Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 7 FEB 2020

1.Consider the following statements with respect to religious rights:

  1. Freedom to manage religious affairs is not subjected to public order, morality and health under Article 26.
  2. No person attending any educational institution recognised or receiving aid by the State shall be required to participate in any religious instruction.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer-b

Explanation

Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs is subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right –
(a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
(c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
(d) to administer such property in accordance with the law.

Article 28: Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

(1) No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.
(3) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto.

2.Consider the following statements RFID tagging.

1.RFID tagging is an ID system that uses small radio frequency identification devices for identification and tracking purposes.

2.An RFID tag consists of a chip, some memory and an antenna.

3.RFID system is used in maritime security, traffic control, online payment, real-time information collection etc.

4.RFID tagging will introduce greater accountability in governance.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 4 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer-d

Explanation

RFID tagging is an ID system that uses small radio frequency identification devices for identification and tracking purposes. An RFID tagging system includes the tag itself, a read/write device, and a host system application for data collection, processing, and transmission. An RFID tag (sometimes called an RFID transponder) consists of a chip, some memory and an antenna.

RFID tags that contain their own power source are known as active tags. Those without a power source are known as passive tags. A passive tag is briefly activated by the radio frequency (RF) scan of the reader.

 RFID system is inherently accompanied with enhanced Maritime Security features, Faster and efficient movement of traffic, simplified online payment procedure, availability of real-time information. Retrieval of data pertaining to the entire period of time is also another advantage of the system.

3.Consider the following statements regarding RO (Reverse Osmosis) System.

1.A ROsystem applies an internal pressure to reverse the natural flow of solvent.

2.RO water may be short of vital minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, sodium, potassium and carbonates.

3.RO plants on shore of marine water bodies may affect fauna and flora.

4.RO, while useful in reducing salts, does not tackle bacterial agents or trace chemicals.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 4 only

(b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer-c

Explanation

A RO system applies an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of solvent and so seawater or brackish water is pressurised against one surface of the membrane, causing salt-depleted water to move across the membrane, releasing clean water from the low-pressure side’.

Osmosis involves ‘a solvent (such as water) naturally moving from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration.

Problems with RO System

  • ® Deposition of highly concentrated salt water
  • ® Affects fauna and flora: Hyper salinity along the shore affects plankton,which is the main food for several of these fish species
  • ® Construction of the RO plants required troves of groundwater
  • ® Cost and time
  • ® Energy needed

4.Consider the following statements regarding Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

1.BIS is statutory body for national standard, established in 2016 under the BIS Act, 2016.

2.BIS is functioning under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, GoI.

3.Current BIS regulations consider 500 mg/litre—1,200 mg/l of total dissolved solids for drinking water, as acceptable though there is no lower limit.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

(a) 2 and 3 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answera

Explanation-

The Erstwhile Indian Standards Institution (now Bureau of Indian Standards) was established in the year 1947 with the objective of harmonious development of standardization activity in India. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) was established under the BIS Act, 1986 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. A new Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which was notified on 22nd March 2016, has been brought into force with effect from 12 October 2017 that reinforces the activities of BIS in respect to standardization and certification of goods, articles, processes, systems and services.

BIS is functioning under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, GoI. Presently, BIS has 15 Division Councils which are formulating Indian Standards covering all areas other than those mentioned in Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.

However, there are other industries and professional bodies which formulate sector specific standards, which may be referred as Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs).

The statutory provisions given under Section 10 (2) (c) of the BIS Act 2016 and Section 30 of the BIS Rules, 2018 confer upon BIS, powers to recognize any Standards Developing Organization in India for development of standards.

The Ministry has issued this order to comply with an order of the National Green Tribunal (NGT), which has prohibited the use of reverse osmosis (RO) purifiers in places where total dissolved solids (TDS) in the supplied water are below 500 mg per litre. Current BIS regulations consider 500 mg/litre—1,200 mg/l of total dissolved solids, which consists of salts and some organic matter, as acceptable though there is no lower limit.

5.Which of the following statements with respect to the Comptroller and Auditor-General (CAG) of India is NOT correct?

(a) He is appointed by the President of India by warrant under his hand and seal and his oath of office requires him to uphold the Constitution of India and laws made there under.

(b) He shall hold office for a term of six years from the date on which he assumes such office or if he attains the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

(c) He can be removed from office only on grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity after an address by both the Houses of Parliament supported by a two thirds majority.

(d) He is not barred from being eligible for further office under the Government of India or of any State after retirement.

Answer-d

Explanation-

There are several provisions enshrined in the Constitution to safeguard his independent function. These are:

  • He is appointed by the President of India by warrant under his hand and seal and his oath of office requires him to uphold the Constitution of India and laws made there under.
  • He shall hold office for a term of six years from the date on which he assumes such office, provided that where he attains the age of 65 years before the expiry of the said term of six years, he shall vacate such office on the date on which he attains the said age and that he may, at any time, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
  • He can be removed from office only on grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity after an address by both the Houses of Parliament supported by a two thirds majority.
  • His salary and conditions of service cannot be varied to his disadvantage after appointment.
  • He shall not be eligible for further office under the Government of India or of any State after retirement.
  • His administrative powers and the conditions of service of persons serving
  • In the Indian Audit and Accounts Department shall be prescribed by rules made by the President only after consulting him.

The administrative expenses of his office are charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India and are not subject to being voted by Parliament