ii) The Leader of Opposition in the LokSabha ; and
(iii). A Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.
Section 12(5) of the RTI Act 2005 provides that the CIC and IC shall be persons of eminence in public life with wide knowledge and experience in law, science and technology, social service, management, journalism, mass media or administration and governance.
Section 12(6) of the RTI Act 2005 provides that CIC or an IC shall not be a Member of Parliament or Member of the Legislature of any State or Union Territory as the case may be , or hold any other office of profit or connected with any political party or carrying on any business or pursuing any profession.
The term of office and other service conditions of CIC and IC (Most Important)
The RTI (Amendment) Act, 2019
The RTI (Amendment) Bill received the assent of the President on the 1st August, 2019 and became an Act of Parliament. The RTI (Amendment) Act, 2019 is an amendment to the RTI Act, 2005. Recently, government notified the new RTI Rules under the Act.
The Act allows the government to fix the terms and conditions of service of the CIC and ICs of the both Centre and the states. Under the recently notified Rules,
a) The terms of service of the CIC, including her/his pay and perks, will be the same as that of the Cabinet Secretary, which is significantly lower than that of the CEC.
b) And those of the ICs are similar to that of a Secretary to the Government of India.
The CIC was earlier on a par with the Chief Election Commissioner, who occupies position 9A in the table (along with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, and Chairman, UPSC). After being downgraded to Cabinet Secretary Rank, would mean a downgradation in the Table of Precedence.
The CIC and the ICs now have a fixed tenure of just three years (earlier a fixed term of five years).

https://cic.gov.in/who-are-we

 

5.Answer-d
Explanation-
Missile system Manufacturing Country
1. Ra’ad-II Pakistan
2. Arrow Israel
3. Fateh-313 Iran