Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 31 July 2020

PREVIOUS MCQ  CLICK HERE

1. Consider the following statements with respect to the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Adaptation of State Laws) Order, 2020.
1. The domiciles under the order have been defined under Jammu and Kashmir Civil Services (Decentralisation and Recruitment) Act.
2. The domiciles have been defined as those who have resided for a period of 25 years in the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir or have studied for a period of seven years and appeared in Class 10/12 examination in an educational institutions located in what is now a union territory.
3. The law has empowered Tehsildars within their territorial jurisdiction to issue domicile certificates.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Adaptation of State Laws) Order, 2020
Eight months after the Centre revoked Article 370 of the Indian constitution, it has now notified a law spelling out domicile of Jammu and Kashmir and who is eligible for employment in the region.
The order — Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (adaptation of state laws) order 2020 — issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Department of J&K, comes into force with immediate effect. The domiciles under the order have been defined under Jammu and Kashmir Civil Services (Decentralisation and Recruitment) Act.
Under the law, the domiciles have been defined as those who have resided for a period of 15 years in the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir or have studied for a period of seven years and appeared in Class 10/12 examination in an educational institutions located in what is now a union territory.
It includes children of those central government officials; All India services officers, officials of public sector undertaking and autonomous body of central government, public sector banks, officials of statutory bodies, officials of central universities and recognized research institutes of central government who have served in Jammu and Kashmir for a total period of ten years.
The law has empowered Tehsildars within their territorial jurisdiction to issue domicile certificates.

The government of J&K UT has also been empowered to notify any other officer to be Competent Authority for issuance of domicile certificate.
The law says any person fulfilling the conditions would be deemed to be domicile of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir for the purpose of appointment of any post carrying a pay scale of not more than level-4 (25500) under the UT of J&K or under local or any other (other than cantonment board) within the UT of Jammu and Kashmir.
According to the new law, jobs up to lowest level of non-gazetted rank are reserved for Jammu and Kashmir domiciles.
The provision, however, would be also available to children of central government employees serving in Jammu and Kashmir for ten years and all those non-locals residing in Jammu and Kashmir for more than 15 years.
Subject to the provisions of this Act, no person shall be eligible for appointment to a post carrying a pay scale of not more than Level-4 (25500) unless he is a domicile of the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir,” reads section 5A of The Jammu and Kashmir Civil Services (Decentralization and Recruitment) Act.
The level 4 includes posts like Junior Assistant, Constable, which is considered as the lowest category of non-gazetted posts.
This indicates domiciles of J&K UT would have exclusive right on class-4th and non-gazetted posts to be advertised by the Services Selection Board from now on wards.
All Indian citizens including J&K domiciles would be eligible for remaining non-gazetted and gazetted posts.
Before August 5, all jobs in erstwhile state of J&K were exclusively reserved for permanent residents of the State.
https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/india-news-amid-coronavirus-lockdown-govt-comes-up-with-domicile-law-for-jammu-and-kashmir/349830
2. Consider the following statements with respect to the countercyclical capital buffers (CCyB).
1. It aims to ensure that banking sector capital requirements take account of the macro-financial environment in which banks operate.
2. The rule was first introduced in Basel III as an extension of another buffer called the capital conservation buffer.
3. The framework on CCyB envisages the credit-to-GDP gap as the main indicator, which is used in conjunction with other supplementary indicators.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Countercyclical Capital Buffers (CCyB)
Reserve Bank has deferred implementation of countercyclical capital buffers (CCyB) and extended the realisation period for export proceeds. The RBI had put in place the framework on counter-cyclical capital buffer (CCyB) on February 5, 2015, wherein it was advised that the CCyB would be activated as and when the circumstances warranted.
In December 2010, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published Basel III: A global regulatory framework for more resilient banks and banking systems which presents the details of global regulatory standards on bank capital adequacy and liquidity, including a countercyclical capital buffer.
The countercyclical capital buffer aims to ensure that banking sector capital requirements take account of the macro-financial environment in which banks operate.
Its primary objective is to use a buffer of capital to achieve the broader macroprudential goal of protecting the banking sector from periods of excess aggregate credit growth that have often been associated with the build-up of system-wide risk.
Due to its countercyclical nature, the countercyclical capital buffer regime may also help to lean against the build-up phase of the credit cycle in the first place. In downturns, the regime should help to reduce the risk that the supply of credit will be constrained by regulatory capital requirements that could undermine the performance of the real economy and result in additional credit losses in the banking system.
The Basel III countercyclical capital buffer is calculated as the weighted average of the buffers in effect in the jurisdictions to which banks have a credit exposure.
It is implemented as an extension of the capital conservation buffer.
It consists entirely of Common Equity Tier 1 capital and, if the minimum buffer requirements are breached, capital distribution constraints will be imposed on the bank.
Consistent with the capital conservation buffer, the constraints imposed relate only to capital distributions, not the operation of the bank.
Banks must ensure that their countercyclical buffer requirements are calculated and publically disclosed with at least the same frequency as their minimum capital requirements.
In addition, when disclosing their buffer requirement, banks must also disclose the geographic breakdown of their private sector credit exposures used in the calculation of the buffer requirement.
Jurisdictional reciprocity will be applied when it comes to internationally active banks in member jurisdictions.
The countercyclical buffer regime was phased-in in parallel with the capital conservation buffer between 1 January 2016 and year-end 2018 and became fully effective on 1 January 2019. Jurisdictions may choose to implement larger countercyclical buffer requirements. In such cases the reciprocity provisions of the regime will not apply to the additional amounts or earlier time-frames.
The document entitled Guidance for national authorities operating the countercyclical capital buffer, sets out the principles that national authorities have agreed to follow in making buffer decisions.
To give banks time to adjust to a buffer level, a jurisdiction will pre-announce its decision to raise the level of the countercyclical buffer by up to 12 months.
Decisions by a jurisdiction to decrease the level of the countercyclical buffer will take effect immediately.
https://www.bis.org/bcbs/ccyb/

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Electronic Way Bill (E-Way Bill) scheme.
1. It offers the technological framework to track intra-state as well as inter-state movements of goods.
2. Under the scheme, goods of value exceeding Rs 50,000, for sales beyond 10 km in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime are tracked.
3. It will help the logistics industry by increasing the average distances travelled and reducing the travel time as well as costs.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Electronic Way Bill (E-Way Bill) scheme
It is a compliance mechanism wherein by way of a digital interface the person causing the movement of goods uploads the relevant information prior to the commencement of movement of goods and generates an e-way bill on the GST portal.
An electronic way bill or ‘e-way bill’ system offers the technological framework to track intra-state as well as inter-state movements of goods of value exceeding Rs 50,000, for sales beyond 10 km in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime.
When an e-way bill is generated, a unique E-way Bill Number (EBN) is allocated and is available to the supplier, recipient, and the transporter.
It was launched to
Facilitate faster movement of goods.
Improve the turnaround time of vehicles.
Help the logistics industry by increasing the average distances travelled and reducing the travel time as well as costs.
E-Way Bill Rules
According to notified e-way bill rules, every supplier requires prior online registration on the e-way bill portal for the movement of goods.
Tax officials have the power to scrutinise the e-way bill at any point during transit to check tax evasion.
Validity
The rules also specify that the permits for conventional cargo (other than over-dimensional carve) are valid for one day for the movement of goods for 100 km, and in the same proportion for the following days.
In general, validity of the e-way bill cannot be extended but a commissioner may extend the validity period only through issuing notification for certain categories of goods.
Penalty for goods moved without generating a valid e-way bill:
A fine of Rs 10,000 or amount of tax sought to be evaded, whichever is higher, may be imposed by tax authorities.
In such a situation, goods, and the vehicle transporting them, can be detained or seized.
An e-way bill can be regenerated by the transporter before expiry, but, if the e-way bill has expired, the system won’t allow regeneration linked to the same invoice.
https://vikaspedia.in/e-governance/online-citizen-services/government-to-business-services-g2b/goods-and-services-tax/e-way-bill-system

4. Which of the following article of the Constitution of India endowments certain special powers to some states in the country?
(a) Article 371
(b) Article 361
(c) Article 369
(d) Article 370
Answer-a
Explanation-
Article 371 of the Constitution of India
Article 371 of the Indian Constitution is connected to granting special provisions for some states of the Indian Union. As part of XXI and XXII of the Constitution of India, Article 371 grants some temporary, transition and special provisions to some states in the country.
Ranging from Article 371-A to Article 371-J, this Article gives special provisions for the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Karnataka. The main objectives behind the Article 371 granting special provisions to some states are to meet the unique needs of the backward regions of these states, protect the economic and cultural interests of these regions, combat the local challenges and protect the customary laws in these regions.
Article 371 – Provision for Gujarat and Maharashtra
This article provides special powers to the governors of Gujarat and Maharashtra to create independent development boards for Vidarbha, Marathwada and the rest of Maharashtra and Saurashtra, Kutch and the rest of Gujarat. It gives room to provide more facilities for employment opportunities, vocational and technical education in the state.
Article 371A – Nagaland
Article 371A of the Constitution mainly states that no act of Parliament would apply to the state of Nagaland in matter relating to religious or social practices of Nagas, Naga customary law and procedure, administration of civil or criminal justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law and ownership and transfer of land and its resources. The Legislative Assembly of Nagaland must pass a resolution for an act to be applicable to the state.

The governor is given special responsibilities with respect to law and order in the state as well.
Article 371-B – Special provisions for Assam
This article empowers the President to include a committee of the elected tribal representatives of the Assam Legislative Assembly for the constitution.
Article 371-C – Special provisions for Manipur
It provides for creating a committee for the constitution and functions of the legislative assembly with the members elected from the hilly regions of the state. The governor will have the responsibility to secure the powers of this committee and the central government can instruct the state government on the administration of the hilly areas.
Article 371-D – Special Provisions for Andhra Pradesh
The President can provide equal opportunities for the local populace in public education and employment. The President can ask the state to create an administrative tribunal to solve all the disputes with regard to appointments and promotions to civil posts in the state.
Via Article 371-E, a Central University was established in Andhra Pradesh.
Article 371–G – Provisions for Mizoram
This article says without the consent of the State Legislative Assembly, the Parliament cannot decide on the matters of the religious and social practices of the Mizos, civil and criminal law of the land, land ownership transfer, and customary law procedures.
Article 371-H – Special provisions for Arunachal Pradesh
This article gives special powers to the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh, on the directions from the President with regard to the law and order in the state. Though the Governor will consult the Council of Ministers, the governor’s decision will be final. Only when the President directs, the special powers of the Governor can cease.
Article 371-I – Special provision for Goa
As per this article, the State Legislative Assembly of Goa will consist of not less than 30 members.
Article 371-J – Special provisions for Karnataka
This Article gives room for some special provisions to the Hyderabad-Karnataka region.
The President gives special responsibilities to the Governor of Karnataka to create a separate board to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka regions. Every year, a report regarding the working of this board will be presented before the State Legislative Assembly. Equitable funds must be allotted for developing these regions. There will be reservation of seats for the education and vocational training of the students from this region besides reservation in the jobs with the state government for persons hailing from this region.
https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2019/08/05/states-that-have-special-provisions-under-article-371-a-j.html

5. Consider the following statements with reference to the Microdot technology.
1. It involves spraying the body and parts of the vehicle or any other machine with microscopic dots which offer a unique identification.
2. Use of this technology will help check theft of vehicles and also use of fake spare parts.
3. The microdots and adhesive will become permanent fixtures which cannot be removed without damaging the asset that is the vehicle itself.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Microdot technology
The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has issued a draft notification amending Central Motor Vehicle Rules, allowing motor vehicles and their parts, components, assemblies, sub-assemblies to be affixed with permanent and nearly invisible microdots.
Microdot technology involves spraying the body and parts of the vehicle or any other machine with microscopic dots, which give a unique identification.
These microdots can be read physically with a microscope and identified with ultra violet light source.
The microdots and adhesive will become permanent fixtures/affixation which cannot be removed without damaging the asset that is the vehicle itself.
Use of this technology will help check theft of vehicles and also use of fake spare parts.
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/auto/auto-news/to-prevent-thefts-vehicles-to-come-with-microdots-draft-notification/articleshow/70437552.cms?from=mdr