Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 11 May 2020

1. Consider the following statements.
1. It is a cost effective, solar energy driven cleanup technique by natural means.
2. It is most effective at sites with shallow, low levels of contamination.
3. It is helpful for treating an extensive variety of environmental contaminants.
4. It is effective with, or in some cases, in place of mechanical cleanup methods
The above information refers for:
a) Phytoremediation
b) Bioventing
c) Bioleaching
d) Bioremediation
1. Answer-a
Explanation
Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation (‘phyto’ means plant) is a generic term for the group of technologies that use plants for remediating soils, sludge’s, sediments and water contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants.
Phytoremediation can be defined as “the efficient use of plants to remove, detoxify or immobilise environmental contaminants in a growth matrix (soil, water or sediments) through the natural biological, chemical or physical activities and processes of the plants”.
Plants are unique organisms equipped with remarkable metabolic and absorption capabilities, as well as transport systems that can take up nutrients or contaminants selectively from the growth matrix, soil or water.
Phytoremediation involves growing plants in a contaminated matrix, for a required growth period, to remove contaminants from the matrix, or facilitate immobilisation (binding/containment) or degradation (detoxification) of the pollutants. The plants can be subsequently harvested, processed and disposed.
Bioleaching
Bioleaching refers to extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.
This is much cleaner than the traditional heap leaching. It is a sub-branch of biohydrometallurgy used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, cobalt etc.
Landfarming
Landfarming is a bioremediation treatment process that is performed in the upper soil zone or in biotreatment cells. Contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges are incorporated into the soil

surface and periodically turned over (tilled) to aerate the mixture. These land farming activities cultivate and enhance microbial degradation of hazardous compounds.
Bioreactor
A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment. It is generally a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from litres to cubic metres, and are often made of stainless steel.
A bioreactor may also refer to a device or system meant to grow cells or tissues in the context of cell culture. These devices are being developed for use in tissue engineering or biochemical engineering.
Bioaugmentation
Bioaugmentation is the process of addition of bacterial cultures required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant.
Usually the steps involve studying the indigenous varieties present in the location to determine if biostimulation is possible. If the indigenous variety do not have the metabolic capability to perform the remediation process, exogenous varieties with such sophisticated pathways are introduced.
Bioaugmentation is commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment to restart activated sludge bioreactors.
Rhizofiltration
It’s a Phytoremediation technique which uses hydroponically cultivated plant roots to remediate contaminated water through absorption, concentration, and precipitation of pollutants. It also filters through water and dirt.
Bioremediation of Oil
Bioremediation uses the microorganisms or biological agents such as oil eating bacteria. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria viz. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Acid-producing bacteria are anaerobic and General aerobic bacteria (GAB). Out of them, Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria are anaerobic, while general aerobic bacteria (GAB) are aerobic.

2. Consider the following initiatives :
1. Heart Attack Rewind
2. Swasth Bharat Yatra
3. Eat Right Movement
4. RUCO (Repurpose Used Cooking Oil)
5. Food Safety Sciences
Which of the above  is/are launched by  FSSAI?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 2 3 and 5 only
(d) All of the above

2. Answer-d
Explanation
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
FSSAI is an autonomous statutory body established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act).
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the administrative Ministry of FSSAI.
Headquarters: Delhi.
Genesis
FSS Act, 2006 consolidates various acts & orders that had earlier handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments, such as–
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
Fruit Products Order, 1955
Meat Food Products Order, 1973
Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947
Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order 1988
Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992
These were repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.
FSSAI was consequently established in 2008 but work within the Food Authority effectively began in 2011 after its Rules and key Regulations were notified.
This marked a shift from a multi-level to a single line of control with focus on self-compliance rather than a pure regulatory regime.
7 Key Processes
Set standards of food products
Develop safe food practices
License food businesses
Ensure compliance through inspections
Test food for standards
Train and build capacity
Citizens Outreach
Functions
Framing of regulations to lay down the standards and guidelines of food safety.
Granting FSSAI food safety license and certification for food businesses.
Laying down procedure and guidelines for laboratories in food businesses.
To provide suggestions to the government in framing the policies.
To collect data regarding contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system.
Creating an information network across the country about food safety.
Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.
FSSAI Legislative Framework:
Highlights of the Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006
The Act aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi-departmental control to a single line of command.
The Act established FSSAI and the State Food Safety Authorities for each State.
Highlights of Food Safety and Standards Rule, 2011. The Rules provides for: The Food Safety Appellate Tribunal and the Registrar of the Appellate Tribunal, for adjudication of food safety cases.
Highlights of Food Safety and Standards Regulations 2011
It covers Licensing and Registration, Packaging and Labelling of Food Businesses, Food Product Standards and Food Additives Regulation.
It prohibits and restricts on sales or approval for Non-Specified Food and Food Ingredients, such ingredients may cause harm to human health.
It provides for Food Safety and Standards on Organic Food and regulates Food Advertising.
FSSAI Structure
The FSSAI comprises of a Chairperson and twenty two members out of which one – third are to be women.
The Chairperson of FSSAI is appointed by the Central Government.
The Food Authority is assisted by Scientific Committees and Panels in setting standards and the Central Advisory Committee in coordinating with enforcement agencies.
The primary responsibility for enforcement is largely with the State Food Safety Commissioners.
FSSAI Initiatives
Heart Attack Rewind – It is the first mass media campaign of FSSAI. It is aimed to support FSSAI’s target of eliminating Trans fat in India by the year 2022.
FSSAI-CHIFSS – It is collaboration between FSSAI and CII-HUL Initiative on Food Safety Sciences to promote collaborations between Industry, Scientific Community, and Academia for food safety.
Swasth Bharat Yatra – It is a Pan-India cycle movement called as ‘Eat Right India’ aimed to create consumer awareness about eating safe and nutritious food.
Eat Right Movement
RUCO (Repurpose Used Cooking Oil)

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Suspension of Members of the Parliament.
1. The Speaker of LokSabha is empowered to force a Member to withdraw from the House or to place him/her under suspension.
2. The authority for revocation of suspension order is not vested in the Speaker of LokSabha.
3. Unlike the Speaker, the RajyaSabha Chairman does not have the power to suspend a Member.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
3. Answer-d
Explanation
Seven Congress members were recently suspended for unruly behaviour in the LokSabha.
The motion was passed by a voice vote.
Procedure for Suspension of Members of the Parliament
The general principle is that it is the role and duty of the Speaker of LokSabha to maintain order so that the House can function smoothly.
In order to ensure that proceedings are conducted in the proper manner, the Speaker is empowered to force a Member to withdraw from the House (for the remaining part of the day), or to place him/her under suspension.
Rule 373 – Speaker’s power to direct a Member to withdraw immediately from the House.
Rule 374 – To deal with more recalcitrant Members
Under this rule, Speaker may suspend a member through moving and adopting a motion for suspension.
Rule 374A – This clause was incorporated to skirt around the necessity of moving and adopting a motion for suspension.
Under this rule, Member shall, on being named by the Speaker, stand automatically suspended from the service of the House for five consecutive sittings or the remainder of the session, whichever is less.
Procedure for revocation of a Member’s suspension
While the Speaker is empowered to place a Member under suspension, the authority for revocation of this order is not vested in him/her.
It is for the House, if it so desires, to resolve on a motion to revoke the suspension.
In RajyaSabha
Unlike the Speaker, the RajyaSabha Chairman does not have the power to suspend a Member.
Suspension will only happen through moving and adoption of a motion.

4. Consider the following statements regarding Parliamentary privileges.
1. These are defined in Article 105 of the Indian Constitution and those of State legislatures in Article 194.
2. The Parliament has been given punitive powers to punish those who are adjudged guilty of contempt of the House.
3. It is understood that no member shall be arrested in a civil case 60 days before and after the adjournment of the Houses and also when the House is in session.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
4. Answer-b
Explanation-
Parliamentary Privileges
Parliamentary privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”.
Parliamentary privileges are defined in Article 105 of the Indian Constitution and those of State legislatures in Article 194.
When any of these rights and immunities is disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under law of Parliament. Besides, Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the LokSabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the RajyaSabha rulebook govern privilege.
Privileges of Parliamentarians:
Freedom of Speech: According to the Indian Constitution, the members of Parliament enjoy freedom of speech and expression. No member can be taken to task anywhere outside the four walls of the House (e.g. court of law) or cannot be discriminated against for expressing his/her views in the House and its Committees.
Freedom from Arrest: It is understood that no member shall be arrested in a civil case 40 days before and after the adjournment of the House (LokSabha or RajyaSabha) and also when the House is in session. It also means that no member can be arrested within the precincts of the Parliament without the permission of the House to which he/she belongs.
Exemption from attendance as witnesses: The members of Parliament also enjoy freedom from attendance as witnesses.
Privileges of Parliament:
Right to publish debates and proceedings:
Though by convention, the Parliament does not prohibit the press to publish its proceedings, yet technically the House has every such right to forbid such publication.
Again, while a member has the privilege of freedom of speech in Parliament, he has no right to publish it outside Parliament.
Anyone violating this rule can be held responsible for any libellous matter it may contain under the common law rules.
Right to exclude strangers:
Each house of Parliament enjoys the right to exclude strangers (no-members or visitors) from the galleries at any time and to resolve to debate with closed doors.
Right to punish members and outsiders for breach of its privileges:
In India, the Parliament has been given punitive powers to punish those who are adjudged guilty of contempt of the House.
Such contempt can be committed by the members of any House or any outsider. When a member of the House is involved for parliamentary misbehaviour or commits contempt he can be expelled from the House.
Right to regulate the internal affairs of the House:
The House has the right to regulate its internal affairs. A member of the House is free to say whatever he likes subject only to the internal discipline of the House or the Committee concerned.
What is the privileges committee?

In the LokSabha, the Speaker nominates a committee of privileges consisting of 15 members as per respective party strengths. A report is then presented to the House for its consideration. The Speaker may permit a half-hour debate while considering the report. The Speaker may then pass final orders or direct that the report be tabled before the House.
A resolution may then be moved relating to the breach of privilege that has to be unanimously passed. In the RajyaSabha, the deputy chairperson heads the committee of privileges that consists of 10 members.

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Nari Shakti Puraskar.
1. It is the highest civilian honour among awards given exclusively for women in India.
2. Ministry of Women and Child Development confers this award annually.
3. Bhageerathi Amma of Kollam and Karthyayani Amma of Alappuzha have been selected for the Nari Shakti Puraskar for the year 2019.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
5. Answer-d
Explanation-
Nari Shakti Puraskar
Two women from Kerala — 105 year old Bhageerathi Amma of Kollam and her fellow equivalency learner 98 year old Karthyayani Amma of Alappuzha — have been selected for the Nari Shakti Puraskar, a national award to recognise exceptional work for women empowerment, for the year 2019.
Technically Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award.
Nari Shakti Puraskar is the highest civilian honour among awards given exclusively for women in India.
To acknowledge women’s achievements, the Ministry of Women and Child Development confers Nari Shakti Puraskar on women and institutions in recognition of their relentless service towards the cause of women empowerment and social welfare.