Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 1 July 2020

1. Consider the following statements regarding the Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khanan.
1. He built a tomb in the memory of his wife Mah Banu and it was the first Mughal tomb built for a woman.
2. In Sanskrit, he wrote two books on astrology, Khetakautukam and Dwatrimshadyogavali.
3. He was translated Babur’s memoirs into Persian and patronized literary men like Abdul Baqi who wrote the Maasir-I-Rahimi.
4. He was one of the Navratnas and continued to serve Salim after his accession to the throne as Emperor Jahangir.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation
Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khanan
Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana (1556-1627) is an Indian Sufi poet popularly known as Rahim. He was a poet at the court of Mughal emperor Akbar and the son of Bairam Khan, a great Turkish statesman, warrior and caretaker of Mughal emperor Akbar.
He was the stepson of Akbar as Akbar married Bairam Khan’s wife. He was a very generous person and used to give alms to the poor and needy people.
Since Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana was not in support of Jahangir’s succession to the throne after Akbar’s death, Jahangir, killed his two sons and left their bodies at the khooni darwaja to rot.
Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana translated The Memoirs of Babar from Turkish to Persian.
He was a Muslim, but a great devotee of Lord Krishna. He belonged to the Bhakti period and wrote couplets in Hindi in praise of Lord Krishna. During this period there was integration between the Hindu and the Islamic elements in both art and literature. It had two schools of belief Sagun (believed that god has a particular form like Krishna, Vishnu etc.) and Nirgun (believed that God doesn’t have any fixed form and shape).
He was a follower of the Sagun school of Bhakti Poetry as he wrote about Krishna.
Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana was among one of the nine Navratna’s of Akbar’s court.
He loved Indian civilization and was also an accomplished poet and an astrologer. Apart from being a person of Iranian origin he had an exceptional command over Sanskrit language. He wrote two works on the subject of Astrology- Khet Kautukam and Dwawishd Yogavali, which are still referred by people interested in Astrology.
Rahim better as a poet, apart from his famous dohas, he also wrote verses in Arabic, Sanskrit and Turkish.
Some 50 years before that magnificent monument of love, Taj Mahal, was built, Abdur Rahim Khan-e-Khanan, a poet and diwan in Emperor Akbar’s court, built a tomb in the memory of his wife Mah Banu. It was the first Mughal tomb built for a woman.
Constructed in 1598, the tomb stands a few hundred meters south of the Humayun’s Tomb, a world heritage site, in Delhi. This location was chosen for its proximity to Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya’s Dargah — it was considered auspicious to be buried near the grave of a saint. Rahim too was eventually buried here in 1627.
https://www.mapsofindia.com/who-is-who/religious-spiritual-gurus/abdul-rahim-khan-e-khana.html
https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/renovating-rahims-tomb-the-original-monument-of-love/article23279538.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding the WildLife Institute of India (WII).
1. It is an autonomous institution under the Union Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.
2. It is to nurture the development of wildlife science and promote its application in conservation, in consonants with our cultural and socio-economic milieu.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
WildLife Institute of India (WII)
The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) was established at Dehradun in 1982.
In 1986, it was granted the status of an autonomous Institution of the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
WII is now recognized as a premier regional institution for training and research in biodiversity conservation.
A large number of foresters and wildlife managers from other developing countries, particularly south and south-east Asia, have been trained in WII since its establishment.
WII has given a new direction to the concept and practice of biodiversity conservation, made it more practical and realistic by seeking the involvement and cooperation of local people. However, the problem and challenges are immense and diverse in a constantly changing scenario.
Learning from its own and others experiences, WII traverses a path of hope which will help strengthen its inputs and find answers to conservation issues and problems in the developing world.
Vision
To develop the Institute as ‘A Global Centre of Excellence’ in the field of wildlife research, training and advocacy.
Mission
To nurture the development of wildlife science and promote its application in conservation, in consonance with our culture and socio-economic milieu.
Aims & Objectives
Build up scientific knowledge on wildlife resources.
Train personnel at various levels for conservation and management of wildlife.
Carry out research relevant to management including the development of techniques appropriate to Indian conditions.
Provide information and advice on specific wildlife management problems.
Collaborate with international organizations on wildlife research, management and training.
Develop as a regional centre of international importance on wildlife and natural resource conservation.
Functions
It conducts specialised research in areas of study like Endangered Species, Biodiversity, Wildlife Management, Wildlife Policy, Wildlife Forensics, Habitat Ecology, Spatial Modelling, Ecodevelopment, and Climate Change.
Research facilities
WII’s research facility includes Remote Sensing, Forensics and Geographic Information System (GIS) etc. It has contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India and also has popularized wildlife studies and careers.
https://wii.gov.in/

3. Consider the following statements regarding the World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF India).
1. It is a science-based organization which addresses issues such as the conservation of species and its habitats, climate change, water and environmental education, among many others.
2. In 1987, the organization changed its name from the World Wildlife Fund to World Wide Fund for Nature India.
3. It works by adopting a two-pronged approach to conservation which includes Biodiversity Conservation, and Footprint Reduction.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF India)
World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF India) was founded with the express objective of ensuring the conservation of the country’s wildlife and natural habitats.
It was then known as the World Wildlife Fund India, much before the terms ‘wildlife’ and ‘environment’ had caught the attention of the government or the public.
WWF India’s modest beginnings entailed operating out of a limited office space at Horn Bill House in Mumbai and very few full-time staff. The running of the office relied largely on the goodwill of the close-knit group of its founders, and other associates who voluntarily contributed their time and resources to the work of the organisation.
Established as a Charitable Trust on 27 November, 1969, WWF India set out with the aim of reducing the degradation of Earth’s natural environment and building a future in which humans live in harmony with nature. In 1987, the organization changed its name from the World Wildlife Fund to World Wide Fund for Nature India.
Throughout the seventies and eighties, WWF India kept its focus primarily on wildlife and nature conservation.
Whilst conservation initiatives for the tiger and other priority species continue to be a core area of its work, its programmes move ahead on education, sustainable agriculture, marine conservation, engaging with businesses to adopt better environmental practices, inspiring citizens to take positive action for the planet, among many others.
Mission Statement
To stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by:
• Conserving the world’s biological diversity
• Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable
• Promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption
In its mission to take forward the agenda of environmental protection, WWF India works with varied groups of individuals and institutions across different sections of society.
These alliances strive to address the common goal of conserving biodiversity, sustainably using natural resources and maintaining ecosystems and ecosystem services for the survival of wildlife and people depending on them.
In order to conserve India’s ecological security, WWF India has adopted the following steps:
• Ensuring conservation of the country’s biodiversity, major ecosystems and critical landscapes
• Minimizing wasteful consumption and promotion of sustainable and judicious use of natural resources by all sectors of society
• Promoting the active involvement of rural and traditional communities in the sustainable management and conservation of natural resources
• Working towards reduction in the impact of climate change
• Minimizing pollution, reducing the use of toxic chemicals and ensuring improved management of toxic waste
• Enhancing active participation of all sections of society in nature conservation and environmental protection through environmental education, awareness and capacity-building
• Ensuring that environmental principles are integrated into development planning, policy and practices
• Promoting environmental governance through legislation, policy and advocacy
https://www.wwfindia.org/who_we_are/
https://www.wwfindia.org/who_we_are/social_policies/


4. Consider the following statements with references to the Nitrogen fertilization.
1. Some plants do have own enzymes machinery to convert atmospheric N2 to biologically usable form of nitrogen.
2. Nitrifying bacteria which are responsible for nitrification are abundantly present in compacted soil as these bacteria are anaerobic.
3. Some bacteria convert biologically usable nitrogen form in atmospheric nitrogen.
Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1 only
Answer-a
Explanation-
Plants do not have own enzymes machinery to convert atmospheric N2 to biologically useful form of nitrogen. As some leguminous plants is used enzymes machinery of bacteria to convert atmospheric N2 to biologically useful form of nitrogen. Nitrifying bacteria (e.g. Nitrosomonas, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter) aerobic in nature that is responsible for process of nitrification, abundantly present in aerated soil (mainly sandy soil).
Some bacteria (e.g. Bacillus subtilis, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Pseudomonsa denitrificans, Micrococcus denitrificans) convert biologically usable nitrogen form in atmospheric nitrogen through denitrification process under anaerobic condition that’s why in waterlogged condition due to deficiency of Nitrate and thus Insectivores plants are grown.
Family of Rhizobia bacteria is responsible for symbiotic N2 fixation in leguminous plants.

5. Which of the following places in news and their country of location are correctly matched?
Places in news Country of location
1. Zagreb Croatia
2. Mazar-i-sharif Pakistan
3. Conakry Comoros
4. San Fiorano France
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1 and 2 only
Answer-a
Explanation-
Places in news Country of location
Zagreb Croatia
Mazar-i-sharif Afghanistan
Conakry Guinea
San Fiorano Italy