Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 11 April 2020

1. Consider the following statements the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019.
1. The government is qualified to order any data fiduciary to acquire personal and non-personal/anonymised data for the sake of research and for national security and criminal investigations.
2. An independent regulator Data Protection Agency (DPA) will oversee assessments and audits and definition making.
3. Social media companies, which are deemed significant data fiduciaries based on factors such as volume and sensitivity of data as well as their turnover, should develop their own user verification mechanism.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

  1. Answer-d
    Explanation
    https://prsindia.org/billtrack/personal-data-protection-bill-2019 

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Taj Mahal.
1. The Pietra Dura method was used on a large scale in the Taj Mahal.
2. The chief glory of the Taj is the massive dome and the four slender minarets.
3. This heritage monument is a combination of elements of Islamic, Turkish and Persian architectural designs has created this truly ethereal vision.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Answer-d
Explanation-
Taj Mahal
A true wonder that impresses all that who has laid eyes on it, the best of Mughal Architecture is the Taj Mahal. Built by Shah Jahan in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz, the white-marbled mausoleum is known as an icon of love.
The colossal structure built on the banks of River Yamuna; Agra was completed in 22 years to (1632-1653).
This heritage monument is a combination of elements of Islamic, Turkish and Persian architectural designs has created this truly ethereal vision.
It has been an UNESCO World Heritage Site since the year 1983, drawing visitors to glance at its beauty from all over the world.
The Pietra Dura method was used on a large scale in the Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal is considered as jewel of the builder’s art.
It contains all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals.
The chief glory of the Taj is the massive dome and the four slender minarets
The decorations are kept to the minimum.
The Moti Masjid at Agra was built entirely in white marble. The Jama Masjid at Delhi was built in red stone.
Features and Developments of Architecture during Mughal Period
Golden Period of Architecture:
Although all the Mughal rulers except Aurangzeb took great interest in architecture, yet Shah Jahan surpasses all in the field of architecture.
There is no doubt that architecture reached the pinnacle of its glory during the period of Shah Jahan.
The period of Shah Jahan (1627-1658) witnessed a glorious outburst of activity in the development of architecture.
At the same time it must also be accepted that a period of 100 years (1556-1658) covered by the reign of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan has a special significance for the promotion of architecture. Likewise there was some activity in this area in the period of Babur and Humayun. Therefore, it is said that the Mughal period was the golden period of Indian architecture.
Main features of Mughal Architecture:
1. Variety of buildings:
The Mughal rulers built magnificent gates, forts, mausoleums, mosques, palaces, public buildings and tombs etc.
2. Synthesis of Persian and Indian style:
The specimens of architecture created under the Mughals have become the common heritage of both the Hindus and the Muslims. It is a happy blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture.
3. Specific characteristic:
A common characteristic of the Mughal buildings is “the pronounced domes, the slender turrets at the corners, the palace halls supported on pillars and the broad/gateways.”
4. Costly decorations:
The Mughal emperors in general but Shah Jahan in particular decorated his buildings with costly articles. One of the important distinguishing features of the Mughal buildings is their ornamentation as compared with the simple buildings of the previous Muslim rulers of India.
5. Building material:
During the Mughal period, buildings were constructed mostly of red sandstone and white marble.
Development of architecture under different Mughal rulers:
Babur and architecture:
Babur was not impressed by Indian architecture. At the same time he was busy in waging wars. Nevertheless he sent for the pupils of Sinan the noted Albanian architect to work with Indian craftsmen whose skills he had appreciated. But this did not materialise. As Babur recorded in his ‘Memories’, he employed 680 workmen and 1491 stone cutters daily on his various buildings in India. He constructed several buildings but only two mosques—one at Panipat and the other at Sambhal have survived.
Humayun and architecture:
Humayun’s troubled reign did not allow him enough opportunity to give full play to his artistic temperament. Even then he constructed the palace of ‘Din-i-Panah’ in Delhi which was probably destroyed by Sher Shah. Humayun constructed some mosques at Agra and Hissar.
Akbar and architecture:
The history of Mughal architecture really starts with Akbar. Just as Akbar built up an extensive empire on the goodwill of the Hindus, in the same way he utilised local talent and took inspiration from Indian architecture. One of the earliest buildings built is the Tomb of Humayun, in Delhi. It was built after Humayun’s death by his first wife Hamida Banu Begam. This splendid tomb, designed by a Persian Architect Malik Mirza Ghiyas and executed by Indian craftsmen and masons, is a fine example of the synthesis of Indian-Persian traditions.
Important buildings built during Akbar’s time include the following:
(1) Red Fort at Agra.
(2) City of Fatehpur Sikri
(3) Lahore fort,
(4) Tomb at Sikandra.
During Akbar’s time, it is said that about 500 beautiful buildings were constructed in the Red Fort at Agra but only a few of them now survive.
Main features of Akbar’s buildings are:
(i) Synthesis of Hindu- Muslim art tradition
(ii) Extensive use of red stone
(iii) Construction of buildings for civilian purposes.
Jahangir and architecture:
Jahangir had fine artistic sense but he was more fond of painting than architecture. Two important buildings were raised. One was the completion of the Tomb of Akbar at Sikandra and the other was the Tomb of Itmad-ul-Daula built by Nur Jahan over the grave of her father. The most important feature of this tomb is that it is decorated with ‘pietra dura’ i.e. in-laid with semi-precious stones of different colours.
Shah Jahan and architecture:

Shah Jahan’s period is usually called the ‘Golden Age of Mughal Architecture’ and he is given the titles of ‘Prince among the Builders’ and ‘Engineer King’. His most important and impressive buildings are the Taj Mahal, Red Fort and Jama Masjid. These buildings are extremely beautiful and soft.
Shah Jahan mostly made use of marble in place of red stone. With a view to enhance the beauty and effect of the ceilings, he made full use of gold, silver, precious and coloured stones. At several places, the pictures of trees, animal scenes and other flora and fauna have been depicted. (See next question).
Aurangzeb and architecture:
Aurangzeb’s accession to the throne marks the end of rich harvest in building art. His puritanism gave little encouragement to the development of art. He is usually discredited with the destruction of two most important Hindu temples at Banaras and Mathura and raising mosques upon them. He built the Shahi Masjid at Lahore.

 

3. Consider the following statements with respect to the Uniform Civil Code (UCC).
1. Article 44 of the Constitution lays down that it shall be the obligation of the state to secure a UCC for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
2. A UCC is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and adoption.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

3. Answer-b
Explanation
Uniform Civil Code
A UCC is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption etc. Article 44 of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a UCC for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
Article 44 is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance.
Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While Article 44 uses the words “state shall endeavour”, other Articles in the ‘Directive Principles’ chapter use words such as “in particular strive”; “shall in particular direct its policy”; “shall be obligation of the state” etc.
Article 43 mentions “state shall endeavour by suitable legislation” while the phrase “by suitable legislation” is absent in Article 44. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in Article 44.
All Hindus of the country are not governed by one law, nor are all Muslims or all Christians. Not only British legal traditions, even those of the Portuguese and the French remain operative in some parts.
In the Northeast, there are more than 200 tribes with their own varied customary laws. The Constitution itself protects local customs in Nagaland. Similar protections are enjoyed by Meghalaya and Mizoram.

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding the New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC) Act 2019.
1. It will have two full-time or Part-time Members from amongst eminent persons having experience in institutional arbitration, both domestic and international.
2. NDIAC will be headed by a Chairperson, who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or a Judge of a High Court or an eminent person appointed by the Central Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
4. Answer-c
Explanation
New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC)
Draft NDIAC Rules have been issued for public consultation with the timeline of submission of comments by 14th March, 2020.
The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC), Act 2019 was enacted to establish and make NDIAC a hub for institutional arbitration and to declare it as an institution of national importance.
NDIAC will be headed by a Chairperson, who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or a Judge of a High Court or an eminent person appointed by the Central Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
Besides, it will also have two Full-time or Part-time Members from amongst eminent persons having experience in institutional arbitration, both domestic and international.
In addition, one representative of a recognized body of commerce and industry shall be nominated on rotational basis as a Part-time Member.
The Secretary, Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Law & Justice; Financial Adviser nominated by Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance and Chief Executive Officer, NDIAC will be ex-officio Members.
Section 23 of the Act provides for the Secretariat to the Centre inter-alia comprising Registrar, Counsel and other officers & employees etc.
In this regard, the Department of Legal Affairs has prepared the following draft Rules:
The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (the terms and conditions and the salary and allowances payable to the Chairperson and Full-time Members) Rules 2020.
The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (the travelling and other allowances payable to Part-time Members) Rules 2020.
The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (the number of officers and employees of the Secretariat of the Centre) Rules 2020.
The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (the qualifications, experience, method of selection and the functions of the Registrar, Counsel and other officers and employees of the Centre) Rules 2020.

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA).
1. COMCASA is meant to provide a legal framework for the transfer of communication security equipment from the U.S. to India.

2. COMCASA is said to be part of a set of 3 agreements that the U.S. considers vital for a functional military relationship.
3. This agreement comes to force immediately and will remain valid for 10 years.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5.Answer-d
Explanation-
What is the COMCASA?
COMCASA is meant to provide a legal framework for the transfer of communication security equipment from the U.S. to India.
This would facilitate “interoperability” between their forces and potentially with other militaries that use U.S. origin systems for secured data links.
Importantly, the U.S. has already made some tweaks from its conventional template for agreements in this regard, for accommodating Indian concerns.
Significance – COMCASA is said to be part of a set of 3 agreements that the U.S. considers vital for a functional military relationship.
Previously, India and U.S. signed the “Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)”, for mutual logistic assistance between their militaries.
Negotiations on the third agreement, “Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA)”, have not yet begun.