Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 10 MARCH 2020

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1. The presence of hazardous elements beyond threshold quantities makes e-waste hazardous in nature. E-waste contain potentially harmful substances like
1. Brominated flame retardants
2. Phosphors
3. Cadmium
4. Beryllium
5. Hexavalent chromium
Select the correct answer code:
(a) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2. Consider the following statements regarding The ‘Future of Earth, 2020’ report.
1. This report was jointly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the South Asia Future Earth Regional Office.
2. Five global risks that have the potential to impact and amplify one another by cascading effect to create global systemic crisis, have been listed by this report.
3. Report says that rightwing populism often leads to a denial of climate change facts or impacts.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Consider the following statements with respect to the judgement of Supreme Court on increasing criminalisation of politics in India.
1 Criminal history of candidates should mandatorily be published either within 72 hours of the selection of candidates or less than two weeks before the first date for filing of nominations, whichever is earlier.
2. Criminal history of candidates for the LokSabha and Assembly elections along with the reasons should be published in a local and a national newspaper as well as the parties’ social media handles.
3. The judgment is applicable to organisations both at the Central and State levels.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

4. In 2002, he was elected the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He was the founder and chief executive of The Energy Resources Institute (TERI). He received the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the IPCC, with former U.S. Vice President in 2007. Identify the personality for whom above information are true:
(a) Pradip Krishen
(b) Kota Shivaram Karanth
(c) Rishi Sunak
(d) Rajinder K. Pachauri

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT).
1. Originally, appeals against the orders of the CAT could be made only in the Supreme Court and not in the high courts.
2. The Tribunal is guided by the principles of natural justice and also bound by the procedure, prescribed by the Civil Procedure Code of 1908.
3. The CAT had been established under Article 323A of the Constitution.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

1.Answer-d
Explanation-
Country’s first e-waste clinic is being opened in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh today. It would enable segregation, processing and disposal of waste from both household and commercial units.
The hazardous e-waste generated is getting accumulated in the country at an alarming pace, causing grave concern for public health and environment.
Composition of E-waste
E-waste consists of all waste from electronic and electrical appliances which have reached their end- of- life period or are no longer fit for their original intended use and are destined for recovery, recycling or disposal. It includes computer and its accessories monitors, printers, keyboards, central processing units; typewriters, mobile phones and chargers, remotes, compact discs, headphones, batteries, LCD/Plasma TVs, air conditioners, refrigerators and other household appliances.
The composition of e-waste is diverse and falls under ‘hazardous’ and ‘non-hazardous’ categories. Broadly, it consists of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, glass, wood and plywood, printed circuit boards, concrete, ceramics, rubber and other items. Iron and steel constitute about 50% of the waste, followed by plastics (21%), non-ferrous metals (13%) and other constituents.
Non-ferrous metals consist of metals like copper, aluminium and precious metals like silver, gold, platinum, palladium and so on. The presence of elements like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, hexavalent chromium, Brominated flame retardants, Phosphors, Beryllium and flame retardants beyond threshold quantities make e-waste hazardous in nature. It contains over 1000 different substances, many of which are toxic, and creates serious pollution upon disposal. Obsolete computers pose the most significant environmental and health hazard among the e-wastes.
E-disposal infrastructure in India-
2 million tonnes of e- waste is generated annually. Just a fraction of it is being disposed off safely. Most of the discarded computers, phones and batteries and age-expired electrical gadgets are sold to junk dealers. They are ultimately recycled in the unorganised sector in a crude and clumsy manner. This causes more harm than the unprocessed items.
A sizeable part of the e-waste is mixed with garbage and finds its way to landfill sites.
Mumbai tops the list of e-waste generating cities, followed by Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai.
India, as a whole, is 3rd in Asia and 5th in the world as an e-waste producer – the others being the US, China, Japan and Germany.
Harmful effects-
They emit harmful radiation, degrade the soil, and releases toxins to pollute air and ground water.
About 40% of lead and 70% of other heavy metals found in landfills are traceable to e-waste.
Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can damage the nervous system, kidneys, and brain, and can cause respiratory disorders, lung cancer, skin ailments and other health problems.
2/3rd of the workers in the unorganised e-waste recycling sector suffer from breathing difficulties, coughing, irritation, and other maladies.
Legal framework-
The country’s e-waste disposal policy is actually robust. The e-waste management rules, laid down by the environment ministry, even revolve round the judicious concept of “extended producer responsibility” (EPR).
Manufacturers are mandated to take back 30% of the discarded electronic equipment for appropriate disposal in the first two years of the enforcement of these rules. This level is to be raised to 70% in the next five years. However, none of this happening due to the lax regulatory infrastructure in the country.

 

2.Answer-a
Explanation

Five global risks that have the potential to impact and amplify one another in ways that may cascade to create global systemic crisis, have been listed by ‘The Future of Earth, 2020,’ which was released here on Thursday by the South Asia Future Earth Regional Office, Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science.
The report lists the failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation; extreme weather events; major biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse; food crises; and water crises, as the five global risks.
As many as 222 leading scientists from 52 countries conducted the survey by Future Earth, an international sustainability research network.
The report was prepared with the aim of reducing carbon footprint and halting global warming below 2 degree Celsius by 2050.
Interrelated factors
Offering examples of how the interrelation of risk factors plays a role, scientists say extreme heat waves can accelerate global warming by releasing large amounts of stored carbon from affected ecosystems, and at the same time intensify water crises and/ or food scarcity.
The loss of biodiversity also weakens the capacity of natural and agricultural systems to cope with climate extremes, increasing our vulnerability to food crises, report point out.
The time is running out to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Rising temperature
“This has inspired declarations of a climate crisis or climate emergency by the leaders of more than 700 cities, States and governments. Yet, during 2019, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached more than 415 ppm, and the five years from 2014 to 2018 were the warmest recorded over land and ocean since 1880,” read the report.
In another chapter, ‘Populism versus grassroots movements’ said “rightwing populism, a breed of politics that exploits people’s fears during times of economic decline and growing inequality, and that focuses on nationalist tendencies to clamp down on borders and reject immigrants,” is on the rise around the world. This often leads to a denial of climate change facts or impacts. Humans have now “significantly altered” 75% of our planet’s land area; about a quarter of species in assessed plant and animal groups are threatened.

South Asia Regional Office of Future Earth
South Asia Regional Office of Future Earth is hosted by the Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Bengaluru, India. It seeks to promote sustainability and climate research and adapt and spread the vision of Future Earth in the region.
A South Asian Regional Office of Future Earth was convened in Bangalore, south India, in July 2016. The new Regional Office for South Asia has a domain that spans over the countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Myanmar and a few Indian Ocean island nations. The Regional Office is hosted by the Divecha Centre for Climate Change (DCCC), Indian Institute of Science, and the Chairman of DCCC, Prof. S.K. Satheesh will serve as the Director of the Regional Office. The Office will play a key role in promoting solution-oriented research on environmental sustainability in the south Asian region.
Future Earth
Future Earth is a major international research platform providing the knowledge and support to accelerate transformations to a sustainable world. Future Earth will work with partners in society to co-develop the knowledge needed to support decision-makers and societal change at all scales and in diverse contexts, by focusing on three Research Themes – Dynamic Planet, Global Sustainable Development and Transformations towards Sustainability.

 

3.Answer-a
Explanation-

The Supreme Court ordered political parties to publish the entire criminal history of their candidates for the Assembly and LokSabha elections along with the reasons that goaded them to field suspected criminals over decent people.
The information should be published in a local and a national newspaper as well as the parties’ social media handles.
It should mandatorily be published either within 48 hours of the selection of candidates or less than two weeks before the first date for filing of nominations, whichever is earlier.
It ordered political parties to submit compliance reports with the ECI within 72 hours or risk contempt of court action. The judgment is applicable to political organisations both at the Central and State levels.
The published information on the criminal antecedents of a candidate should be detailed and include the nature of the offences, charges framed against him, the court concerned and the case number.

 

4.Answer-d
Explanation-
Dr. Rajinder K. Pachauri was the founder and chief executive of The Energy Resources Institute (TERI).
In 2002, he was elected Chairman of the IPCC established by the World Meteorological Organisation and the United Nations Environment Programme. He received the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the IPCC, with former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, in 2007. Dr. Pachauri had to step down as executive vice-chairman of TERI after he was accused of sexual harrassment by a woman colleague in 2015.

 

5.Answer-c
Explanation
Central Administrative Tribunal
The CAT had been established under Article 323 – A of the Constitution for adjudication of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or other authorities under the control of the Government.
There are 17 Benches and 21 Circuit Benches in the Central Administrative Tribunal all over India. In addition to the Ministries and Departments of Central Government, the Government of India has notified about 214 organizations under section 14 (2) of the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985 to bring them within the jurisdiction of the CAT, from time to time. In addition the CAT, Principal Bench is dealing with the matters of Govt. of NCT of Delhi
The CAT is headed by Hon’ble Chairman Sh. Justice L. Narasimha Reddy, former Chief Justice of High Court of Patna. There are 66 Hon’ble Members in various Benches of the Tribunal out of which 33 are Judicial Members, including the Hon’ble Chairman and 33 are Administrative Members.
The conditions of service of Hon’ble Chairman and Members are the same as applicable to a Judge of High Court as per the Administrative Tribunals (Amendment) Act, 2006 (1 of 2007), which came into effect on 19.02.2007.
The Administrative Tribunal is distinguishable from the ordinary courts with regard to its jurisdiction and procedure. It exercises jurisdiction only in relation to the service matters of the parties covered by the Act.
The Tribunal is guided by the principles of natural justice in deciding cases and is not bound by the procedure, prescribed by the Civil Procedure Code.
The CAT is empowered to frame its own rules of procedure and practice.
Initially the decision of the Tribunal could be challenged before Hon’ble Supreme Court by filing Special Leave Petition. However, after the Supreme Court’s decision in L. Chandra Kumar’s case, the orders of CAT are now being challenged by way of Writ Petition under Article 226/227 of the Constitution before respective High Court in whose territorial jurisdiction the Bench of the Tribunal is situated.
Under Section 17 of the Administrative Tribunal Act, 1985, the Tribunal has been conferred with the power to exercise the same jurisdiction and authority in respect of contempt of itself as a High Court.
Salaries and Allowances and Conditions of Service of the officers and other employees of the Tribunal are specified by the Central Government.