Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 6 MARCH 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
1. UIDAI is functioning as an attached office of the NITI Aayog.
2. The security of identity information and authentication records of individuals collocated by UIDAI is maintained by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements regarding Jal Jeevan
Mission (JJM).
1. For targeted delivery and monitoring of specific outcomes, every functional tap connection is to be linked with the Aadhar number of the head of the household subject to statutory provisions.
2. Every asset created under JJM will be geo-tagged.
3. JJM aims to provide every rural household of the country with piped water supply by 2024.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Gadhika.
1. Gadhika is an art form practiced among the Adiya community to drive away severe illnesses and diseases, which they believe is caused due to God’s anger.
2. The performers of Gadhika are included dance and move rhythmically and are accompanied by musicians.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements with respect to POSHAN Abhiyan.
1. NITI Aayog has been entrusted with the task of closely monitoring this and undertaking periodic evaluations.
2. Supplementary nutrition, food fortification, dietary diversification and maternal health are the nutrition strategies and interventions which are included in this.
3. It is a Ministry of Women and Child Development’s flagship programme to improve nutritional outcomes for children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Consider the following statements regarding Electoral Bond.
1. A donor will get a deduction and the recipient, or the political party, will get tax exemption, provided returns are filed by the political party.
2. The bonds do not encash within the validity period of 30 days are to be deposited by the authorised bank with the Prime Minister’s Relief Fund.
3. Any party that is registered under section 29A of the RP Act, 1951 and has secured at least 1 % of the votes polled in recent General elections or Assembly elections is eligible to receive electoral bonds.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

1.Answer-d
Explanation-
The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)
It is a statutory authority established under the provisions of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 (“Aadhaar Act 2016”) on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). The Aadhaar Act 2016 has been amended by the Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Act, 2019 (14 of 2019) w.e.f. 25.07.2019.
Prior to its establishment as a statutory authority, UIDAI was functioning as an attached office of the then Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog). Later, on 12 September 2015, the Government revised the Allocation of Business Rules to attach the UIDAI to the Department of Electronics & Information Technology (DeitY) of the then Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
UIDAI was created with the objective to issue Unique Identification numbers (UID), named as “Aadhaar”, to all residents of India.The UID had to be
(a) Robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake identities, and
(b) Verifiable and authenticable in an easy, cost-effective way.
The first UID number was issued on 29 September 2010 to a resident of Nandurbar, Maharashtra. The Authority has so far issued more than 124 Crore Aadhaar numbers to the residents of India.
Under the Aadhaar Act 2016, UIDAI is responsible for Aadhaar enrolment and authentication, including operation and management of all stages of Aadhaar life cycle, developing the policy, procedure and system for issuing Aadhaar numbers to individuals and perform authentication and the security of identity information and authentication records of individuals.
Organizational Structure
UIDAI has its Headquarters in New Delhi and eight Regional Offices (ROs) across the country. UIDAI has two Data Centres, one at Hebbal (Bengaluru), Karnataka and another at Manesar (Gurugram), Haryana.
Composition of the Authority
The Authority consists of two part-time Members and a Chief Executive Officer who shall be the Member-Secretary of the Authority.
The Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Sh Pankaj Kumar, IAS (1987, Nagaland cadre), is the legal representative and administrative head of the Authority.

 

2.Answer-d
Explanation
Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)
Jal Shakti Ministry is the nodal ministry for this mission. Water is the State subject. Thus, the implementation has to be done through the States. For the implementation of JJM, following institutional arrangement has been proposed:
1. National Jal Jeevan Mission at the Central level;
2. State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) at State level;
3. District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) at district level; and
4. Gram Panchayat and/ or its sub-committees i.e. Village Water Sanitation Committee (VWSC)/ Paani Samiti at village Level.
The Union Cabinet on 13.08.2019 approved Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) to provide Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household by 2024.
As per the information available, out of 17.87 Crore rural households in the country, about 14.6 Crore which accounts for 81.67% are yet to have household water tap connections.
The total project cost is estimated to be about Rs 3.60 lakh Crore. Central share will be Rs.2.08 lakh Crore. The fund sharing pattern to be 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States; 50:50 for other States and 100% for UTs.
Time bound completion of schemes taken up under National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) has been proposed by providing FHTC to every rural household. No extension of time or cost escalation will be allowed except for the cost towards retrofitting the same to provide FHTCs.
Priority to cover water quality affected habitations under JJM will be given.
The fund released by Central Government to the State Governments is to be deposited in one Single Nodal Account (SNA) that will be maintained by SWSM along with State matching share to be transferred within 15 days of Central release. Public Finance Management System (PFMS) should be used for tracking the funds.
To bring in sense of ownership and pride among rural communities, 5% capital cost contribution towards in-village water supply infrastructure in hilly, forested, and more than 50% SC/ ST dominant population villages, and 10% in the remaining villages is proposed.
JJM aims at providing potable water in adequate quantity i.e. 55 litre per capita per day (lpcd) of prescribed quality i.e. BIS Standard of IS: 10500 on regular basis. Assured availability of safe drinking water in the household premises will improve the health and thereby socio-economic condition of the rural population and will also bring down the drudgery of rural women, especially girls.
Every village is to prepare a village action plan (VAP) which will be essentially having three components namely; i.) Water source & its maintenance
ii.) Water supply and
iii.) Grey water management.
It has been proposed to assess and pool the fund available for drinking water supply from various sources be it, Government such as MPLADS, MLALADS, DMDF or donations whether at State level or village level be strictly utilized as per the approved plans. This helps in preventing creation of parallel water supply infrastructure deviating from the approved plan.
JJM envisages a structural change in the provision of drinking water supply services. The service provision should change to ‘utility based approach’ centered on ‘service delivery’. Such a reform is proposed in the guidelines so as to enable the institutions to function as utilities focusing on services and recover water tariff/ user fee.
Measuring water to ascertain the availability and the quality using sensors based IoT technologies is also proposed in the guidelines. Third party inspection is proposed to be undertaken before making any payment to instill accountability. Functionality assessment of the schemes implemented under JJM will be done by Department/ NJJM. Similarly, Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance is proposed to be an important component under JJM wherein setting up and maintenance of water quality testing labs by the PHE Department and surveillance activities by community will be taken up so as to ensure that the water supplied is of prescribed quality and thereby definition of functionality under JJM is adhered to.
For targeted delivery and monitoring of specific outcomes, every functional tap connection is to be linked with the Aadhar number of the head of the household subject to statutory provisions. Every asset created under JJM will be geo-tagged. States will carry out inspections by empanelled third party agencies for all infrastructures created under the JJM.

3.Answer-c
Explanation-
Gadhika
Adiya, a tribal community living in and around Achukunu, Kuppathodu, Payyamballi and Thalassery of north Kerala, like any other tribal’s has various ritual practices for invoking their Gods and Goddesses. Gadhika is one such art from practiced among the Adiya community to drive away severe illnesses and diseases, which they believe is caused due to God’s dislike/anger towards them.
The performers held under the leadership Moopan, chieftain of the tribe, will be dressed up red. There are two types of Gadhika; one is the Nattu Gadhika – held for the goodness of their village as a whole and the other Pooja Gadhika, performed for ritualistic purposes, mainly to cure illness.
Held annually, the performers of Gadhika will dance and move rhythmically and are accompanied by musicians who play wind instruments and drums popular among the tribal communities. The rhythmic dancing of the participants is said to welcome the gods.

 

4.Answer-d
Explanation-
The Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition or POSHAN Abhiyan, is a Ministry of Women and Child Development’s flagship programme to improve nutritional outcomes for children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
NITI Aayog has played a critical role in shaping the POSHAN Abhiyan. NITI Aayog has been entrusted with the task of closely monitoring the POSHAN Abhiyan and undertaking periodic evaluations.
NITI Aayog is required to submit implementation status reports of POSHAN Abhiyan every six months to the PMO.
The task of implementation of POSHAN Abhiyan is to be carried out through the ‘Technical Support Unit’ (TSU) established at NITI Aayog.
POSHAN Abhiyan was launched by the Prime Minister recently in Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan. The Abhiyaan targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively. The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.The abhiyan may include the following nutrition strategies and interventions
1. Supplementary nutrition,
2. IYCF (Infant and Young Child Feeding) immunisation,
3. Food fortification,
4. Adolescent nutrition,
5. Dietary diversification
6. Maternal health
Behavior change communication is the key component of POSHAN Abhiyan for converting it into Jan Andolan (People’s movement).The Executive Committee is the Apex body for all Nutrition related activities under the POSHAN Abhiyan. National Council on India’s nutritional challenges under chairmanship of Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog, has been set up under the POSHAN Abhiyan.
The pillars of the Mission:
I. ICDS-CAS(Common Application Software)
II. Convergence
III. Behavioural change, IEC Advocacy
IV. Training and Capacity building
V. Innovations
VI. Incentives
VII. Grievance Redressal

 

5. Answer-c
ELECTORAL BOND
An electoral bond is like a promissory note that can be bought by any Indian citizen or company incorporated in India with a KYC-compliant account from select branches of State Bank of India. The citizen or corporate can then donate the same to any eligible political party of his/her choice. The bonds are similar to bank notes that are payable to the bearer on demand and are free of interest. An individual or party will be allowed to purchase these bonds digitally or through cheque. The receiver can encash the bonds through the party’s verified account. The electoral bond will be valid only for fifteen days.
The electoral bonds were introduced with the Finance Bill (2017). On January 29, 2018, government notified the Electoral Bond Scheme 2018.
The bonds will be issued in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 100,000 and Rs 1 crore (the range of a bond is between Rs 1,000 to Rs 1 crore).
The electoral bonds are available for purchase for 10 days in the beginning of every quarter. The first 10 days of January, April, July and October has been specified by the government for purchase of electoral bonds. An additional period of 30 days shall be specified by the government in the year of LokSabha elections.
Electoral bonds: Conditions
1. Any party that is registered under section 29A of the RP Act, 1951 (43 of 1951) and has secured at least one per cent of the votes polled in the most recent General elections or Assembly elections is eligible to receive electoral bonds. The party will be allotted a verified account by ECI and the electoral bond transactions can be made only through this account.
2. The electoral bonds will not bear the name of the donor. Thus, the political party might not be aware of the donor’s identity.
A donor will get a deduction and the recipient, or the political party, will get tax exemption, provided returns are filed by the political party.
Electoral bonds were being introduced to ensure that all the donations made to a party would be accounted for in the balance sheets without exposing the donor details to the public. The government said that electoral bonds would keep a tab on the use of black money for funding elections. In the absence of electoral bonds, donors would have no option but to donate by cash after siphoning off money from their businesses.
Restrictions that were done away with after the introduction of the electoral bond scheme
1. Earlier, no foreign company could donate to any political party under the Companies Act.
2. A firm could donate a maximum of 7.5 per cent of its average three year net profit as political donations according to Section 182 of the Companies Act.
3. As per the same section of the Act, companies had to disclose details of their political donations in their annual statement of accounts.
The government moved an amendment in the Finance Bill to ensure that this proviso would not be applicable to companies in case of electoral bonds. Thus, Indian, foreign and even shell companies can now donate to political parties without having to inform anyone of the contribution.
What does the Supreme Court have to say on electoral bonds?
The Supreme Court asked all the political parties to submit details of donations received through electoral bonds to the ECI. It also asked the Finance Ministry to reduce window of purchasing electoral bonds from 10 days to five days. The apex court is yet to fix a date for hearing other pleas against the electoral bonds.
Election Commission of India’s view on electoral bonds-
The ECI told the SC that while it was not against the Electoral Bonds Scheme, it did not approve of anonymous donations made to political parties.
Reserve Bank of India on electoral bonds scheme-
The RBI was critical of the scheme. The central bank had warned the government that the bonds would “undermine the faith in Indian banknotes and encourage money laundering.”