Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 15 June 2020

1. Consider the following statements regarding the RajyaSabha.
1. Under Article 80 of the Constitution, the President can appoint 12 MPs “having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of literature, science, art and social service” to the RajyaSabha.
2. As per the constitutional limit, the Upper House’s strength cannot exceed 250.
3. RajyaSabha, at present, has 242 seats. Of these, 230 members represent the States and the Union Territories
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation
Council of States (Rajya Sabha)
Background
The ‘Council of States’ which is also known as RajyaSabha, a nomenclature that was announced by the chair in the House on the 23rd August, 1954 has its own distinctive features.
The origin of the second Chamber can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918. The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921.
The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State. The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.
The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’. During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Assembly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with

immense diversities. A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.
A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.
It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the LokSabha (House of the People). It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which States were not given equal representation.
Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.
The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.
The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the RajyaSabha who presides over its sittings.
Constitutional Provisions relating to RajyaSabha
Composition/Strength
Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of RajyaSabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories.
The present strength of RajyaSabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President.
The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
Allocation of Seats
The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in RajyaSabha. The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State. Consequent on the reorganization of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the RajyaSabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952.
Eligibility
Qualifications
Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.
A person to be qualified for the membership of the RajyaSabha should posses the following qualifications:
1. He/She must be a citizen of India and make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution;
2. He/She must be not less than 30 years of age;
3. He/She must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
Disqualifications
Article 102 of the Constitution lays down that a person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament –
1. if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State, other than an office declared by Parliament by law not to disqualify its holder;
2. If he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;
3. If he is an undercharged insolvent;
4. If he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State;
5. If he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament.
Explanation- For the purpose of this clause a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State by reason only that he is a Minister either for the Union or for such State.
Besides, the Tenth Schedule to Constitution provides for disqualification of the members on ground of defection. As per the provisions of the Tenth Schedule, a member may be disqualified as a member, if he voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party; or if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs, unless such voting or abstention has been condoned by the political party within fifteen days. A member elected as an independent candidate shall be disqualified if he joins any political party after his election.
A member nominated to the House by the President, however, is allowed to join a political party if he/she does so within the first six months of taking seat in the House.
A member shall not be disqualified on this account, if he voluntarily leaves the membership of his political party after he is elected Deputy Chairman, RajyaSabha.
Process for Election/Nomination
Electoral College:
The representatives of the States and of the Union Territories in the RajyaSabha are elected by the method of indirect election. The representatives of each State and two Union territories are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of that State and by the members of the Electoral College for that Union Territory, as the case may be, in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The Electoral College for the National Capital Territory of Delhi consists of the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of Delhi, and that for Puducherry consists of the elected members of the Puducherry Legislative Assembly.
Biennial/Bye-election
RajyaSabha is a permanent House and is not subject to dissolution. However, one-third Members of RajyaSabha retire after every second year. A member who is elected for a full term serves for a period of six years.
The election held to fill a vacancy arising otherwise than by retirement of a member on the expiration of his term of office is called ‘Bye-election’.
A member elected in a bye-election remains member for the remainder of the term of the member who had resigned or died or disqualified to be member of the House under the Tenth Schedule.
Presiding Officers- Chairman and Deputy Chairman
The Presiding Officers of RajyaSabha have the responsibility to conduct the proceedings of the House. The Vice-President of India is ex-officio Chairman of RajyaSabha. RajyaSabha also chooses from amongst its members, a Deputy Chairman. There is also a Panel of Vice-Chairmen in RajyaSabha, the members of which are nominated by the Chairman, RajyaSabha. In the absence of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, a member from the Panel of Vice-Chairmen presides over the proceedings of the House.
Secretary-General
The Secretary-General is appointed by the Chairman of RajyaSabha and holds rank equivalent to the highest civil servant of the Union. The Secretary-General works with anonymity and is readily available to the Presiding Officers for rendering advice on parliamentary matters. The Secretary-General is also the administrative head of the RajyaSabha Secretariat and the custodian of the records of the House. He works under the direction and control of the Chairman, RajyaSabha.
Relation between the two Houses
Under article 75(3) of the Constitution, the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to LokSabha which means RajyaSabha cannot make or unmake the Government. It can, however, exercise control over the Government and this function becomes quite prominent, particularly when the Government does not enjoy majority in RajyaSabha.
To resolve a deadlock between the two Houses, in case of an ordinary legislation, the Constitution provides for the joint sitting of both Houses. In fact, there have been three occasions in the past when the Houses of Parliament had met in joint sitting to resolve differences between them. Issues in joint sitting are decided by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting. The joint sitting is held in the Central Hall of Parliament House presided over by the Speaker, LokSabha. However, in the case of a Money Bill, there is no provision in the Constitution for a joint sitting of both Houses as LokSabha clearly enjoys pre-eminence over RajyaSabha in financial matters. As regards a Constitution amendment Bill, it has been provided in the Constitution that such a Bill has to be passed by the specific majority, as prescribed under article 368 of the Constitution, by both Houses. There is, therefore, no provision for resolving a deadlock between the two Houses in regard to a Constitution amendment Bill.
Ministers may belong to either House of Parliament. The Constitution does not make any distinction between the Houses in this regard. Every Minister has the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of either House but he is entitled to vote only in the House of which he is a member.
Similarly, with regard to powers, privileges and immunities of the Houses of Parliament, their members and committees thereof, the two Houses are placed absolutely on equal footing by the Constitution.
Other important matters in respect of which both Houses enjoy equal powers are election and impeachment of the President, election of the Vice-President, approving the Proclamation of Emergency, the proclamation regarding failure of constitutional machinery in States and financial emergency. In respect of receiving reports and papers from various statutory authorities, etc., both Houses have equal powers.
It is thus clear that except in the case of collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers and certain financial matters, which fall in the domain of LokSabha only, both Houses enjoy equal powers.
Special Powers of RajyaSabha
RajyaSabha being a federal chamber enjoys certain special powers under the Constitution. All the subjects/areas regarding legislation have been divided into three Lists – Union List, State List and concurrent List. Union and State Lists are mutually exclusive – one cannot legislate on a matter placed in the sphere of the other. However, if RajyaSabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting saying that it is “necessary or expedient in the national interest” that Parliament should make a law on a matter enumerated in the State List, Parliament becomes empowered to make a law on the subject specified in the resolution, for the whole or any part of the territory of India. Such a resolution remains in force for a maximum period of one year but this period can be extended by one year at a time by passing a similar resolution further.
If RajyaSabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting declaring that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to create one or more All India Services common to the Union and the States, Parliament becomes empowered to create by law such services.
Under the Constitution, the President is empowered to issue Proclamations in the event of national emergency, in the event of failure of constitutional machinery in a State, or in the case of financial emergency. Every such proclamation has to be approved by both Houses of Parliament within a stipulated period. Under certain circumstances, however, RajyaSabha enjoys special powers in this regard. If a Proclamation is issued at a time when LokSabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of LokSabha takes place within the period allowed for its approval, then the proclamation remains effective, if the resolution approving it is passed by RajyaSabha within the period specified in the Constitution under articles 352, 356 and 360.
RajyaSabha in Financial Matters
A Money Bill can be introduced only in LokSabha. After it is passed by that House, it is transmitted to RajyaSabha for its concurrence or recommendation. The power of RajyaSabha in respect of such a Bill is limited. RajyaSabha has to return such a Bill to LokSabha within a period of fourteen days from its receipt. If it is not returned to LokSabha within that time, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form in which it was passed by LokSabha. Again, RajyaSabha cannot amend a Money Bill; it can only recommend amendments and LokSabha may either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations made by RajyaSabha.
Apart from a Money Bill, certain other categories of Financial Bills also cannot be introduced in RajyaSabha. There are, however, some other types of Financial Bills on which there is no limitation on the powers of the RajyaSabha. These Bills may be initiated in either House and RajyaSabha has powers to reject or amend such Financial Bills like any other Bill. Of course, such Bills cannot be passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration thereof.
From all this, however, it does not follow that RajyaSabha has nothing to do in matters relating to finance. The Budget of the Government of India is laid every year before RajyaSabha also and its members discuss it. Though RajyaSabha does not vote on Demands for Grants of various Ministries – a matter exclusively reserved for LokSabha – no money, however, can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India unless the Appropriation Bill has been passed by both the Houses. Similarly, the Finance Bill is also brought before RajyaSabha. Besides, the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees that examine the annual Demands for Grants of the Ministries/Departments are joint committees having ten members from RajyaSabha.
Leader of the House
Apart from the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman, Leader of the House is another functionary who plays important role in the efficient and smooth conduct of the business in the House. The Leader of the House in RajyaSabha is normally the Prime Minister, if he is its member or any Minister who is a member of the House and is nominated by him to so function. His primary responsibility is to maintain coordination amongst all sections of the House for a harmonious and meaningful debate in the House. For this purpose, he remains in close contact not only with the Government but also with the Opposition, individual ministers and the Presiding Officer. He occupies the first seat in the Chamber in first row at right the side of the Chair so that he is easily available to the Presiding Officer for consultation. Under the rules, the Leader of the House is consulted by the Chairman in regard to the arrangement of Government business in the House, allotment of days or allocation of time for discussion on the President’s Address, Private Members’ business on any day other than Friday, discussion on No Day-Yet-Named Motions, Short Duration Discussions and consideration and return of a Money Bill. He is also consulted by the Chairman in the matter of adjournment or otherwise of the House for the day in case of death of an outstanding personality, national leader or international dignitary. In the era of coalition governments, his task has become more challenging. He ensures that all possible and reasonable facilities are made available to the House for a meaningful discussion on any matter that is brought before it. He works as the spokesperson of the House in expressing sense of the House and represents it on ceremonial or formal occasions.
Leader of the Opposition (LOP)
The office of the Leader of the Opposition in a legislature is of great public importance. Its importance emanates from the central role accorded to the Opposition in a parliamentary democracy. The role of the Leader of the Opposition, in fact, is more difficult as he has to criticize, find fault and present alternative proposals/policies with no power to implement them. He has, thus, to perform a special responsibility to Parliament and to the nation.
In RajyaSabha until 1969, there was no Leader of the Opposition in real sense of the term. Till then, the practice was to call the Leader of the party in Opposition having the largest number of the members as the Leader of the Opposition, without according him any formal recognition, status or privilege. The office of Leader of the Opposition was given official recognition through the Salary and Allowances of Leaders of the Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977. This Act defines the Leader of the Opposition in RajyaSabha, as a member of the Council of States who is, for the time being, the Leader in that House of the party in opposition to the Government constituting the greatest numerical strength and recognized as such by the Chairman of the Council of States. Thus, the Leader of the Opposition should satisfy three conditions, namely, (i) he should be a member of the House (ii) the Leader in RajyaSabha of the party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength and (iii) be recognized as such by the Chairman, RajyaSabha.
RajyaSabha has played a constructive and effective role in our polity. Its performance in the legislative field and in influencing the Government policies has been quite significant. RajyaSabha has, in fact, worked in a spirit of cooperation with LokSabha as per the Constitutional mandate. RajyaSabha has prevented hasty legislation and has served as dignified chamber representing the federal principle. As a federal chamber, it has worked for the unity and integrity of the nation and has reinforced the faith of the people in parliamentary democracy.
https://rajyasabha.nic.in/rsnew/council_state/council_state.asp

2. Consider the following statements with reference to the Payment Aggregators (PAs).
1. PAs facilitate e-commerce sites and merchants in accepting payment instruments from the customers.
2. Besides banks, several other entities like e-commerce marketplaces (such as Flipkart, Paytm) provide payment aggregator services in India.
3. Non-bank PAs will require authorisation from the RBI under the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Payment Aggregators and Gateways
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has released guidelines for regulating activities of Payment Aggregators (PAs) and Payment Gateways (PGs) in the country.
PAs and PGs are intermediaries playing an important function in facilitating payments in the online space.
Payment Aggregators and Payment Gateways
Payment Aggregators facilitate e-commerce sites and merchants in accepting payment instruments from the customers for completion of their payment obligations without the need for merchants to create a separate payment integration system of their own. Example: Bill desk.
Payment Gateways are entities that provide technology infrastructure to route and facilitate processing of an online payment transaction without any involvement in handling of funds. PGs in India mainly include banks.
A Payment Gateway allows the merchants to deal in a specific payment option put on the portal, whereas a Payment Aggregator allows one to have multitudes of options for payment. Thus, a Payment Aggregator covers a payment gateway in its ambit.
Guidelines
Authorisation
Non-bank PAs will require authorisation from the RBI under the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 (PSSA). A PA should be a company incorporated in India under the Companies Act, 1956 / 2013.
Banks provide PA services as part of their normal banking relationship and do not therefore require a separate authorisation from RBI.
E-commerce marketplaces (e.g. Flipkart, Paytm) providing PA services should separate PA services from the marketplace business and they should apply for authorisation on or before 30th June, 2021.
PGs will be considered as ‘technology providers’ or ‘outsourcing partners’ of banks or non-banks, as the case may be.
Capital Requirement
Existing PAs have to achieve a net worth of ₹15 crore by 31st March, 2021 and a net worth of ₹25 crore on or before 31st March, 2023. The net worth of ₹25 crore has to be maintained at all times thereafter.
New PAs should have a minimum net worth of ₹15 crore at the time of application for authorisation and have to attain a net worth of ₹25 crore by the end of the third financial year of the grant of authorisation. The net worth of ₹25 crore has to be maintained at all times thereafter.
Disclosure Requirements
PAs need to disclose comprehensive information regarding merchant policies, customer grievances, privacy policy and other terms and conditions on the website and / or their mobile application.
They need to undertake background and antecedent checks of the merchants to ensure that such merchants do not have any malafide intention of duping customers, and do not sell fake / counterfeit / prohibited products.

3. Consider the following statements with reference to the Tejas SP-21 Aircraft.
1. It is an indigenous aircraft designed and developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
2. It is the smallest and lightest supersonic aircraft in its class.
3. It is equipped with advanced features such as Air to Air refuelling and Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile system.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-a
Explanation
Light Combat Aircraft Tejas
The Tejas in Final Operational Clearance (FOC) standard (SP21) took to the skies for its maiden flight.
The FOC aircraft are equipped with advanced features such as Air to Air refuelling and Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile system.
The FOC aircraft also imbibe a lot of manufacturing improvements which are reportedly based on the operational feedback of LCA IOC fleet currently operating with No. 45 squadron based at Sulur.
The Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme was started by the Government of India in 1984 when they established the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) for the purpose of managing the LCA programme.
LCA Tejas was designed and developed by India’s HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited).
It replaced the aging Mig-21 fighter planes.
It was in 2003 that the Light Combat Aircraft programme was named ‘Tejas’ (meaning radiance in Sanskrit) by the then PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
It is the second supersonic fighter jet that was developed by HAL (the first one being HAL HF-24 Marut).
LCA Tejas is a single-engine multirole light combat aircraft.
It is the lightest and smallest multirole supersonic fighter aircraft in its class.
It is designed to carry a range of air-to-air, air-to-surface, precision-guided and standoff weaponry.
Tejas has a single engine, compound Delta wing and has a tailless design.
The idea behind the LCA programme was to expand and develop India’s indigenous aerospace capabilities.
Since the 1970s, the MiG 21 planes were the mainstay of the Indian Air Force. The primary goal of the LCA programme was to replace the aging MiGs.
The secondary goal was the advancement of indigenous domestic aviation capabilities.
HAL plans to deliver 123 Tejas aircraft to the Indian Air Force by 2024-25.
LCA Tejas Specifications
Tejas has a maximum payload capacity of 4000 kg. It is a single pilot single-engine aircraft that has a maximum takeoff weight of 13,300 kg. It can attend the maximum speed of Mach 1.8. It has a general range of 850 km and a combat range of 500 km.
Tejas is a low-cost aircraft with a simple design. Hence, it is very attractive to cost-conscious nations in Asia.
Although currently, HAL is not sold to other countries, Singapore, Egypt, Sri Lanka, the UAE, Turkmenistan and Malaysia have expressed interest in acquiring this aircraft.
https://idrw.org/why-lca-tejas-is-flying-without-a-gun-and-why-iaf-is-not-concerned-about-it/#more-223228

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA).
1. It is meant to facilitate use of high-end secured communication equipment to be installed on military platforms being sold to India.
2. It is meant to provide a legal framework between the Russia and India.
3. The agreement comes to force immediately and will remain valid for 10 years.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
What is the COMCASA?
COMCASA is meant to provide a legal framework for the transfer of communication security equipment from the U.S. to India.
This would facilitate “interoperability” between their forces and potentially with other militaries that use U.S. origin systems for secured data links.
Importantly, the U.S. has already made some tweaks from its conventional template for agreements in this regard, for accommodating Indian concerns.
Significance – COMCASA is said to be part of a set of 3 agreements that the U.S. considers vital for a functional military relationship.
Previously, India and U.S. signed the “Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)”, for mutual logistic assistance between their militaries.
Negotiations on the third agreement, “Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA)”, have not yet begun.
What are the stakes?
Benefits – U.S. granted India the status of “Major Defence Partner” during the Obama’s time, to facilitate transfer of high-end defence technology.
Signing of the 3 foundational agreements would underline that status, besides making the transfer of American defence technology possible to India.
Risks – New Delhi is believed to be concerned about intrusive access COMCASA would grant the U.S. to Indian military communication system.
The violation of Indian sovereignty due to visits by US inspectors to Indian bases to inspect the COMCASA-safeguarded equipment weighs heavy.
There is also a fear that a lot of Russian-origin and indigenous Indian military platforms may not be compatible with COMCASA.
Also, such comprehensive agreements is politically risky for the ruling BJP as even the previous LEMOA (signed in 2016), created a political storm.

5. Consider the following statements about Legend Bhagat Singh.
1. He founded the Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 to promote revolution against British rule by rallying workers and peasant youth.
2. Bhagat Singh along with his associates of the HSRA were arrested and tried in the Karachi Conspiracy Case.
3. In 1929, he along with Batukeshwar Dutt lobbed a bomb at the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi to protest the implementation of the Defence of India Act and then surrendered.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Bhagat Singh was born into a Sikh family steeped in nationalism in West Punjab, British India.
His parents were Kishan Singh and Vidyavati Kaur.
He was educated at the D.A.V. High School and the National College, both in Lahore.
He grew up in an atmosphere which moulded him towards nationalistic ideals and patriotism. His father and uncle were involved in the freedom struggle.
When in school, he was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s freedom movement and openly defied the British by burning government textbooks.
He also supported the Congress Party and the non-cooperation movement. But when Gandhi withdrew the movement after the Chauri Chaura incident, he was drawn towards the revolutionary movement.
He was particularly affected by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (1919) and the violence against unarmed Akali protestors at Nankana Sahib (1921).
He read extensively many European authors and was particularly inspired by Marxist and leftist writings.
He considered himself an atheist and was also against capitalism.
Bhagat Singh’s parents wanted to get him married when he was pursuing his BA. But he refused saying that if he was to be married in slave-India, his bride would only be death.
He founded the Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 to promote revolution against British rule by rallying workers and peasant youth. He was the organization’s secretary.
He also founded the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928 along with Chandrasekhar Azad, Sukhdev Thapar and others.
When Lala Lajpat Rai died of injuries sustained in a police lathi charge in 1928. Bhagat Singh and his associates vowed to avenge the death. They wanted to kill the Superintendent of Police responsible for Lajpat Rai’s death, James Scott, but in a case of mistaken identity, they shot and killed J P Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police. After that, Bhagat Singh fled from Lahore and changed his appearance by shaving off his beard and cutting his hair, which he had hitherto maintained as a Sikh by birth.
On April 8, 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly amidst shouts of ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ (long lives the revolution). They also threw pamphlets around which talked about their revolution. Their intention was not to hurt anyone but to spread word of the revolution against British imperialism. They then courted arrest for they wanted a platform to proclaim their nationalistic ideas.
Bhagat Singh along with his associates of the HSRA were arrested and tried in the Lahore Conspiracy Case. The case of the assassination of Saunders also came up during interrogation, and was a part of the Lahore Conspiracy Case. The trial started in July 1929.
While in jail, the revolutionaries went on a hunger strike to protest against the shoddy treatment of political prisoners. This fast drew a lot of public attention and support for the young revolutionaries. Bhagat Singh broke his fast upon the request of his father and the Congress leadership after 116 days.
The one-sided trial was a blot in the name of British justice and Bhagat Singh along with Rajguru and Sukhdev were sentenced to death.
Despite nation-wide protests, the sentences were duly carried out on 23 March 1931 in the Lahore Central Jail. It is said that Bhagat Singh embraced death with a smiling face and shouts of ‘Down with British Imperialism’.
This hanging was widely condemned and it propelled many youngsters across the country towards the freedom movement. Bhagat Singh was given the title ‘Shaheed’ or martyr after his death. He was only 23 years old when he was executed.
Though there were many young Indians who died in the revolutionary war against the British, Bhagat Singh’s name shines brightly among them.
He is a legendary leader and even today, evokes a strong sense of pride and nationalism among Indians.