Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 12 June 2020

1. Consider the following statements about the Biodiversity hotspots.
1. Biodiversity hotspots can be defined as the regions which are known for their high species richness, endemism and intensity of threat.
2.Hot spot & Hope Spots are identified by Conservation international and UNEP
3. India is recognized as one of the mega-diverse countries, rich in biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-

HOPE SPOT by Mission Blue
Biodiversity Hotspots in India
Biodiversity is referred to as the variation of plant and animal species in a particular habitat.
Species evenness and species richness form the major components of biodiversity.
India is known for its rich biodiversity and has 23.5% of the geographical area covered by forests and trees.
Coined by Norman Myers, the term “Biodiversity hotspots” can be defined as the regions which are known for their high species richness and endemism.
What are the criteria for determining hotspots?
According to Conservation International, a region must fulfil the following two criteria to qualify as a hotspot:
1. The region should have at least 1500 species of vascular plants i.e., it should have a high degree of endemism.
2. It should contain 70% of its original habitat.
Following the criteria must for an area to be declared as Biodiversity Hotspot, there are major four biodiversity hotspots in India:
1. The Himalayas
2. Indo-Burma Region
3. The Western Ghats
4. Sundaland

The Himalayas
Considered as the highest in the world, the Himalayas comprises of North-East India, Bhutan, Central and Eastern parts of Nepal. This region holds a record of having 163 endangered species which includes the Wild Asian Water Buffalo, One-horned Rhino and as many as 10,000 plant species, of which 3160 are endemic. This mountain range covers nearly 750,000 km2.
Indo – Burma Region
The Indo-Burma Region is stretched over a distance of 2,373,000 km². In the last 12 years, 6 large mammal species have been discovered in this region: the Large-antlered Muntjac, the Annamite Muntjac, the Grey-shanked Douc, the Annamite Striped Rabbit, the Leaf Deer and the Saola.
This hotspot is also known for the endemic freshwater turtle species, most of which are threatened with extinction, due to over-harvesting and extensive habitat loss. There are also 1,300 different bird species, including the threatened White-eared Night-heron, the Grey-crowned Crocias, and the Orange-necked Partridge.
The Western Ghats
The Western Ghats are present along the western edge of peninsular India and covers most of the deciduous forests and rain forests. This region consists of 6000 plant species of which 3000 are endemic. Originally, the vegetation in this region was spread over 190,000 km2 but has been now reduced to 43,000 km2. The region is also known for 450 species of birds, 140 mammals, 260 reptiles and 175 amphibians.
Sundaland
The Sundaland hotspot lies in South-East Asia and covers Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia. In the year 2013, the Sundaland was declared as a World Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations. This region is famous for its rich terrestrial and marine ecosystem. Sundaland is one of the biologically richest hotspots in the world which comprises of 25,000 species of vascular plants, of which 15,000 are found only in this region.
http://bsienvis.nic.in/files/Biodiversity%20Hotspots%20in%20India.pdf

2. Which of the following Conservation site and their state of location are correctly matched?
Conservation site State of location
1. Kali Tiger Reserve Karnataka
2. Bedthi Conservation Reserve Assam
3. Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh
Which of the above given pair(s) is/are correctly matched?
(a) 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Kali Tiger Reserve
Kali Tiger Reserve is located in the central portion of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state.
The Tiger Reserve comprises two important protected areas of the region viz., Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and Anshi National Park.
These two protected areas are contiguous to each other and form a single tract of protected area located in the biologically sensitive Western Ghats.
Forests of the Tiger Reserve are primarily moist deciduous and semi-evergreen, with excellent patches of evergreen forests in the western most parts as well as in deep valleys.
Animals found in the Tiger Reserve include Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Bison, Wild dog, Sambar, Spotted deer, Sloth bear, Wild boar, Hanuman langur, Bonnet macaque, varieties of reptiles and birds, etc.
Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR)
PTR lies in the foothills of the Eastern Himalaya in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh.
It is part of the EASTERN HIMALAYAN Biodiversity hotspot.
It home to over 2000 plant species, 300 bird species, 40 mammal species, 30 amphibian species and 36 reptile species.
It is also known for its amazing sightings of 4 resident hornbill species.
Conservation site State of location
Kali Tiger Reserve Karnataka
Bedthi Conservation Reserve Karnataka
Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh

3. Consider the following statements about the Guillotine.
1. It refers to the exercise vide which the Speaker of the House, on the very last day of the period allotted for discussions on the Demands for Grants, puts to vote all outstanding Demands for Grants at a time specified in advance.
2. All outstanding demands for Grants must be voted by the House without discussions once the guillotine is invoked.
3. Invoking the guillotine ensures timely passage of the Finance Bill and the conclusion of debates and discussions on the year’s Budget.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
What is the guillotine?
Parliament, unfortunately, has very limited time for scrutinizing the expenditure demands of all the ministries. In the schedule drawn up by the BAC, there is a fixed period of discussion for each ministry.
Often the time allotted for these ministries is taken up by other pressing political issues of the day that dominate the Budget session. So, once the prescribed period for the discussion on demands for grants is over, the speaker applies the `guillotine’, and all the outstanding demands for grants, whether discussed or not, are put to vote at once.
What happens after the guillotine is applied?
The government formally introduces the Appropriation Bill. This is to authorise the government to draw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India. Once this Bill is passed, it becomes the Appropriation Act. It is after the voting on the Appropriation Bill that the Finance Bill is taken up for consideration.
Discussion on the clauses of the Finance Bill and on the amendments thereto is confined to the tax proposals. After the passing of this Bill, it enters the statute as the Finance Act. Thus the final Budget gets approved. If voting on these bills goes against the government, it is treated as a vote of no confidence against the government. Thus, a government can even fall if a money bill gets voted out. These fears get heightened in coalition politics.
Each year, after the Budget is presented in the floor of the LokSabha by the Finance Minister, the House has the opportunity to discuss the financial proposals contained in it. The process of deliberations on the Budget sets off with a general discussion followed by the Vote on Account, debating and voting on the Demands for Grants and finally, consideration and passing of the Appropriation and Finance Bills.
Guillotine refers to the exercise vide which the Speaker of the House, on the very last day of the period allotted for discussions on the Demands for Grants, puts to vote all outstanding Demands for Grants at a time specified in advance. The aim of the exercise is to conclude discussions on financial proposals within the time specified.
All outstanding Demands for Grants must be voted by the House without discussions once the guillotine is invoked.
Once the pre-specified time for invoking the guillotine is reached, the member who is in possession of the house at that point in time, is requested by the Speaker to resume his or her seat following which Demands for Grants under discussion are immediately put to vote. Thereafter, all outstanding Demands are guillotined.
Invoking the guillotine ensures timely passage of the Finance Bill and the conclusion of debates and discussions on the year’s Budget.
http://www.arthapedia.in/index.php?title=Guillotine

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Short-selling of shares.
1. Short selling has a high risk/reward ratio and it can offer big profits, but losses can mount quickly and infinitely.
2. An individual selling a stock without owning the share is termed as short selling.
3. Short selling occurs when an investor borrows a security and sells it on the open market, planning to buy it back later for less money.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Short-selling of shares
What is short-selling?
Short-selling, in the context of the stock market, is the practice where an investor sells shares that he does not own at the time of selling them. He sells them in the hope that the price of those shares will decline, and he will profit by buying back those shares at a lower price. In India, there is no prohibition on short-selling by retail investors.
Institutional investors —domestic mutual funds and foreign institutional investors registered with the Securities and
Exchange Board of India (Sebi), banks and insurance companies — are prohibited from short-selling and are mandatorily required to settle on the basis of deliveries of securities owned and held by them.
How is short-selling beneficial?
Short-selling is considered an essential feature of the securities market not just for providing liquidity, but also for helping price corrections in overvalued stocks. Supporters of short-selling claim its absence distort efficient price discovery, gives promoters the unfettered freedom to manipulate prices and favours manipulators than rational investors. Securities market regulators in most countries, and in particular, all developed securities markets, recognise short-selling as a legitimate investment activity. The International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) has also reviewed short-selling and securities lending practices across markets and has recommended transparency of short-selling, rather than prohibit it.
Are there any drawbacks of short-selling?
Critics of short-selling feel selling, directly or indirectly, pose potential risks and can easily destabilise the market.
They believe that short-selling can exacerbate declining trend in share prices, increase share price volatility, and force the price of individual stocks down to levels that might not otherwise be reached. They also argue that declining trend in the share prices of a company can even impact its fund raising capability and undermine the commercial confidence of the company. In a bear market in particular, short-selling can contribute to disorderly trading, give rise to heightened short-term price volatility and could be used in manipulative trading strategies.
Will institutional investors in India be allowed to short-sell securities?
SEBI is working on a proposal to introduce a stock borrowing and lending mechanism. This will allow institutional investors to short-sell by borrowing shares. Under this arrangement, an investor A, who feels that a certain stock is overpriced, borrows those shares for a charge from investor B, who is willing to lend those shares. Investor A then sells those shares in the market, hoping that the price declines so that he can buy cheap and return them to investor B.
What is the difference between covered short sales and naked short sales?
Covered short sales are those in which the seller arranges for the delivery of shares he has sold by borrowing them.
Naked short sales are those in which the seller does not intend to provide for the delivery of shares he has sold. Most international securities market regulators have prohibited naked short-selling and require the client to have documentary evidence of borrowing/tie-up with lenders before executing the sale transaction. This is because naked short sales in huge quantities can destabilise the market.
How does the stock lending and borrowing mechanism function in other markets?
World over, securities lending and borrowing transactions are, by and large, over-the-counter (OTC) contractual obligations executed between lenders and borrowers. International securities market regulators do not directly regulate the lending and borrowing transactions. In many international markets, entities like custodians and depositories run the lending and borrowing scheme and have their own screens for meeting the demand and supply of securities from their clients.
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/whats-short-selling-of-shares/articleshow/2363715.cms?from=mdr

5 Consider the following statements regarding the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
1. The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
2. It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the NSG
3. It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing to international peace and security and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
It is widely known as the world’s “Atoms for Peace and Development” organization within the United Nations family, the IAEA is the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear field.
The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.
It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the UN General Assembly. When necessary, the IAEA also reports to the UN Security Council in regards to instances of members’ non-compliance with safeguards and security obligations.
The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
The Agency’s genesis was U.S. President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the General Assembly of the United Nations on 8 December 1953.
The U.S. Ratification of the Statute by President Eisenhower, 29 July 1957, marks the official birth of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
“In fact, we did no more than crystallize a hope that was developing in many minds in many places … the splitting of the atom may lead to the unifying of the entire divided world.”
The IAEA is strongly linked to nuclear technology and its controversial applications, either as a weapon or as a practical and useful tool.
The Agency was set up as the world’s “Atoms for Peace” organization within the United Nations family.
From the beginning, it was given the mandate to work with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.
The objectives of the IAEA’s dual mission – to promote and control the Atom – are defined in Article II of the IAEA Statute.
The Agency shall seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose.”
In October 1957, the delegates to the First General Conference decided to establish the IAEA’s headquarters in Vienna, Austria.
The IAEA has also two regional offices located in Toronto, Canada (since 1979) and Tokyo, Japan (since 1984), as well as two liaison offices in New York City, United States of America (since 1957) and Geneva, Switzerland (since 1965).
The Agency runs laboratories specialized in nuclear technology in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria, opened in 1961, and, since 1961, in Monaco.
The Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations. It came into force on 29 July 1957.
The International Atomic Energy Agency is the world’s central intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the nuclear field. It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing to international peace and security and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
The IAEA’s policy-making bodies decide on the Agency’s programmes and budgets. They comprise the General Conference of all Member States and the 35-member Board of Governors. The General Conference convenes annually at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, typically in September. The Board meets five times per year, also in Vienna.
https://www.iaea.org/about

6. Consider the following statements about the Biodiversity hotspots.
1. Biodiversity hotspots can be defined as the regions which are known for their high species richness, endemism and intensity of threat.
2. The Conservation International has been described the criteria for a region to qualify as a hotspot.
3. India is recognized as one of the mega-diverse countries, rich in biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Biodiversity Hotspots in India
Biodiversity is referred to as the variation of plant and animal species in a particular habitat.
Species evenness and species richness form the major components of biodiversity.
India is known for its rich biodiversity and has 23.5% of the geographical area covered by forests and trees.
Coined by Norman Myers, the term “Biodiversity hotspots” can be defined as the regions which are known for their high species richness and endemism.
What are the criteria for determining hotspots?
According to Conservation International, a region must fulfil the following two criteria to qualify as a hotspot:
1. The region should have at least 1500 species of vascular plants i.e., it should have a high degree of endemism.
2. It should contain 70% of its original habitat.
Following the criteria must for an area to be declared as Biodiversity Hotspot, there are major four biodiversity hotspots in India:
1. The Himalayas
2. Indo-Burma Region
3. The Western Ghats
4. Sundaland

The Himalayas
Considered as the highest in the world, the Himalayas comprises of North-East India, Bhutan, Central and Eastern parts of Nepal. This region holds a record of having 163 endangered species which includes the Wild Asian Water Buffalo, One-horned Rhino and as many as 10,000 plant species, of which 3160 are endemic. This mountain range covers nearly 750,000 km2.
Indo – Burma Region
The Indo-Burma Region is stretched over a distance of 2,373,000 km². In the last 12 years, 6 large mammal species have been discovered in this region: the Large-antlered Muntjac, the Annamite Muntjac, the Grey-shanked Douc, the Annamite Striped Rabbit, the Leaf Deer and the Saola.
This hotspot is also known for the endemic freshwater turtle species, most of which are threatened with extinction, due to over-harvesting and extensive habitat loss. There are also 1,300 different bird species, including the threatened White-eared Night-heron, the Grey-crowned Crocias, and the Orange-necked Partridge.
The Western Ghats
The Western Ghats are present along the western edge of peninsular India and covers most of the deciduous forests and rain forests. This region consists of 6000 plant species of which 3000 are endemic. Originally, the vegetation in this region was spread over 190,000 km2 but has been now reduced to 43,000 km2. The region is also known for 450 species of birds, 140 mammals, 260 reptiles and 175 amphibians.
Sundaland
The Sundaland hotspot lies in South-East Asia and covers Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia. In the year 2013, the Sundaland was declared as a World Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations. This region is famous for its rich terrestrial and marine ecosystem. Sundaland is one of the biologically richest hotspots in the world which comprises of 25,000 species of vascular plants, of which 15,000 are found only in this region.
http://bsienvis.nic.in/files/Biodiversity%20Hotspots%20in%20India.pdf

7. Which of the following Conservation site and their state of location are correctly matched?
Conservation site State of location
1. Kali Tiger Reserve Karnataka
2. Bedthi Conservation Reserve Assam
3. Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh
Which of the above given pair(s) is/are correctly matched?
(a) 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Kali Tiger Reserve
Kali Tiger Reserve is located in the central portion of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state.
The Tiger Reserve comprises two important protected areas of the region viz., Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and Anshi National Park.
These two protected areas are contiguous to each other and form a single tract of protected area located in the biologically sensitive Western Ghats.
Forests of the Tiger Reserve are primarily moist deciduous and semi-evergreen, with excellent patches of evergreen forests in the western most parts as well as in deep valleys.
Animals found in the Tiger Reserve include Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Bison, Wild dog, Sambar, Spotted deer, Sloth bear, Wild boar, Hanuman langur, Bonnet macaque, varieties of reptiles and birds, etc.
Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR)
PTR lies in the foothills of the Eastern Himalaya in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh.
It is part of the EASTERN HIMALAYAN Biodiversity hotspot.
It home to over 2000 plant species, 300 bird species, 40 mammal species, 30 amphibian species and 36 reptile species.
It is also known for its amazing sightings of 4 resident hornbill species.
Conservation site State of location
Kali Tiger Reserve Karnataka
Bedthi Conservation Reserve Karnataka
Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh

8. Consider the following statements about the Guillotine.
1. It refers to the exercise vide which the Speaker of the House, on the very last day of the period allotted for discussions on the Demands for Grants, puts to vote all outstanding Demands for Grants at a time specified in advance.
2. All outstanding demands for Grants must be voted by the House without discussions once the guillotine is invoked.
3. Invoking the guillotine ensures timely passage of the Finance Bill and the conclusion of debates and discussions on the year’s Budget.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
What is the guillotine?
Parliament, unfortunately, has very limited time for scrutinizing the expenditure demands of all the ministries. In the schedule drawn up by the BAC, there is a fixed period of discussion for each ministry.
Often the time allotted for these ministries is taken up by other pressing political issues of the day that dominate the Budget session. So, once the prescribed period for the discussion on demands for grants is over, the speaker applies the `guillotine’, and all the outstanding demands for grants, whether discussed or not, are put to vote at once.
What happens after the guillotine is applied?
The government formally introduces the Appropriation Bill. This is to authorise the government to draw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India. Once this Bill is passed, it becomes the Appropriation Act. It is after the voting on the Appropriation Bill that the Finance Bill is taken up for consideration.
Discussion on the clauses of the Finance Bill and on the amendments thereto is confined to the tax proposals. After the passing of this Bill, it enters the statute as the Finance Act. Thus the final Budget gets approved. If voting on these bills goes against the government, it is treated as a vote of no confidence against the government. Thus, a government can even fall if a money bill gets voted out. These fears get heightened in coalition politics.
Each year, after the Budget is presented in the floor of the LokSabha by the Finance Minister, the House has the opportunity to discuss the financial proposals contained in it. The process of deliberations on the Budget sets off with a general discussion followed by the Vote on Account, debating and voting on the Demands for Grants and finally, consideration and passing of the Appropriation and Finance Bills.
Guillotine refers to the exercise vide which the Speaker of the House, on the very last day of the period allotted for discussions on the Demands for Grants, puts to vote all outstanding Demands for Grants at a time specified in advance. The aim of the exercise is to conclude discussions on financial proposals within the time specified.
All outstanding Demands for Grants must be voted by the House without discussions once the guillotine is invoked.
Once the pre-specified time for invoking the guillotine is reached, the member who is in possession of the house at that point in time, is requested by the Speaker to resume his or her seat following which Demands for Grants under discussion are immediately put to vote. Thereafter, all outstanding Demands are guillotined.
Invoking the guillotine ensures timely passage of the Finance Bill and the conclusion of debates and discussions on the year’s Budget.
http://www.arthapedia.in/index.php?title=Guillotine

9. Consider the following statements regarding the Short-selling of shares.
1. Short selling has a high risk/reward ratio and it can offer big profits, but losses can mount quickly and infinitely.
2. An individual selling a stock without owning the share is termed as short selling.
3. Short selling occurs when an investor borrows a security and sells it on the open market, planning to buy it back later for less money.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Short-selling of shares
What is short-selling?
Short-selling, in the context of the stock market, is the practice where an investor sells shares that he does not own at the time of selling them. He sells them in the hope that the price of those shares will decline, and he will profit by buying back those shares at a lower price. In India, there is no prohibition on short-selling by retail investors.
Institutional investors —domestic mutual funds and foreign institutional investors registered with the Securities and
Exchange Board of India (Sebi), banks and insurance companies — are prohibited from short-selling and are mandatorily required to settle on the basis of deliveries of securities owned and held by them.
How is short-selling beneficial?
Short-selling is considered an essential feature of the securities market not just for providing liquidity, but also for helping price corrections in overvalued stocks. Supporters of short-selling claim its absence distort efficient price discovery, gives promoters the unfettered freedom to manipulate prices and favours manipulators than rational investors. Securities market regulators in most countries, and in particular, all developed securities markets, recognise short-selling as a legitimate investment activity. The International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) has also reviewed short-selling and securities lending practices across markets and has recommended transparency of short-selling, rather than prohibit it.
Are there any drawbacks of short-selling?
Critics of short-selling feel selling, directly or indirectly, pose potential risks and can easily destabilise the market.
They believe that short-selling can exacerbate declining trend in share prices, increase share price volatility, and force the price of individual stocks down to levels that might not otherwise be reached. They also argue that declining trend in the share prices of a company can even impact its fund raising capability and undermine the commercial confidence of the company. In a bear market in particular, short-selling can contribute to disorderly trading, give rise to heightened short-term price volatility and could be used in manipulative trading strategies.
Will institutional investors in India be allowed to short-sell securities?
SEBI is working on a proposal to introduce a stock borrowing and lending mechanism. This will allow institutional investors to short-sell by borrowing shares. Under this arrangement, an investor A, who feels that a certain stock is overpriced, borrows those shares for a charge from investor B, who is willing to lend those shares. Investor A then sells those shares in the market, hoping that the price declines so that he can buy cheap and return them to investor B.
What is the difference between covered short sales and naked short sales?
Covered short sales are those in which the seller arranges for the delivery of shares he has sold by borrowing them.
Naked short sales are those in which the seller does not intend to provide for the delivery of shares he has sold. Most international securities market regulators have prohibited naked short-selling and require the client to have documentary evidence of borrowing/tie-up with lenders before executing the sale transaction. This is because naked short sales in huge quantities can destabilise the market.
How does the stock lending and borrowing mechanism function in other markets?
World over, securities lending and borrowing transactions are, by and large, over-the-counter (OTC) contractual obligations executed between lenders and borrowers. International securities market regulators do not directly regulate the lending and borrowing transactions. In many international markets, entities like custodians and depositories run the lending and borrowing scheme and have their own screens for meeting the demand and supply of securities from their clients.
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/whats-short-selling-of-shares/articleshow/2363715.cms?from=mdr

10. Consider the following statements regarding the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
1. The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
2. It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the UN General Assembly.
3. It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing to international peace and security and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
It is widely known as the world’s “Atoms for Peace and Development” organization within the United Nations family, the IAEA is the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear field.
The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.
It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the UN General Assembly. When necessary, the IAEA also reports to the UN Security Council in regards to instances of members’ non-compliance with safeguards and security obligations.
The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
The Agency’s genesis was U.S. President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the General Assembly of the United Nations on 8 December 1953.
The U.S. Ratification of the Statute by President Eisenhower, 29 July 1957, marks the official birth of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
“In fact, we did no more than crystallize a hope that was developing in many minds in many places … the splitting of the atom may lead to the unifying of the entire divided world.”
The IAEA is strongly linked to nuclear technology and its controversial applications, either as a weapon or as a practical and useful tool.
The Agency was set up as the world’s “Atoms for Peace” organization within the United Nations family.
From the beginning, it was given the mandate to work with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.
The objectives of the IAEA’s dual mission – to promote and control the Atom – are defined in Article II of the IAEA Statute.
The Agency shall seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose.”
In October 1957, the delegates to the First General Conference decided to establish the IAEA’s headquarters in Vienna, Austria.
The IAEA has also two regional offices located in Toronto, Canada (since 1979) and Tokyo, Japan (since 1984), as well as two liaison offices in New York City, United States of America (since 1957) and Geneva, Switzerland (since 1965).
The Agency runs laboratories specialized in nuclear technology in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria, opened in 1961, and, since 1961, in Monaco.
The Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations. It came into force on 29 July 1957.
The International Atomic Energy Agency is the world’s central intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the nuclear field. It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing to international peace and security and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
The IAEA’s policy-making bodies decide on the Agency’s programmes and budgets. They comprise the General Conference of all Member States and the 35-member Board of Governors. The General Conference convenes annually at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, typically in September. The Board meets five times per year, also in Vienna.
https://www.iaea.org/about