Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 12 May 2020

1. Consider the following statements about H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu).
1. The influenza viruses are classified into types A, B and C on the basis of their core proteins in which only Type-A cause human disease of any concern.
2. H1N1 virus is known as “swine flu virus” because it was known in the past to occur in people who had been in the vicinity of pigs.
3. Swine flu is a communicable viral respiratory disease caused by a new strain of influenza virus.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
1. Answer-a
Explanation-
H1N1 virus is known as “swine flu virus” because it was known in the past to occur in people who had been in the vicinity of pigs.
Swine flu is contagious. Influenza viruses infect the cells lining your nose, throat and lungs. It spreads in the same way as the seasonal flu. The virus spreads when you touch an infected surface or breathe cough and sneeze droplets in the air.
Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by a new strain of influenza virus.
The influenza viruses are classified into types A, B and C on the basis of their core proteins. Only types A and B cause human disease of any concern.
Humans are generally infected by viruses of the subtypes H1, H2 or H3, and N1 or N2.
Influenza complications include:
1. Worsening of chronic conditions, such as heart disease and asthma.
2. Pneumonia.
3. Neurological signs and symptoms, ranging from confusion to seizures.
4. Respiratory failure.

From 2009 till 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic.
What is the issue with government’s action?
It has issued a guidance “recommending” vaccines for health-care workers, and deeming them “desirable” for those above 65 years of age and children between six months and eight years. Surprisingly, people with pre-existing chronic diseases, who are most susceptible to H1N1 complications according to the WHO, have been ignored.
What measures are needed?
With H1N1 becoming a seasonal flu virus strain in India even during summer, it is advisable that health-care workers and others at risk get themselves vaccinated.
Despite the sharp increase in cases and deaths, the vaccine uptake has been low.
Besides vaccination, there needs to be greater awareness so that people adopt precautionary measures such as frequent hand washing, and cough etiquette.
Vaccines have been developed to protect against the virus that causes swine flu. There are two different brands of vaccine – Pandemrix and Celvapan. Many people given the Pandemrix vaccine will only need one dose. People who have the Celvapan vaccine will need two doses three weeks apart.

2. Consider the following statements with respect to the National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB).
1. NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
2. It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force and National Police Commission by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Statistical Branch of BPR&D, Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2.Answer-c
Explanation-
National Crime Record Bureau
NCRB, headquartered in New Delhi, was set-up in 1986 under the Ministry of Home Affairs to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
It was set up based on the recommendations of the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task Force (1985).
NCRB brings out the annual comprehensive statistics of crime across the country (‘Crime in India’ report).
Being published since 1953, the report serves as a crucial tool in understanding the law and order situation across the country.
NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators based on the recommendations of the Tandon Committee to the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task force (1985).
Subsequently, NCRB was entrusted with the responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project in the year 2009.
The project connects 15000+ police stations and 6000 higher offices of police in the country.
On 21st August 2017, NCRB launched National Digital Police Portal. It allows search for a criminal / suspect on the CCTNS database apart from providing various services to citizens like filing of complaints online and seeking antecedent verification of tenants, domestic helps, drivers etc.
Citizen Services Mobile App consisting of the 9 services was launched by the Bureau during its 33rd Inception Day celebrations on 11th March 2018. These services include SoS, Complaint Registration, Locate PS, View FIR, Citizen Tip, etc.
The Bureau has also been entrusted to maintain National Database of Sexual Offenders (NDSO) and share it with the States/UTs on regular basis. NCRB has also been designated as the Central Nodal Agency to manage technical and operational functions of the ‘Online Cyber-Crime Reporting Portal’ through which any citizen can lodge a complaint or upload a video clip as an evidence of crime related to child pornography, rape/gang rape.
NCRB also deals with associated work of Cyber Crime Prevention against Women & Children (CCPWC) through this portal.
NCRB also compiles and publishes National Crime Statistics i.e. Crime in India, Accidental Deaths & Suicides and also Prison Statistics. These publications serve as principal reference point by policy makers, police, criminologists, researchers and media, both in India and abroad. NCRB has been conferred with Silver award during Digital India Awards 2016 under Open Data Championship category from the Government of India for uploading Crime Statistics since 1953 on Govt. Portal.
NCRB has also floated various IT based Public Services like Vahan Samanvay (online matching for Stolen/Recovered vehicles) and Talash (matching of missing persons and dead bodies). The Bureau received the Special Jury Award for ‘Vahan Samanvay’ in FICCI Smart Policing Award 2018. In addition, NCRB also maintains Counterfeit Currency Information and Management System (FICN) and Integrated Monitoring on Terrorism (iMoT) applications.
The Central Finger Print Bureau under NCRB is a national repository of all fingerprints in the country and has more than one million ten-digit finger prints database of criminals both convicted and arrested and provides for search facility on Fingerprint Analysis and Criminal Tracing System (FACTS). Through the proposed NAFIS System in near future, all States will be able to upload and search finger prints directly online to NCRB. CFPB publishes ‘Finger Prints in India’ annually and organizes the annual conference of Directors of Finger Print Bureaux of all the states.
NCRB also assists various States in capacity building in the area of Information Technology, CCTNS, Finger Prints, Network security and Digital Forensics through its training centers in Delhi, Kolkata and four Regional Police Computer Training Centres (RPCTC) at Hyderabad, Gandhi Nagar, Lucknow and Kolkata.
The Bureau has moved into its new office complex at Mahipalpur, which was inaugurated by the Hon’ble Union Home Minister Shri Rajnath Singh on 8th September 2017.
Future road-map and action plan include:
CCTNS Phase II:
1. Linkages of Specialized Solutions like National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS) and Advanced Facial Recognition System (AFRS) in CCTNS. Integration of CCTNS with other central databases, viz Vaahan & Saarthi of MoRTH, Arms Licenses of MHA, Passport of MEA, IVFRT of GoI, MHA and TrackChild of MWCD.
2. Hardware Infrastructure upgrade for all PSs, HOs, NDC, SDCs, and DRCs.
3. Connecting all FIR Registering Units presently not covered under CCTNS project like Excise, Forest, Transport, CBI, NCB, ED, NIA, RPF etc.
4. Robust Network Connectivity for Police Stations through BharatNet / NOFN or other service providers
5. Application upgrade of CCTNS. Faster search and user friendly interface
CMAC: Creation of Crime – Multi Agency Centre (C-MAC) as per the recommendation of DGPs/IGPs Conference 2018, which may include sharing of information on Crime / Criminal Intelligence – Modus Operandi, sending alerts on Inter-State Criminals / Gangs to States/UTs, etc.
1. Crime Data Analytics: For strategic planning & predictive policing
2. Legal amendments like Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, for empowering investigating officers across the country to take advance biometrics from Arrested/Convicted persons.

3. Consider the following statements about Lala Lajpat Rai.
1. The Servants of the People Society (SOPS), a civil society organisation started by Lala Lajpat Rai in the 1920s
2. He was elected President of the Indian National Congress during its Special Session in Kolkata in 1920, which saw the launch of Non-cooperation Movement.
3. He was the editor of the Arya Gazette, which he had founded.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3.Answer-d
Explanation-
Lala Lajpat Rai
His contributions, achievements and related key facts:
Rai is remembered for his role during the Swadeshi movement and for his advocacy of education.
Born in 1965, he became a follower of Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj, and went on to become one of the society’s leaders.
In 1881, he joined the Indian National Congress at the age of 16.
He also helped found the Punjab National Bank.
In 1885, Rai established the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School in Lahore and remained a committed educationist throughout his life.
Rai, Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal (called Lal-Bal-Pal) fervently advocated the use of Swadeshi goods and mass agitation in the aftermath of the controversial Partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon.
He founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York City in 1917.
He was elected President of the Indian National Congress during its Special Session in Kolkata in 1920, which saw the launch of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement.
The patriot died at Lahore in 1928 after he was attacked by police during a protest rally against the Simon Commission.
His important works include: ‘The Arya Samaj’, ‘Young India’, ‘England’s Debt to India’, ‘Evolution of Japan’, ‘India’s Will to Freedom’, ‘Message of the Bhagwad Gita’, ‘Political Future of India’, ‘Problem of National Education in India’, ‘The Depressed Glasses’, and the travelogue ‘United States of America’.
The significance of his views for the freedom struggle are as follows:
His views helped recognize the importance of a united front against British.
The British efforts to divide India on communal lines as seen in the Acts of 1909 and 1919 were made clear to Indian leadership.
His thoughts of cultural diversity were given post independence by Nehru as ‘Unity in Diversity’.
His idea of people of all religions as true citizens of India combined with Gandhiji’s ideas of inclusive fight against British led to Non- Cooperative movement linked with the Khilafat movement.
Rai’s understanding of the societal issues led him to form various social organizations like All India Trade Union Congress, Punjab National Bank which are still flourishing in India.
Lajpat Bhawan was run by the Servants of the People Society (SOPS), a civil society organisation started by Lala Lajpat Rai in the 1920s in his hometown Lahore, and then moved to Delhi post Partition. Apart from providing other social services, SOPS would sell home ground masalas, thus giving needy women a livelihood as well.

4. Consider the following eye disorders.
1. Cataract
2. Colour blindness
3. Night blindness
Which of the above disorders is/are essentially genetic in nature?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 2 and 3
4.Answer-b
Explanation-
Cataracts
Vision Problems with Cataracts
If you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy, like the bottom lens in the illustration. It is like looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. Things look blurry, hazy or less colorful with a cataract.
What Are the Symptoms of Cataracts?
Having blurry vision
Seeing double (when you see two images instead of one)
Being extra sensitive to light
Having trouble seeing well at night, or needing more light when you read
Seeing bright colors as faded or yellow instead
Dull or yellowed vision from cataracts.
Dull or yellow vision
from cataracts.
Blurry or dim vision from cataracts.
Blurry or dim vision is a symptom of cataracts.
Distortion or doubled images from cataracts.
Distortion or ghost images from cataracts.
See a simulation of what vision with cataract looks like.
What Causes Cataracts?
Aging is the most common cause. This is due to normal eye changes that happen starting around age 40. That is when normal proteins in the lens start to break down. This is what causes the lens to get cloudy. People over age 60 usually start to have some clouding of their lenses. However, vision problems may not happen until years later.
Other reasons you may get cataracts include:
having parents, brothers, sisters, or other family members who have cataracts
having certain medical problems, such as diabetes
having had an eye injury, eye surgery, or radiation treatments on your upper body
having spent a lot of time in the sun, especially without sunglasses that protect your eyes from damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays
using certain medications such as corticosteroids, which may cause early formation of cataracts.
Most age-related cataracts develop gradually. Other cataracts can develop more quickly, such as those in younger people or those in people with diabetes. Doctors cannot predict how quickly a person’s cataract will develop.
Shedding Light on Night Blindness
It’s no surprise that most people don’t see well in the dark. However, some people have considerable difficulty seeing at night or in poor light. This is called night blindness (eye doctors call it nyctalopia).
Night blindness doesn’t mean you are completely unable to see at night, but that your vision is poorer then. It is not a disease in itself, but instead is a symptom of some other type of vision problem.
In some cases, being very nearsighted (myopic) can make it hard to see at night or in low light.
Certain cells in the eye’s retina are responsible for allowing you to see in dim light. If these cells are affected by a disease or condition, night blindness occurs.
Some of the eye conditions that can cause night blindness include:
• Nearsightedness (seeing well up close but not far away)
• Glaucoma (a disease of the optic nerve connecting the eye to the brain)
• Medicine for glaucoma that constricts (narrows) the pupil
• Cataracts (cloudiness of the eye’s naturally clear lens)
• Diabetes (uncontrolled blood sugar levels)
• Retinitis pigmentosa (an eye disease that causes blindness)
• Too little Vitamin A
• Keratoconus (having a cornea that is very steeply curved) is bumping and tripping through your darkened house normal or a symptom of something else?
Treating night blindness depends solely on its cause. If your refractive error is significant, getting a new prescription for your eyeglasses may be all you need for better vision in low light. In some cases, having cataracts removed can be illuminating as far as your vision is concerned. Your ophthalmologist can explain what is causing your night blindness and suggest how to brighten your outlook.
Seeing Night and Day
Night vision and day vision are naturally different.
Here are some facts about your eyes in the dark:
• They are basically color blind, seeing mostly black, white and grey;
• They have lower levels of visual acuity;
• There is an area in your central field of vision that is less clear;
• You see moving objects better than stationary objects.
Color Blindness
Color blindness occurs when you are unable to see colors in a normal way. It is also known as color deficiency. Color blindness often happens when someone cannot distinguish between certain colors. This usually happens between greens and reds, and occasionally blues.
In the retina, there are two types of cells that detect light. They are called rods and cones. Rods detect only light and dark and are very sensitive to low light levels. Cone cells detect color and are concentrated near the center of your vision. There are three types of cones that see color: red, green and blue. The brain uses input from these cone cells to determine our color perception.
Color blindness can happen when one or more of the color cone cells are absent, not working, or detect a different color than normal. Severe color blindness occurs when all three cone cells are absent. Mild color blindness happens when all three cone cells are present but one cone cell does not work right. It detects a different color than normal.
There are different degrees of color blindness. Some people with mild color deficiencies can see colors normally in good light but have difficulty in dim light. Others cannot distinguish certain colors in any light. The most severe form of color blindness, in which everything is seen in shades of gray, is uncommon. Color blindness usually affects both eyes equally and remains stable throughout life.
Colour blindness is a usually a genetic (hereditary) condition (you are born with it). Red/green and blue colour blindness is usually passed down from your parents. The gene which is responsible for the condition is carried on the X chromosome and this is the reason why many more men are affected than women.
Except in the most severe form, color blindness does not affect the sharpness of vision. The inability to see any color at all and to see everything only in shades of gray is called achromatopsia. This rare condition is often associated with:
1. amblyopia (or lazy eye)
2. nystagmus
3. Light sensitivity, and
4. Poor vision
Having certain conditions may increase your risk for acquired color deficiency, including:
• glaucoma
• diabetes
• macular degeneration
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Parkinson’s disease
• chronic alcoholism
• leukemia, and
• sickle cell anemia
Certain drugs may also increase your risk for acquiring color blindness. The drug hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) can cause color blindness. It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, among other conditions.

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Constitution (126th Amendment) Bill, 2019.
1. This Bill amends provisions related to reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs), but doing away with the provision for nomination of Anglo Indians to LokSabha and some state Assemblies.
2. Article 331 of the Constitution provides for nomination of two Anglo-Indians to the House of the people by the President when in his opinion the community is not adequately represented in the House.
3. According to the Article 366(2) of the Indian Constitution, an Anglo-Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
5. Answer-d
Explanation-
The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth Amendment) Bill, 2019
Parliament passed the Constitution (126th Amendment) Bill, extending reservation for SC/STs but doing away with the provision for nomination of Anglo Indians to LokSabha and some state Assemblies.
Who are Anglo-Indians?
Origin – The Anglo-Indian community in India traces its origins to an official policy of the British East India Company to encourage marriages of its officers with local women.
The term Anglo-Indian first appeared in the Govt. of India Act, 1935.
Article 366(2) – According to this article of the Indian Constitution, an Anglo-Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent.
This person is domiciled within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only.
What is the Anglo-Indian population?
The number of people who identified themselves as Anglo-Indian was 296, according to the 2011 Census.
The All India Anglo-Indian Association, on the other hand, has objected to Law Minister’s claim that the community has just 296 members.
Its president-in-chief, Barry O’Brien, has written to both the Prime Minister and the Law Minister.
He stated the following points to them,
1. According to the 2011 census, there are only nine Anglo-Indians in West Bengal. But this data didn’t even touch the actual population size there.
2. Also it shows zero in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand yet those Assemblies right now have sitting members from the community.
The truth is nobody knows how many Anglo-Indians are there in the country.
All we know is it’s not just a few thousand, neither or it in crores. It’s probably somewhere in the lakhs.
Under what provisions was reservation in legislature granted?
Article 331 of the Constitution provides for nomination of two Anglo-Indians to the House of the people by the President when in his opinion the community is not adequately represented in the House.
The idea of such nominations is traced to Frank Anthony, who headed the All India Anglo-Indian Association.
Article 331 was added in the Constitution following his suggestion to Jawaharlal Nehru.
Article 333 of the Constitution provides for nomination of one Anglo-Indian to the Legislative Assembly of the State by the President when in his opinion the community is not adequately represented in the House.
Currently 14 Assemblies have one Anglo-Indian member each: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, etc.
The 126th Amendment does away with this as well.
10th Schedule of the Constitution – Anglo-Indian members of the House of the people and State Assemblies can take the membership of any party within six months of their nomination. But, once they do so, they are bound by their party whip.
The Anglo-Indian members enjoy the same powers as others, but they cannot vote in the Presidential election because they are nominated by the President.
In the current LokSabha, the two seats still empty.