Paper-3 Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

प्रौद्योगिकी, आर्थिक विकास, जैवविविधता, पर्यावरण, सुरक्षा तथा आपदाप्रबंधन।


  • Economic Development
  • Growth & Budget
  • Liberalization, Infra & Investment
  • Agri & Agro Industry
  • Land Reform
  • Agro Industries & Other Agri Problems
  • Price Problem(MSP)
  • Sci & Tech
  • Environment
  • Disaster Management
  • Internal Security

This paper is the most dynamic and the best source for it is current. Although you can read some basic books to have background understanding. Some Essential Books & Resources are:

  • Must Read Books
  • NCERT Class X – Understanding Economic Development
  • NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development
  • NCERT Class XII – Macroeconomics


  • Indian Economy: R. Dutt and Sundaram
  • Indian Economy for Civil Services Examinations – Ramesh Singh
  • Uma & Kapila
  • Penguin Dictionary of Economics
  • Reports/ Website
  • 2 ARC Report no. 3, 8, 14,
  • Investopedia
  • ET in Classroom
  • Articles of Ashok Gulati, Articles of Isher Judge Ahluwalia on Urbanisation, Articles of M.S. Swaminathan
    • Basic questions need analytical skills and detailing of simple concepts by the means of having an enriched content becomes the key.
    • Simple schemes with varied sub-parts makes answering difficult at times questions are beyond obvious and highly analytical
    • Various trends make their way out and common themes are exhausted within macro themes and hence it demands the interrelation and linkage.
    • Promotion of sustainability rather than of development and or making the way out has been a hot property
    • In depth knowledge of the micro topic and various simple questions should be guarded by enriched answer, keeping in view the generally left out common themes.
    • The need of the hour is to remain in synchronisation with the time, trends and their supposed effects and the direct relation with the syllabus.

    Now lets us deal syllabus topic wise

    PART I (Economic Development)

    Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. (भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था तथा योजना, संसाधनों को जुटाने, प्रगति, विकास तथा रोजगार से सम्ब​न्धित विषय )

    This part is quite broad and cover both static & Dynamic Part. Basics of it can be covered from NCERTs and for further knowledge read any one of the standard book. Apart from this read any one good Business Newspaper either: , , Business Standard or Business Line

     Syllabus: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.  (समावेशी विकास तथा इससे उत्पन्न विषय।)

    This was the theme which appeared both in XIth & XIIth Five year plan. Executive summary of these is sufficient.

    Syllabus: Government Budgeting. (सरकारी बजट)

    This part can be covered from Public Administration and Public Affairs by Nicholas Henry (Just One chapter on Budgeting) . Apart from this is also discussed in  14th Report – Strengthening financial management systems

    Part II Agronomics

    Syllabus: Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers. (मुख्य फसलें-देश के विभिन्न भागों में फसलों का पैटर्न-सिंचाई के विभिन्न प्रकार एवं सिंचाई प्रणाली-कृषि उत्पाद का भंडारण, परिवहन तथा विपणन, सम्ब​धित विषय और बाधाएं, किसानों की सहायता के लिए ई-प्रौद्योगिकी। ) 

    This covers both static and dynamic part. For basics read

    Must ReadReference
    NCERT XII: INDIA Land & People, Some Specific chapters on agriculture from Indian Geography by  RC TiwariMinistry of Agriculture, Economic Survey, Business News Paper,

    e-technology in the aid of farmers

  • This is not specific topic and general in nature. You can have basic understanding of it from ,

Syllabus: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.  (प्रत्यक्ष एवं अप्रत्यक्ष कृषि सहायता तथा न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य से सम्ब​धित विषय, जन वितरण प्रणाली-उद्देश्य, कार्य, सीमाएं, सुधार, बफर स्टॉक तथा खाद्य सुरक्षा सम्बन्धी विषय, प्रौद्योगिकी मिशन, पशुपालन सम्ब​धित अर्थशाष्त्र )

Must ReadFollow  Have basic understanding of term from this websiteMinistry of Agriculture website, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution website, Ministry of Food Processing Industries website, NITI Ayog Reports

Syllabus: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

(भारत में खाद्य प्रसंस्करण एवं सम्ब​न्धित उद्योग-कार्यक्षेत्र एवं महत्व, स्थान, ऊपरी और नीचे की अपेक्षाएं, आपूर्ति  श्रृंखला प्रबंधन।)

Must ReadFollow
Dutt & Sundaram or Uma KapilaMinistry of Agriculture website, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution website, Ministry of Food Processing Industries website, NITI Ayog Reports, Any one Business Newspaper.
  • Syllabus: Land reforms in India. (भारत में भूमि सुधार।

Read Land Reform Chapter from BIPIN Chandra: India After Independence & Nothing Else.

Syllabus: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc. Investment models. (उदारीकरण का अर्थव्यवस्था पर प्रभाव, औद्योगिक नीति में परिवर्तन तथा औद्योगिक विकास पर इनका प्रभाव। बुनियादी ढाँचा : ऊर्जा, बंदरगाह, सड़क, विमानपत्तन, रेलवे आदि। निवेश मॉडल।)

Must ReadReference
NCERT Economic: Economics: Indian Economic Development; NCERT Geography: India People and EconomyIndia: R. C Tiwari or D.R. Khullar

Syllabus:  Science and Technology – developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. (विज्ञान एवं प्रौद्योगिकी-विकास एवं अनुप्रयोग और रोजमर्रा के जीवन पर इसका प्रभाव। विज्ञान एवं प्रौद्योगिकी में भारतीयों की उपल​ब्धियाँ, देशज रूप से प्रौद्योगिकी का विकास और नई प्रौद्योगिकी का विकास। 

  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights. (सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी, अंतरिक्ष, कम्प्यूटर, रोबोटिक्स, नैनो-टेक्नोलॉजी, बायो-टेक्नोलॉजी और बौद्धिक सम्पदा अ​धिकारों से सम्ब​न्धित विषयों के सम्बन्ध में जागरूकता।))
Science & Technology: TMH Publication or Spectrum PublicationScience Reporter, Current Affairs

UPSC is asking application based questions from this section and not traditional theoretical questions.

PART III : Ecology & Environment

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. (संरक्षण, पर्यावरण प्रदूषण और क्षरण, पर्यावरण प्रभाव का आकलन।)
Must ReadReference
NCERT Class 12th Biology – Ecology: Unit X, India : Environment Chapter, ICSE (IX-X) Environment education: Beeta PublicationTHE CORE CLASS NOTES : Environment Book, Down to Earth, Geography for You

Part: Disaster and disaster management. (आपदा और आपदा प्रबंधन।)

Must ReadReference
ARC on Crisis Management, NDMA GUIDELINESNDMA Website, Down to Earth, IGNOU: MPA-018 Disaster Management. WATCH THIS VIDEO


  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
  • विकास और फैलते उन्माद के बीच सम्बन्ध।
  • आंतरिक सुरक्षा के लिए चुनौती उत्पन्न करने वाले शासन विरोधी तत्वों की भूमिका।
  • संचार नेटवर्क के माध्यम से आंतरिक सुरक्षा को चुनौती, आंतरिक सुरक्षा चुनौतियों में मीडिया और सामाजिक नेटवर्किंग साइटों की भूमिका, साइबर सुरक्षा की बुनियादी बातें, धशोधन और इसे रोकना।
  • सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रों में सुरक्षा चुनौतियाँ एवं उनका प्रबन्धन-संगठित अपराध और आतंकवाद के बीच सम्बन्ध।
  • विभिन्न सुरक्षा बल और संस्थाएं तथा उनके अ​धिदेश।

BASIC BOOKS: Challenges to Internal Security of India 

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *