Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 1 August 2020

1. Which of the following Desert and their country of location are correctly matched?
Desert Country of location
1. Wadi Rum Desert Jordan
2. An-Nafud Desert Saudi Arabia
3. Dash-e -Lut Iran
4. Kara Kum Desert Turkmenistan
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-

Desert Country of location
Wadi Rum Desert Jordan
An-Nafud Desert Saudi Arabia
Dash-e -Lut Iran
Kara Kum Desert Turkmenistan
Wadi Rum Desert
Wadi Rum known also as the Valley of the Moon is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km (37 mi) to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan.
An-Nafud Desert
Part of the Arabian Desert, this desert of western Saudi Arabia is famous for gigantic sand dunes, some reaching over 100 ft. high.
Dash e -Lut
Known as the Lout Desert, this region of eastern Iran is an arid, wind-blown desert, completely surrounded by mountains. In the summer months, it can be one of the hottest and driest spots on the planet. In some areas here rain has never been measured.
Kara Kum Desert
This desert of south-central Turkmenistan is a large mass of sand known for its towering sand dunes extending in all directions. It’s about 115,000 sq. miles in size.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Arabian-Desert/Climate

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Anti-smog gun.
1. It is a device designed to reduce air pollution by spraying water into the atmosphere so that all the dust and polluted particles gets clear from the environment.
2. It converts the water into a fine spray with droplets size of 50-100 microns by passing it at high pressure through propellers.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
ANTI-SMOG GUN
Smog is the devastating problem arising especially due to the industrialisation and modernisation and thus the new invention and technology such as ANTI-SMOG GUN has come up as a solution to overcome this problem of air pollution.
Anti-smog gun is a device designed to reduce air pollution by spraying water into the atmosphere so that all the dust and polluted particles gets clear from the environment.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Anti-smog gun is used to spray water after connecting it with water tank mounted on a vehicle.
It converts the water into a fine spray with droplets size of 50-100 microns by passing it at high pressure through propellers.
The idea behind this invention is to reduce air pollution by binding dust and other particulate matter and carrying them down to the ground level along with water.
This is been designed for the arid places and the metropolitan areas.
It basically works as rain to bring down the suspended particles present in the air.
This device could be taken across the city to spray water to settle all suspended particles.
Anti smog gun can spray water upto the height of 150 feet with the capacity of 30-100 litres per minute to bring down the polluted particles from the atmosphere.
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/anti-smog-guns-installed-at-14-large-project-sites-in-the-capital/article31231326.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
1. SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
2. It was established in 1966 to provide data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources.
3. It releases the Trends in International Arms Transfers Report.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. Based in Stockholm, SIPRI is regularly ranked among the most respected think tanks worldwide.
Vision and mission
SIPRI’s vision is a world in which sources of insecurity are identified and understood, conflicts are prevented or resolved, and peace is sustained.
SIPRI’s mission is to:
Undertake research and activities on security, conflict and peace;
Provide policy analysis and recommendations;
Facilitate dialogue and build capacities;
Promote transparency and accountability; and
Deliver authoritative information to global audiences.
History and funding
SIPRI was established on the basis of a decision by the Swedish Parliament and receives a substantial part of its funding in the form of an annual grant from the Swedish Government.
The Institute also seeks financial support from other organizations in order to carry out its research.
Structure
SIPRI’s organizational structure comprises the Governing Board and the Director, a Deputy Director, the Research Staff Collegium, and Support Staff, together numbering around 50–60 people.
International reach
Located in Stockholm, Sweden, SIPRI offers a unique platform for researchers from different countries to work in close cooperation. The Institute also hosts guest researchers and interns who work on issues related to SIPRI’s research.
SIPRI maintains contacts with other research centres and individual researchers throughout the world. The Institute also cooperates closely with several intergovernmental organizations, notably the United Nations and the European Union, and regularly receives parliamentary, scientific and government delegations as well as visiting researchers.
Research and communications
SIPRI’s research agenda is constantly evolving, consistently remaining timely and in high demand. It has a high impact, informing policymakers, parliamentarians, diplomats, journalists and experts.
Dissemination channels include an active media and communications programme, seminars and conferences, a monthly newsletter and a renowned publications programme.
https://www.sipri.org/about
https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/fs_2003_at_2019_0.pdf

4. Consider the following statements regarding the National Buildings Construction Corporation (NBCC).
1. It was founded in 1960 as a Govt. of India Civil Engineering Enterprise, currently holds the status of Navratna CPSE.
2. NBCC’s areas of operation encompass two Primary Segments namely Project Management Consultancy (PMC) and Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-a
Explanation-
National Buildings Construction Corporation (NBCC)
Founded in 1960 as a Govt. of India Civil Engineering Enterprise, NBCC with its Headquarter in Delhi, today, holds the status of Navratna CPSE, and has emerged as the undisputed leader in the Construction Sector on the back of its capabilities, innovative approach, adherence to highest standard of quality, timely delivery and a dedicated workforce.
NBCC’s areas of operation encompass three (03) Primary Segments namely:
• Project Management Consultancy (PMC): Executing landmark projects in diversified sectors as also Redevelopment Projects for Government.
• Engineering Procurement & Construction (EPC): Working in a niche market and constructing Chimneys, Cooling Towers for Power Sector.
• Real Estate Development: Developing Residential and Commercial inventories for Governments and the Public at large
https://www.nbccindia.com/webEnglish/overview

5. Consider the following statements about Islamism.
1. Muslims believe that all of God’s prophets brought the message of Pure Monotheism.
2. Prophet Muhammad is considered as the messenger of Allah and the last of all Prophets who restored Islam to its pristine purity.
3. The religious practice of Islam is based on tenets that are known as the Five Pillars, arkan, to which all members of the Islamic community, Umma, should adhere.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Islamism
The Five Pillars of Islam
Almost as soon as the Arab armies of Islam conquered new lands, they began erecting mosques and palaces and commissioning other works of art as expressions of their faith and culture. Many aspects of religious practice in Islam also emerged and were codified.
The religious practice of Islam, which literally means “to submit to God”, is based on tenets that are known as the Five Pillars, arkan, to which all members of the Islamic community, Umma, should adhere.
1. The Profession of Faith—The Shahada
The Profession of Faith, the shahada, is the most fundamental expression of Islamic beliefs. It simply states that “There is no God but God and Muhammad is his prophet.” It underscores the monotheistic nature of Islam. It is an extremely popular phrase in Arabic calligraphy and appears in numerous manuscripts and religious buildings.
2. Daily Prayers—Salat
Muslims are expected to pray five times a day. This does not mean that they need to attend a mosque to pray; rather, the salat, or the daily prayer, should be recited five times a day. Muslims can pray anywhere; however, they are meant to pray towards Mecca. The faithful pray by bowing several times while standing and then kneeling and touching the ground or prayer mat with their foreheads, as a symbol of their reverence and submission to Allah. On Friday, many Muslims attend a mosque near midday to pray and to listen to a sermon, khutba.
3. Alms-Giving—Zakat
The giving of alms is the third pillar. Although not defined in the Qu’ran, Muslims believe that they are meant to share their wealth with those less fortunate in their community of believers.
4. Fasting during Ramadan—Saum
During the holy month of Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, Muslims are expected to fast from dawn to dusk. While there are exceptions made for the sick, elderly, and pregnant, all are expected to refrain from eating and drinking during daylight hours.
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca—Hajj
All Muslims who are able are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and the surrounding holy sites at least once in their lives. Pilgrimage focuses on visiting the Kaaba and walking around it seven times. Pilgrimage occurs in the 12th month of the Islamic Calendar.