Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 11 June 2020

For previous update click here

1. Consider the following statements regarding the Hakki-Pikki tribes of India.
1. Recently, they have been declared as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group.
2. These tribes follow rules of matriarchy and endogamy is strictly prohibited.
3. They speak Indo-Aryan language – scholars named it as Vaagri.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
1. Answer-a
Explanation
Hakki-pikki Tribe
This tribe is mainly found in the southern part of India and is semi nomadic in nature.
It is said that the tribal community has relations with the king Rana Pratap and are from the Kshatriya clan.
These tribes follow rules of Matriarchy and Endogamy is strictly prohibited.
Their main occupation is hunting but they are showing more interest in agriculture and floral decoration.
They are well conversant in their local dialect Vahgri, Kannada, Tamil and Hindi and some also speak Malayalam and Telugu.
They celebrate various festivals like Diwali, shivaratri, Ugadi, Ganesh chaturthi and practice animal sacrifice
It is one of the major tribal communities in Karnataka and mainly concentrated in the districts of Shivamogga, Davanagere and Mysore of Karnataka.
Become the experts in indigenous medical system -selling medicines, spices and offering pain-relief services like body massage.
Speaks Indo Aryan language – scholars named it as ‘Vaagri’
They are not Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group.

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Appropriation Bill.
1. The defeat of this Bill in a parliamentary vote would necessitate resignation of a government.
2. Article 112 of Indian Constitution mandates the Union government to pass an Appropriation act in the Parliament to withdraw money from the Consolidated Fund of India.

3. It is the prerogative of the LokSabha to either accept or reject the recommendations made by the upper house of Parliament.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation
Appropriation Bill
Appropriation Bill is a money bill that allows the government to withdraw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet its expenses during the course of a financial year.
As per article 114 of the Constitution, the government can withdraw money from the Consolidated Fund only after receiving approval from Parliament.
To put it simply, the Finance Bill contains provisions on financing the expenditure of the government, and Appropriation Bill specifies the quantum and purpose for withdrawing money.
Procedure followed:
The government introduces the Appropriation Bill in the lower house of Parliament after discussions on Budget proposals and Voting on Demand for Grants.
The Appropriation Bill is first passed by the LokSabha and then sent to the RajyaSabha.
The RajyaSabha has the power to recommend any amendments in this Bill. However, it is the prerogative of the LokSabha to either accept or reject the recommendations made by the upper house of Parliament.
The unique feature of the Appropriation Bill is its automatic repeal clause, whereby the Act gets repealed by itself after it meets its statutory purpose.
What happens when the bill is defeated?
Since India subscribes to the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy, the defeat of an Appropriation Bill (and also the Finance Bill) in a parliamentary vote would necessitate resignation of a government or a general election. This has never happened in India till date, though.
Scope of discussion:
The scope of discussion is limited to matters of public importance or administrative policy implied in the grants covered by the Bill and which have not already been raised during the discussion on demands for grants.
The Speaker may require members desiring to take part in the discussion to give advance intimation of the specific points they intend to raise and may withhold permission for raising such of the points as in his opinion appear to be repetition of the matters discussed on a demand for grant.
Amendments:
No amendment can be proposed to an Appropriation Bill which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the Speaker as to whether such an amendment is admissible is final. An amendment to an Appropriation Bill for omission of a demand voted by the House is out of order.
In other respects, the procedure in respect of an Appropriation Bill is the same as in respect of other Money Bills.

3. Consider the following statements with reference to Classical Languages of India.
1. All the Classical languages are part of 8th Schedule of the Constitution.
2. Sanskrit and Hindi are listed as the classical languages in India.
3. The Human Resource and Development Ministry provides the guidelines regarding the Classical languages.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) None
Answer-a
Explanation
Classical Languages
The Central Sanskrit Universities Bill, 2019 gives Central status to the Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan and Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth in Delhi and the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth in Tirupati.
The government has been accused of neglecting other classical languages in India.
Currently there are six languages that enjoy the ‘Classical’ status in India:
Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014).
All the Classical Languages are listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
The Ministry of Culture provides the guidelines regarding Classical languages.
Guidelines for declaring a language as ‘Classical’ are:
High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;
A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
The literary tradition is original and not borrowed from another speech community;
The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
Once a language is notified as a Classical language, the Human Resource and Development Ministry provides certain benefits to promote it:
Two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in classical Indian languages
A Centre of Excellence for studies in Classical Languages is set up
The University Grants Commission is requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for the Classical Languages so declared.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Super-Hydrophobic Coating.
1. A team from the Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad, and Ohio State University has created a superhydrophobic coating to save steel from rusting.
2. The superhydrophobic coating is a nanoscopic surface layer that repels water.
3. Superhydrophobic coatings are also found in nature as they appear on plant leaves, such as the Lotus leaf, and some insect wings.
4. The chemicals used to make the coating are easily available and are also environmentally friendly.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Superhydrophobic Coating
A team from the Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad, and Ohio State University has created a superhydrophobic coating to save steel from rusting.
The coating was made from polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles.
Superhydrophobic Surfaces
The term hydrophobicity is derived from two greek words that are hydro (water) and phobos (fear). It is the ability to repel water.
Superhydrophobic coating is a nanoscopic surface layer that repels water.
Adding a superhydrophobic coating makes a surface liquid and water repellent, easy to clean, and boosts its anti-icing performance (ability to delay the formation of ice for a certain period of time)
Super-hydrophobic coatings are also found in nature; they appear on plant leaves, such as the Lotus leaf, and some insect wings.
Apart from steel the coating can be done on other metallic surfaces, such as aluminum, copper, brass. The coatings have also been developed for glass, cloth, paper and wood.
Developing an antimicrobial superhydrophobic coating for biomedical applications is also being worked on.
Without this, the coating tends to easily peel off due to smoothness of steel.
The spin coating was found to be more advantageous and cost-effective compared to immersion coating and spray coating.
Spin coating dried quickly and the thickness of the coat could be controlled easily
Properties of the Coating
Chemically Stability: Stable in both acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 8) conditions for more than six weeks.
Thermal Stability: Stable up to 230 degree C.
Mechanical Stability: Highly stable when tested with water jet, floating, bending, sand abrasion tests.
Self-cleaning
When water droplets were made to fall on an uncoated surface they stuck to it and made a messy surface.
However, in the case of a coated sample, water droplets roll away while collecting dust from the surface.
Easy to make
The chemicals used to make the coating are easily available and are also environmentally friendly.
The cost of coating will further reduce when mass-produced on commercial scale.

5. The Biological Diversity Act of 2002 ensures the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic resources; consider the following statement regarding this.
1. Both Indians and foreign entities require the approval of the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) for the use of biological resources and associated knowledge.
2. Biological Diversity Act (BDA) of 2002 excludes Indian biological resources that are normally traded as commodities.
3. Any offence under the Biological Diversity Act of 2002 is cognizable and non-bail able.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2, and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Biological Diversity Act (BDA) of 2002
India enacted Biological Diversity Act in 2002 for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD.
Objective of this act is to regulate the access to genetic resources and protection of biodiversity.
This act provides for establishment of statutory bodies such as National Biodiversity Authority, State Biodiversity Boards, National and State Biodiversity Funds, Biodiversity Management Committee etc.
National Biodiversity Authority
National Biodiversity Office has been established in Chennai as per provisions of the BDA-2002.
Structure of NBA
One chairman, seven Ex-officio members and five non-official members; all to be appointed by central government.
Chairman appointed by Central Government. He / she shall be an eminent person having adequate knowledge and experience in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and in matters relating to equitable sharing of benefits. The chairman can be removed by the Central government.
Seven Ex-officio members are from the following fields:
1. Agricultural Research and Education;
2. Biotechnology;
3. Ocean Development;
4. Agriculture and Cooperation;
5. Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy;
6. Science and Technology;
7. Scientific and Industrial Research;
Five non-official members will also be appointed. These will be persons with good domain knowledge in biodiversity.
Powers and Functions of NBA
All foreign nationals require approval from NBA for obtaining Biological Resources from India.
All Indian individuals/entities are required to seek NBA approval before transferring knowledge / research and material to foreigners.
Prior approval of NBA before applying for any kind of IPR based on research conducted on biological material and or associated knowledge obtained from India.
State Biodiversity Board
The Biodiversity Act 2002 mandates each state to notify its State Biodiversity Board. We note here that there is no provision for a Biodiversity Board for a Union Territory because Union Territories have been placed under National Biodiversity Authority.
Functions of State Biodiversity Board include:
To advise state governments on matters of biodiversity conservation Regulate commercial use of bio-resources in the state by Indians. This has two exceptions: Vaids and Hakims, who are practicing Indian medicinal system.
Local People, who use the bioresources for local use.
National Biodiversity Fund
Whatever money National Biodiversity Authority receives as fees, fines etc. and whatever money it gets as grants etc. is kept in the National Biodiversity Fund. The money from this fund is used to benefit the claimers and promotion of conservation and socio-economic development in source areas.
State Biodiversity Fund
This fund has to be created at state level to credit any grants and loans made to the State Biodiversity Board by the National Biodiversity Authority and money from other sources. The money is used in the management and conservation of heritage sites; compensating or rehabilitating any section of the people economically affected when an area is declared Biodiversity Heritage Sites; and conservation and promotion of biological resources.
Biodiversity Heritage Sites
Under Section 37 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 (BDA) the State Government in consultation with local bodies may notify in the official gazette, areas of biodiversity importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS).
“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, coastal and inland waters and, marine having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components: richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories high endemism presence of rare and threatened species keystone species of evolutionary significance wild ancestors of domestic/cultivated species or their varieties past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values and are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them
Biodiversity Management Committee
Biodiversity Management Committee is constituted by a local body within its area for the purpose of promoting conservation, sustainable use and documentation of biological diversity including preservation of habitats, conservation of land races, folk varieties and cultivars, domesticated stocks and breeds of animals and microorganisms and chronicling of knowledge relating to biological diversity.
The National Biodiversity Authority and the State Biodiversity Boards need to consult the Biodiversity Management Committees while taking any decision relating to the use of biological resources and knowledge within jurisdiction of the Biodiversity Management Committee.
The Biodiversity Management Committees may levy charges by way of collection fees from any person for accessing or collecting any biological resource for commercial purposes from areas falling within its territorial jurisdiction.
People’s Biodiversity Register
One of the most significant provisions in the Biological Diversity Act is that the Biodiversity Management Committees have been mandated to prepare People’s Biodiversity Register in consultation with local people. This register would have comprehensive information on availability and knowledge of local biological resources, their medicinal or any other use or any other traditional knowledge associated with them.
Notes
If a dispute arises between the National Biodiversity Authority and a State Biodiversity Board, the said Authority or the Board, as the case may be, may prefer an appeal to the Central Government within such time as may be prescribed.
National Biodiversity Authority shall have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code.
Violation of this act invites penalties viz. imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees and where the damage caused exceeds tend lakh rupees such fine may commensurate with the damage caused, or with both.
http://nbaindia.org/uploaded/Biodiversityindia/Legal/31.%20Biological%20Diversity%20%20Act,%202002.pdf