Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 29 June 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding the National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA).
1. The mission will help prepare next generation skilled manpower, boost translational research and also encourage entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem development.
2. The mission will function under the Cabinet Secretariat 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1  only
(b)  2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-a
Explanation
National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA)
The government in its budget 2020 has announced a National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA) with a total budget outlay of Rs 8000 Crore for a period of five years to be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST).
The new economy is based on innovations that disrupt established business models. Artificial intelligence, Internet-of-Things (IoT), 3D printing, drones, DNA data storage, quantum computing, etc., are re-writing the world economic order.
Quantum technology is opening up new frontiers in computing, communications, cyber security with wide-spread applications.
It is expected that lots of commercial applications would emerge from theoretical constructs which are developing in this area.

The next generation transformative technologies that will receive a push under this mission include quantum computers and computing, quantum communication, quantum key distribution, encryption, crypt analysis, quantum devices, quantum sensing, quantum materials, quantum clock and so on.
The areas of focus for the Mission will be in fundamental science, translation, technology development, human and infrastructural resource generation, innovation and start-ups to address issues concerning national priorities.
Their applications which will receive boost include those in aero-space engineering, numerical weather prediction, simulations, securing the communications & financial transactions, cyber security, advanced manufacturing, health, agriculture, education and other important sectors with focus on creation of high skilled jobs, human resources development, start-ups & entrepreneurship leading to technology lead economic growth.
The range of quantum technologies is expected to be one of the major technology disruptions that will change entire paradigm of computation, communication and encryption.
It is perceived that the countries who achieve an edge in this emerging field will have a greater advantage in garnering multifold economic growth and dominant leadership role.
The transition of quantum science and technology from a field of active interest in research laboratories to one that can be applied in day to day life is also the opportune moment that provides the space for many startup companies to form and develop.
The Mission draws upon the existing deep strengths within academic institutes across India to support interdisciplinary research projects in key verticals involving quantum technology, while simultaneously developing key foundational strengths in important core areas.
QT research, operational implementations, Human resource availability and technology development are in rudimentary stage.
It has become imperative both for government and industries to be prepared to develop these emerging and disruptive technologies in order to secure our communications, financial transactions, remain competitive, drive societal progress, generate employment, foster economic growth and to improve the overall quality of life.
The Mission will be able address the ever increasing technological requirements of the society, and take into account the international technology trends and road maps of leading countries for development of next generation technologies.
Implementation of the mission would help develop and bring quantum computers, secured communications through fibre and free space, quantum encryption and crypt-analysis and associated technologies within reach in the country and help address India specific national and regional issues.
The mission will help prepare next generation skilled manpower, boost translational research and also encourage entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem development. By promoting advanced research in quantum science and technology, technology development and higher education in science, technology and engineering disciplines India can be brought at par with other advanced countries and can derive several direct and indirect benefits.
Quantum Technology is based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature of energy and matter on the atomic and subatomic level. It concerns the control and manipulation of quantum systems, with the goal of achieving information processing beyond the limits of the classical world.
Quantum principles will be used for engineering solutions to extremely complex problems in computing, communications, sensing, chemistry, cryptography, imaging and mechanics.
Quantum field has not yet matured for commercialization, due to the extreme scientific challenges involved.
Quantum computers store and process information using quantum two level systems (quantum bits or qubits) which unlike classical bits can be prepared in superposition states. This key ability makes quantum computers extremely powerful compared to conventional computers when solving certain kinds of problems like finding prime factors of large numbers and searching large databases.
The prime factorization quantum algorithm has important implications for security as it can be used to break RSA encryption, a popular method for secure communication.
Indian physicists and engineers are preparing for a deep dive into the quantum world that holds the secrets for developing exciting technologies for computing, communication, cryptography and many more.
With a solid research base and workforce founded on significant and reliable government support, it can lead to the creation of innovative applications by industries, thereby stimulating economic growth and job creation, which will feed back into a growing quantum-based economy. The government’s financial and organizational support will also ensure that both public and private sectors will benefit. It will establish standards to be applied to all research and help stimulate a pipeline to support research and applications well into the future.
https://dst.gov.in/budget-2020-announces-rs-8000-cr-national-mission-quantum-technologies-applications
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1601563

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Over-the-top (OTT) platforms or the Online Curated Content Providers (OCCP).
1. OTT platforms provide film and television content via a high-speed Internet connection rather than a cable or satellite provider.
2. OTT providers are governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 Section 79 where the intermediate liabilities lie.
3. The term is commonly applied to video on demand platforms, but also refers to audio streaming, messaging services, or internet based voice calling solutions.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Over-the-top (OTT) platforms or the Online Curated Content Providers (OCCP)
An ‘Over The Top’ media service is any online content provider that offers streaming media as a standalone product. The term is commonly applied to video-on-demand platforms, but also refers to audio streaming, messaging services, or internet-based voice calling solutions.
It needs access to the internet and smart phones, tablets, laptop/computers.
It also understood that unlike TV, OCCP is pulling content and hence users exercise substantial choice in the content they want to view. Besides, the major platforms classify and mark programmes according to age and provide a brief description of the content before it is played.
Future of OTT platforms
OTT is going to be on rise for sure. Internet penetration levels are not stagnant and increasing day by day with the help of Digital India and broadband programmes taking it to far flung areas.
The ease in information collection and more importantly the trust towards the phones show that the base of OTT is going to increase further.
It is the question of convenience where quality is improving with more young people getting involved with the OTT platforms. Indian youth is the biggest consumer of it and India’s online video demand is close to China’s and has surpassed the UK and the USA.
The streaming speed is far better than before and will grow even more in the future under the schemes like Digital India.
Regulation
The challenge in regulating the OTT is that it is a part of the internet and very difficult to separate from the larger internet. Regulators face the challenge of how to separate it out and then regulate it from the broader internet which is impossible.
Law is very clear regarding the regulations. OTT providers are governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 Section 79 where the intermediate liabilities lie. So the OTT providers do not have to get involved in the inception, transmission and reception of the content which make them not liable for the content.
Regulators now focus on smaller issues which are specific to Indian context only. Our licence services are very heavily regulated so the issue is not the regulation but reduction in the high level regulations of the Telecom service in order to empower everyone to choose their ways of consumption.
Clear ways under the Information Technology Act are mentioned to deal with the content after it is made available to the OTT platforms.
A lot of streamlining needs to be done for OTT platforms.
A discussion paper prepared by a law firm points out that the OTT platforms are already covered by existing laws. While some laws are medium-specific, such as the Cinematograph Act of 1952—which provides for the certification of cinematograph films for public exhibition or the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 —that applies to content appearing on cable television—there are others that are platform-agnostic. For instance, the Indian Penal Code, 1860, prohibits anti- national content. Obscene content comes under the IT Act, which punishes people who publish or transmit any such material. It also prohibits publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually-explicit acts. There’s also the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012 that prevents child pornography. Clearly, OTT platforms or the Online Curated Content Providers (OCCP) as they are called, are subject to applicable laws.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vpuefxybx3E&feature=youtu.be
https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/opinion-govt-relents-on-self-regulation-in-ott-platforms-11574276336710.html

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Quantum mechanics.
1. It is a science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic scale.
2. The phenomenon of tunneling, which has no counterpart in classical physics, is an important consequence of quantum mechanics.
3. A fundamental concept in quantum mechanics is that of randomness, or indeterminacy.
4. Semiconductor electronics, lasers, atomic clocks, GPS servers, the cesium clock and magnetic resonance scanners all fundamentally depend on our understanding of the quantum nature of light and matter.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation
Quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic scale. It attempts to describe and account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their constituents—electrons, protons, neutrons, and other more esoteric particles such as quarks and gluons. These properties include the interactions of the particles with one another and with electromagnetic radiation (i.e., light, X-rays, and gamma rays).
The behaviour of matter and radiation on the atomic scale often seems peculiar, and the consequences of quantum theory are accordingly difficult to understand and to believe. Its concepts frequently conflict with common-sense notions derived from observations of the everyday world. There is no reason, however, why the behaviour of the atomic world should conform to that of the familiar, large-scale world. It is important to realize that quantum mechanics is a branch of physics and that the business of physics is to describe and account for the way the world—on both the large and the small scale—actually is and not how one imagines it or would like it to be.
The study of quantum mechanics is rewarding for several reasons. First, it illustrates the essential methodology of physics. Second, it has been enormously successful in giving correct results in practically every situation to which it has been applied. There is, however, an intriguing paradox. In spite of the overwhelming practical success of quantum mechanics, the foundations of the subject contain unresolved problems—in particular, problems concerning the nature of measurement. An essential feature of quantum mechanics is that it is generally impossible, even in principle, to measure a system without disturbing it; the detailed nature of this disturbance and the exact point at which it occurs are obscure and controversial. Thus, quantum mechanics attracted some of the ablest scientists of the 20th century, and they erected what is perhaps the finest intellectual edifice of the period.
Classical Mechanics for Macroscopic Objects
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. The classical mechanics (as known as Newtonian mechanics) provides extremely accurate results as long as the domain of study is restricted to large objects and the speeds involved do not approach the speed of light. The classical theories are simple, but this branch of mechanics cannot be applied to extremely small particles moving at very high speed, as the results may turn inaccurate.
Quantum Mechanics for Micro (and macro) scopic Objects
Quantum Mechanics has much more complicated theories than classical mechanics (thanks to Einstein), but provides accurate results for particles of even very small sizes. Quantum Mechanics handles the wave-particle duality of atoms and molecules.
Special theory of relativity by Einstein (1905) deals with particles of extremely small sizes while General theory of relativity by Einstein (1916) can be used to study all particles in general, ie. even particles of macroscopic sizes. Thus it can be said that General theory of relativity is a super set of Special theory of relativity. But still Classical Mechanics is preferred to General theory of relativity for particles of macroscopic sizes, just because of its simplicity.
Standard Particle Model of Quantum Mechanics
One of the surprises of modern science is that atoms and sub-atomic particles do not behave like anything we see in the everyday world.
They have wave properties, which is not observable in macroscopic objects. To describe this particular behavior, characteristics and interactions, scientists have developed a mathematical model known as Standard Particle Model. This model proposed two major groups of elementary particles of matter, ie. Quarks and Leptons. The model also proposed elementary force carriers known as Gauge Bosons and one Higgs Boson. Standard Particle Model links the matter-energy conversions, with the help of Quarks, Leptons, Gauge Bosons and Higgs Boson.
Beyond Standard Particle Model
The standard Particle model of Quantum mechanics is firmly set in the arena of special relativity, where the space-time background is flat. Defining particles in a fixed curved background space-time is not yet well-understood (except in some special cases).
Also, the proposed but not yet discovered particle Gravition, responsible for Gravitational force, does not come under the scope of Standard Particle Model.
https://www.britannica.com/science/quantum-mechanics-physics/Cesium-clock
https://www.livescience.com/33816-quantum-mechanics-explanation.html
http://scivenue.com/2018/03/08/quantum-physics-applications/

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Black Holes.
1. No light of any kind, including X-rays, can escape from inside the event horizon of a black hole, the region beyond which there is no return.
2. The gravitational reach of supermassive black holes contained in the middle of galaxies is large enough for eating the whole galaxy.
3. The interior of black holes comes from Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity.
4. This supermassive black hole is what astronomers call a “quasar,” where large quantities of gas are pouring into the black hole so rapidly that the energy output is a thousand times greater than that of the galaxy itself.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1  and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-c
Explanation-
Black Holes
A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying.
Because no light can get out, people can’t see black holes. They are invisible. Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. The special tools can see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than other stars.
How Big Are Black Holes?
Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is the amount of matter, or “stuff,” in an object.
Another kind of black hole is called “stellar.” Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the mass of the sun. There may be many, many stellar mass black holes in Earth’s galaxy. Earth’s galaxy is called the Milky Way.
The largest black holes are called “supermassive.” These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths.
How Do Black Holes Form?
Scientists think the smallest black holes formed when the universe began.
Stellar black holes are made when the center of a very big star falls in upon itself, or collapses. When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is an exploding star that blasts part of the star into space.
Scientists think supermassive black holes were made at the same time as the galaxy they are in.
If Black Holes Are “Black,” How Do Scientists Know They Are There?
A black hole cannot be seen because strong gravity pulls all of the light into the middle of the black hole. But scientists can see how the strong gravity affects the stars and gas around the black hole. Scientists can study stars to find out if they are flying around, or orbiting, a black hole.
When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made. This kind of light cannot be seen with human eyes. Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see the high-energy light.
Could a Black Hole Destroy Earth?
Black holes do not go around in space eating stars, moons and planets. Earth will not fall into a black hole because no black hole is close enough to the solar system for Earth to do that.
Even if a black hole the same mass as the sun were to take the place of the sun, Earth still would not fall in. The black hole would have the same gravity as the sun. Earth and the other planets would orbit the black hole as they orbit the sun now.
The sun will never turn into a black hole. The sun is not a big enough star to make a black hole.
What would happen if you fell into a black hole?
It certainly wouldn’t be good! But what we know about the interior of black holes comes from Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
For black holes, distant observers will only see regions outside the event horizon, but individual observers falling into the black hole would experience quite another “reality.” If you got into the event horizon, your perception of space and time would entirely change. At the same time, the immense gravity of the black hole would compress you horizontally and stretch you vertically like a noodle, which is why scientists call this phenomenon (no joke) “spaghettification.”
Fortunately, this has never happened to anyone — black holes are too far away to pull in any matter from our solar system. But scientists have observed black holes ripping stars apart, a process that releases a tremendous amount of energy.
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/1068/10-questions-you-might-have-about-black-holes/
5. Consider the following statements regarding the Aardram Mission.
1. It aims at creating People Friendly Health Delivery System in the state of Tamilnadu.
2. The activities would cover three major sectors in State’s health care delivery system i.e. Government medical college hospitals, district hospitals, taluk hospitals and alternative systems covering Ayurveda and Homoeo hospitals and Primary Health Centres (PHCs).
3. Counselling facilities too will be available at FHCs for teenagers, couples, elderly and the drug-addicted.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-a
Explanation-
Aardram Mission
The objective of ‘Aardram’ mission is to deliver patient-friendly. Quality healthcare services in Government hospitals and to add speciality and super speciality facilities in District and Taluk Hospitals.
It also envisages to develop Primary Health Centres (PHC) into Family Health Centres (FHC), capable of meeting the healthcare needs of all members of the family and to address the preventive, promotive and rehabilitative healthcare interventions of local community. When fully functional, this will enable web-based appointment system, patient reception and registration, improved amenities in the waiting areas, etc.

The Medical College Hospitals and District Hospitals will also be transformed into more patient-friendly with many enhanced facilities through the Aardram mission.
Apart from the regular OPs, FHCs will focus on primary prevention of communicable as well as non-communicable diseases.
Maternal and child-care services, prevention of infectious diseases and proper control of lifestyle diseases will be the responsibility of the FHCs. Counselling facilities too will be available at FHCs for teenagers, couples, elderly and the drug-addicted
https://cdn.s3waas.gov.in/s3621bf66ddb7c962aa0d22ac97d69b793/uploads/2018/06/2018062777.pdf
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/community-to-lead-aardram/article29746307.ece