Paper-3 Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management


  • Economic Development
  • Growth & Budget
  • Liberalisation, Infra & Investment
  • Agri & Agro Industry
  • Land Reform
  • Agro Industries & Other Agri Problems
  • Price Problem(MSP)
  • Sc & Tech
  • Enviournment
  • Disaster Management
  • Internal Security

This paper is most dynamic and best source for it is current. Although you can read some basic books to have background understanding. Some Essential Books & Resources are:

  • Must Read Books
  • NCERT Class X – Understaning Economic Development
  • NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development
  • NCERT Class XII – Macroeconomics
  • Reference


Indian Economy: R. Dutt and Sundaram

  • Indian Economy for Civil Services Examinations – Ramesh Singh
  • Uma & Kapila
  • Penguin Dictionary of Economics
  • Reports/ Website
  • 2 ARC Report no. 3,8, 14,
  • Investopedia
  • ET in Classroom
  • Articles of Ashok Gulati,Articles of Isher Judge Ahluwalia on Urbanisation, Articles of M.S. Swaminathan
    • Basic questions need analytical skills and detailing of simple concepts by the means of having an enriched content becomes the key.
    • Simple schemes with varied sub-parts makes answering difficult at times questions are beyond obvious and highly analytical
    • Various trends make their way out and common themes are exhausted within macro themes and hence it demands the interrelation and linkage.
    • Promotion of sustainability rather than of development and or making the way out has been a hot property
    • In depth knowledge of the micro topic and various simple questions should be guarded by enriched answer, keeping in view the generally left out common themes.
    • The need of the hour is to remain in synchronisation with the time, trends and their supposed effects and the direct relation with the syllabus.

    Now lets us deal syllabus topic wise


    PART I (Economic Development)

    Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

    This part is quite broad and cover both static & Dynamic Part. Basics of it can be covered from NCERTs and for further knowledge read any one of the standard book. Apart from this read any one good Business Newspaper either: , , Business Standard or Business Line

     Syllabus: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

    This was the theme which appeared both in XIth & XIIth Five year plan. Executive summary of these is sufficient.

    Syllabus: Government Budgeting.

    This part can be covered from Public Administration and Public Affairs by Nicholas Henry (Just One chapter on Budgeting) . Apart from this is also discussed in  14th Report – Strengthening financial management systems

    Part II Agronomics

    Syllabus: Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

    This covers both static and dynamic part. For basics read

    Must Read Reference
    NCERT XII: INDIA Land & People, Some Specific chapters on agriculture from Indian Geography by  RC Tiwari Ministry of Agriculture, Economic Survey, Business News Paper,

    e-technology in the aid of farmers This is not specific topic and general in nature. You can have basic understanding of it from ,

    Syllabus: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.


    Must Read Follow  Have basic understanding of term from this website Ministry of Agriculture website, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution website, Ministry of Food Processing Industries website, NITI Ayog Reports


    Syllabus: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

    Must Read Follow
    Dutt & Sundaram or Uma Kapila Ministry of Agriculture website, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution website, Ministry of Food Processing Industries website, NITI Ayog Reports, Any one Business Newspaper.


    Syllabus: Land reforms in India.

    Read Land Reform Chapter from BIPIN Chandra: India After Independence & Nothing Else.

    Syllabus: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc. Investment models.

    Must Read Reference
    NCERT Economic: Economics: Indian Economic Development; NCERT Geography: India People and Economy India: R. C Tiwari or D.R. Khullar


    Syllabus:  Science and Technology – developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

    • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
    Basics Reference
    Science & Technology: TMH Publication or Spectrum Publication Science Reporter, Current Affairs


    UPSC is asking application based questions from this section and not traditional theoretical questions.

    PART III : Ecology & Environment

    • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
    Must Read Reference
    NCERT Class 12th Biology – Ecology: Unit X, India : Environment Chapter, ICSE (IX-X) Environment education: Beeta Publication THE CORE CLASS NOTES : Environment Book, Down to Earth, Geography for You


    Part: Disaster and disaster management.

    Must Read Reference
    ARC on Crisis Management, NDMA Website, Down to Earth, IGNOU: MPA-018 Disaster Management