Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 28 MARCH 2020


1. Consider the following statements regarding the economic slowdown and recession.
1. Recession is not just declining GDP growth but declining GDP itself.
2. A slowdown is a situation of declining growth rate of GDP, but economy is moving forward.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. With reference to the administration under the Shivaji rule, consider the following list:
List I (Post) List II (Department)
1. Peshwa a. Foreign Affairs
2. Amatya b. Accountant general
3. Sachiv c. He looked after general administration.
4. Sumant d. Royal correspondence
Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
(a) 1-c; 2-d; 3-a; 4-b
(b) 1-d; 2-c; 3-b; 4-a
(c) 1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d
(d) 1-c; 2-b; 3-d; 4-a

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Kathak.
1. Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.
2. It was primarily a temple or village performance wherein the dancers narrated stories from ancient scriptures.
3. The focus is more on footwork; the movements are skilfully controlled and performed straight legged by dancers wearing ankle-bells.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Khajuraho Group of Monuments.
1. Khajuraho is located in the State of Madhya Pradesh and was the principal seat of authority of the Chandella rulers.
2. Temples of Khajuraho are world famous for their architectural art and have been declared world heritage by UNESCO.
3. The Visvanatha, Parsvanatha and Vaidyanatha Temples belong to the time of king Dhanga, the successor of Yasovarman.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Which of the following rivers flows through Kaziranga National Park?
1. Brahmaputra
2. Diphlu
3. Mora Dhansiri
4. Mora Diphlu
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4



2. Answer-d
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, great Maratha ruler was born on 19 February 1630 at Shivneri Fort in District Pune in the present-day state of Maharashtra. Some records claim Shivaji’s date of birth as 6 April 1627 but 19 February 1630 is the official version. Shivaji Jayanti is observed on this day. Shivaji was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who held the jagirs of Pune and Supe under the Bijapur Sultanate. Shivaji’s mother was Jijabai, a pious woman whose religious qualities had a profound influence on him. Shahaji had also served the Ahmednagar and Deccan sultanates.
Shivaji was given excellent training in military warfare and administration. He was married for the first time in 1640 to Saibai. Shivaji displayed his military zeal for the first time in 1645, when as a teenager; he successfully got control of the Torna Fort which was under Bijapur.
He also acquired the Kondana Fort. Both these forts were under Adil Shah of Bijapur. Shah then got Shahaji imprisoned in a bid to contain Shivaji. Some accounts say that Shivaji surrendered these forts to get his father released. Shahaji died in 1664-65 in an accident. After this, Shivaji resumed his raids and extended his territories.
He achieved great name when he defeated Afzal Khan, a veteran general of Adil Shah.
In the Battle of Pratapgarh in 1659, Shivaji’s forces vanquished the Bijapur Sultanate’s army. From this victory, he acquired a large quantity of weapons and horses which greatly added to his growing Maratha army’s strength.
In the same year, another battle was fought with the Adilshahi camp at Kolhapur where Shivaji’s outnumbered army defeated the enemy force. Shivaji displayed great military prowess during this battle. This victory now alarmed Aurangzeb.
Shivaji raided Mughal territory near Ahmednagar and in Junnar. Aurangzeb’s forces under Nasiri Khan did defeat Shivaji at Ahmednagar in 1657 but the Mughal prince soon became engaged with his own battles with his brothers for the possession of the Mughal throne upon his father’s illness.
Shivaji defeated a large force of Shaista Khan (Aurangzeb’s maternal uncle) and the Bijapur army in Pune. In 1664, the wealthy Mughal trading port of Surat was sacked by Shivaji.
In June 1665, the Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Raja Jai Singh I (representing Aurangzeb). Shivaji signed this agreement realising that a war with the Mughals would cost him men and money. As per this treaty, many forts were relinquished to the Mughals and it was agreed that Shivaji would meet Aurangzeb at Agra. Shivaji also agreed to send his son Sambhaji as a Mughal general.
At Agra in 1666, when Shivaji went to meet the Mughal emperor, the Maratha warrior felt he was insulted by Aurangzeb and stormed out of the court. He was arrested and kept prisoner. The clever escape of Shivaji and his son from imprisonment in disguise out of Agra is legendary today.
After that there was peace between the Marathas and the Mughals until 1670. After that, the jagir of Berar which was granted to Sambhaji by the Mughals was taken back from him. Shivaji in response attacked and recovered many territories from the Mughals in a short span of four months.
In October 1670, he also harassed the English forces at Bombay for their support of the Mughals. Through his military tactics, Shivaji now acquired large part of land in the Deccan and western India. He was crowned as the king of the Marathas on June 6, 1674 at Raigad. He took on the title of Chhatrapati, Shakakarta, Kshatriya Kulavantas and Haindava Dharmodhhaarak.
The Maratha Kingdom founded by Shivaji was about 4.1% of the Indian subcontinent but it grew larger over time and became the dominant Indian power in the early 18thcentury.
Shivaji fell ill and died of ill-health on 3 April 1680 at Raigad.
Shivaji laid the foundations of a great empire which played significant parts in modern Indian history. He established a strong army and a navy across the Konkan coast. His admiral Kanhoji Angre is called the ‘Father of Indian Navy’. Shivaji was also considered a master of the guerrilla warfare.
Shivaji is today considered a national hero in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra.
Administrative System of Shivaji
The Maratha administration can be studied under three heads- Central Administration; Revenue Administration; and Military Administration. Maratha’s system of administration was largely borrowed from the administrative practices of the Deccan states.
Maratha State appointed Hindus on high post and made Marathi as an official language instead of Persian. They prepare their own state craft dictionary i.e. ‘Raja Vyakaran Kosh’ for official use. The Maratha administration can be studied under three heads- Central Administration; Revenue Administration; and Military Administration.
Central Administration
It was founded by Shivaji for the sound system of administration which was greatly inspired from the Deccan style of administration. Most of the administrative reforms were inspired from Malik Amber reforms in Ahmednagar. The King was the supreme head of state who was assisted by a group of eight ministers known as the ‘Ashtapradhan’.
The Asthapradhan
Peshwa or the Chief Minister- He looked after general administration.
Amatya or Majumdar- Accountant general, he later became revenue and finance minster.
Sachiv or Surunavis- Also called Chitnis; he looked after the Royal correspondence.
Sumant or Dabir- Foreign affairs and the master of Royal ceremonies.
Senapati or Sari-i-Naubat- Military commander. He looked after the recruitment, training and discipline of army.
Mantri or Waqia Navis- Personal safety of the king, he looked after the intelligence, post and household affairs.
Nyayadhish- Administration of Justice
Punditrao- Looking after charitable and religious affairs of the state. He worked for the moral upliftment of the people.
Apart from the departmental duties, three of the ministers-Peshwas, Schiva and the Mantri were also given incharge of extensive provinces.
All ministers, except the Panditrao and the Nyayadish, had to serve in a war whenever necessary.
Minister was assisted by a staff of eight clerks
• Diwan – secretary
• Mujumdar – auditor and accountant
• Fadnis – deputy auditor
• Sabnis or Daftardar – office incharge
• Karkhanis – commissary
• Chitins – correspondence clerk
• Jamdar – treasurer
• Potnis – cashier

Shivaji divided entire territory into three provinces, each under a viceroy. He further divided the provinces into Prants then Pargana and Tarafs. The lowest unit was the village which was headed by its headman or Patel.
Revenue Administration
Shivaji abolished the Jagirdari System and replaced with Ryotwari System, and changes in the position of hereditary revenue officials which was popularly known as Deshmukhs, Deshpande, Patils and Kulkarnis.
Shivaji strictly supervised the Mirasdars who had hereditary rights in land.
The revenue system was patterned on the Kathi system of Malik Amber. According to this system, every piece of land was measured by Rod or Kathi.
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were other sources of income: Chauth was amounted to 1/4th of the standard which was paid to Marathas as a safeguard against Shivaji’s forces plundering or raiding Non-Maratha territories. Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10 percent demanded from areas outside from the kingdom.
Military Administration
Shivaji organised a disciplined and efficient army. The ordinary soldiers were paid in cash, but big chief and military commander were paid through jagir grants (Saranjam or Mokasa).
The army consists of Infantry i.e. Mavali foot soldiers; Cavalry i.e. Horse riders and equipment holders; Navy.
Military Personnel
Sar-i-Naubat (Senapati)- Incharge of army
Qiladars- Officers of Forts
Nayak- Head of the member unit of infantry
Havaldar- Head of five Nayaks
Jumladar- Head of five Nayaks
Ghuraw- Boats laden with guns
Gallivat- Rowing boats 40-50 rowers
Paik- Foot Soldiers

The army was effective instrument of policies of Marathas State where rapidity of movement was the most important factors. Only in the rainy season, the army get rested otherwise rest of the year was engaged in expeditions.
Pindaries were allowed to accompany the army who were allowed to collect “Pal-Patti” which was 25% of war booty.
Shivaji’s Achievements
In 1670, Shivaji renewed the contest with the Mughals, sacking Surat a second time. During the next four years, he recovered a large number of his forts, including Purandar, from the Mughals and made deep inroads into Mughal territories, especially Berar and Khandesh.
Mughal preoccupation with the Afghan uprising in the north-west gave an opportunity to Shivaji. Further, Shivaji also renewed his contest with Bijapur, securing Panhala and Satara by means of bribes.
In 1674, Shivaji crowned himself formally at Raigad. He was by now, became the most powerful among the Maratha chiefs. The formal coronation had, therefore, a number of purposes, including −
It placed him on a much higher pedestal than any of the Maratha chiefs;
It strengthened his social position and hence he married into some of the leading old Maratha families;
Gaga Bhatt, the priest presiding over the function, supported Shivaji and said that Shivaji was a high class Kshatriya; and
As an independent ruler, now it became possible for Shivaji to enter into treaties with the Deccani sultans on a footing of equality and not as a rebel.
In 1676, Shivaji undertook an expedition into the Bijapuri Karnataka. Shivaji was given a grand welcome by the Qutb Shah at his capital and a formal agreement was made.
Qutub Shah agreed to pay a subsidy of one lakh huns (five lakhs of rupees) annually to Shivaji along with a Maratha ambassador who was appointed at his court. Qutub Shah, further, supplied a contingent of troops and artillery to aid Shivaji and also provided money for the expenses of his army. The treaty with Qutub Shah was beneficial to Shivaji, as it enabled him to capture Jinji and Vellore from Bijapur officials and also to conquer much of the territories held by his half-brother, Ekoji.
Shivaji had assumed the title of “Haindava-Dharmoddharak” (Protector of the Hindu faith), but he plundered mercilessly the Hindu population of the respective region. As per the agreement, Shivaji had to share treasure (won in the war) with Qutub Shah, but when Shivaji returned back to home with treasure, he refused to share anything with the Qutub Shah. Hence, Qutub Shah resented with Shivaji.
Karnataka expedition was the last expedition of Shivaji, as he died shortly after his return from the Karnataka expedition (1680).


3. Answer-d
The word Kathak has been derived from the word Katha which means a story.
It was primarily a temple or village performance wherein the dancers narrated stories from ancient scriptures.
Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement.
The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style.
Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form.
Usually a solo performance, the dancer often pauses to recite verses followed by their execution through movement.
The focus is more on footwork; the movements are skillfully controlled and performed straight legged by dancers wearing ankle-bells.
Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.
Lady Leela Sokhey (Menaka) revived the classical style. Some prominent dancers include Birju Maharaj, Sitara Devi.


Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Khajuraho, the ancient Kharjjuravahaka, is located in the State of Madhya Pradesh and was the principal seat of authority of the Chandella rulers who adorned it with numerous tanks, scores of lofty temples of sculptural grace and architectural splendour.
Yasovarman (A.D. 954) built the temple of Vishnu, which is now famous as Lakshmana temple, and is an ornate and evolved example of its time proclaiming the prestige of the Chandellas.
Temples of Khajuraho are world famous for their architectural art and have been declared world heritage by UNESCO. The Visvanatha, Parsvanatha and Vaidyanatha Temples belong to the time of king Dhanga, the successor of Yasovarman. The Jagadambi, Chitragupta, are noteworthy among the western group of royal temples of Khajuraho. The largest and grandest temple of Khajuraho is the immortal Kandariya Mahadeva, which is attributed to king Ganda (A.D. 1017-29). The other examples that followed viz., Vamana, Adinatha, Javari, Chaturbhuj and Duladeo, are smaller but elaborately designed. The Khajuraho group of temples is noted for lofty terraces (jagati) and functionally effective plans. The sculptural embellishments include, besides the cult images; parivara, parsva, avarana devatas, dikpalas, the apsarases and sura-sundaris, which win universal admiration for their delicate, youthful female forms of ravishing beauty. The attire and ornamentation embrace the winsome grace and charm.


Kaziranga National Park
Location: It is located in the State of Assam and covers 42,996 ha. It is the single largest undisturbed and representative area in the Brahmaputra Valley floodplain.
Legal Status
It was declared as a National Park in 1974.
It has been declared a tiger reserve since 2007. It has a total tiger reserve area of 1,030 sq km with a core area of 430 sq. km.
International Status
It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.
Important Species Found
It is the home of the world’s most one-horned rhinos.
Much of the focus of conservation efforts in Kaziranga are focused on the ‘big four’ species— rhino, elephant, Royal Bengal tiger and Asiatic water buffalo.
The 2018 census had yielded 2,413 rhinos and approximately 1,100 elephants.
Kaziranga is also home to 9 of the 14 species of primates found in the Indian subcontinent.
Rivers and Highways
The National Highway 37 passes through the park area.
The park also has more than 250 seasonal water bodies, besides the Diphlu River running through it.
Kaziranga is crisscrossed by four main rivers —Brahmaputra, Diphlu, Mora Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri and has numerous small water bodies.