CLIMATE CHANGE & Food Production – The Core IAS

CLIMATE CHANGE & Food Production

 Context: Agriculture and the food we consume have a significant impact on climate change.


  • Agriculture contributed to 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2018.

How Impact

  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, including methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation in livestock and nitrous oxide (N2O) from fertilizer use. These gases contribute to global warming.
  • Deforestation: The expansion of agricultural land often leads to deforestation, which releases stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and reduces the planet’s capacity to absorb CO2.
  • Energy Use: The production, processing, and transportation of food require significant energy resources, leading to carbon emissions.
  • Food Waste: A large portion of food produced is wasted, contributing to emissions from decomposition in landfills.
  • Livestock: The production of meat and dairy products, particularly from intensive livestock farming, has a considerable carbon footprint due to methane emissions, land use, and feed production.
  • Soil Degradation: Unsustainable farming practices can lead to soil erosion and degradation, reducing soil’s ability to sequester carbon.
  • Transportation: The global food supply chain involves long-distance transportation, which adds to emissions.
  • Packaging: Plastic packaging contributes to plastic pollution and affects ecosystems.

Other way Imact

  • Food yield & Quality
  • Nutritious content
  • Cropping Pattern: Recent news of Pearl millet & shift towards eastern Aravali
  • Extreme weather events can damage crops and disrupt supply chains
  • Changes in trade patterns affect global food distribution.


  • Importance of Adaptation: Scaling up support, including finance, capacity-building, and technology transfer, is urgent to enhance adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability.
  • Crop diversification
  • Multi-Pronged Approach: Addressing the climate-hunger crisis involves creating resilient livelihoods, promoting climate-resilient food crops, empowering women, supporting small-holder farmers, and increasing knowledge about vulnerability and food security.
  • Consumer education
  • R & D for climate resilient crops