Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 16 July 2020

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1. Consider the following statements with reference to the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI).
1. It is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country.
2. It was established in 1982 under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 with its headquarters at Chennai.
3. It was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation
Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI)
The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country. Established in 1962 under Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (No. 59 of 1960), the Animal Welfare Board of India with its Headquaters at Chennai was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian.
She guided the activities of the Board for nearly twenty years till her demise in 1986.
From ensuring that animal welfare laws in the country are diligently followed, to provide grants to Animal Welfare Organizations and advising the Government of India on animal welfare issues, the Board has been the face of the animal welfare movement in the country for the last 50 years.
The Board consists of 28 Members.
The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years.
Mandate
To prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals, in terms of the provision of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960.
Functions
To keep the law in force in India for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals under constant study and to advise the government on the amendments to be undertaken in any such law from time to time.
To advise the Central Government on the making of rules under the Act with a view to preventing


unnecessary pain or suffering to animals generally, and more particularly when they are being transported from one place to another or when they are used as performing animals or when they are kept in captivity or confinement.
To advise the Government or any local authority or other person on improvements in the design of vehicles so as to lessen the burden on draught animals.
To take all such steps as the Board may think fit for *(amelioration of animals) by encouraging or providing for, the construction of sheds, water troughs and the like and by providing for veterinary assistance to animals.
To advise the Government or any local authority or other person in the design of slaughter houses or the maintenance of slaughter houses or in connection with slaughter of animals so that unnecessary pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is eliminated in the pre-slaughter stages as far as possible, and animals are killed; wherever necessary, in as humane a manner as possible.
To take all such steps as the Board may think fit to ensure that unwanted animals are destroyed by local authorities, whenever it is necessary to do so, either instantaneously or after being rendered insensible to pain or suffering.
To encourage by the grant of financial assistance or otherwise, (the formation or establishment of Pinjarapoles, rescue homes, animals shelters, sanctuaries and the like), where animals and birds may find a shelter when they have become old and useless or when they need protection.
To co-operate with, and co-ordinate the work of, associations or bodies established for the purpose of preventing unnecessary pain or suffering to animals or for the protection of animals and birds.
To give financial and other assistance to Animal Welfare Organisations functioning in any local area or to encourage the formation of Animal Welfare Organisations in any local area which shall work under the general supervision and guidance of the Board.
To advise the Government on matters relating to the medical care and attention which may be provided in animal hospitals, and to give financial and other assistance to animal hospitals whenever the Board thinks it necessary to do so.
To impart education in relation to the humane treatment of animals and to encourage the formation of public opinion against the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering to animals and for the promotion of animal welfare by means of lectures, books, posters, cinematographic exhibitions and the like.
To advise the Government on any matter connected with animal welfare or the Prevention of infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals.
Recognition
The Board grants recognition to the newly started Animal Welfare Organisations (AWOs). For this purpose, the Board has framed certain guidelines according to which the AWO has to submit the registration certificate under the Societies Registration Act or Trust Act, Audited Statement of Accounts and Annual Reports for the last three years, two copies of Memorandum of Association/Bye-laws and Animal Welfare Activities Report.
The AWO has to agree to nominate a representative of the AWBI on its Managing/Executive Committee and also for regular inspection of its functioning.
The new organizations are inspected by Board Members/authorized Inspection Agencies and if the inspection report is satisfactory, then they are considered for grant of recognition.
http://www.awbi.in/about.html

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina).
1. According to IUCN red list it is critically endangered animal.
2. It is in the Viverra genus, with 4 existing species within it, one of five genera in the Viverrinae subfamily.
3. This species is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, being recorded in southern India.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Malabar Civet
The Malabar civet is possibly one of the Western Ghats’ rarest and most threatened mammals.
This small, dog like carnivore has been pushed to the brink of extinction by hunting and habitat loss. The Malabar civet is in the Viverra genus, with 4 existing species within it, one of five genera in the Viverrinae subfamily that comprises of civets, genets and linsangs.
Once widespread in the Western Ghats, the Malabar civet was declared possibly extinct in 1978. Although it was rediscovered nine years later, it has never been photographed and there has been no published proof of its continued survival for over a decade. If the species survives at all, it is likely to be as a series of isolated relic populations, largely confined to thickets in cashew nut plantations.
Distribution
This species is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, being recorded in southern India. However, as it has lost almost its entire primary habitat, it is likely that the species is now represented by relic populations in sub-optimal habitats along the foothills and lower slopes of the Western Ghats.
Habitat and Ecology
The Malabar civet once inhabited lowland forests, lowland swamp and riparian forests. However, now that natural forests have disappeared, the species now appears to be largely confined to thickets in cashew plantations and to highly degraded lowland forests in northern Kerala.
Local people report that the species is nocturnal, with individuals foraging in the valleys at night and retreating to the scrub forests and cashew plantations by day. They likely feed on small animals, eggs and some vegetable matter.
It is listed as critically endangered by IUCN and in CITES Appendix III.
https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/civet-malabar-large-spotted

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB).
1. The Bureau was constituted in 2007 by amendment to the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
2. It is mandated to coordinate the actions by State Governments and other authorities in relation with the enforcement of the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
3. It is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, to combat organized wildlife crime in the country.
The Bureau has it’s headquarter in New Delhi and five regional offices at Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Jabalpur; three sub-regional offices at Guwahati, Amritsar and Cochin; and five border units at Ramanathapuram, Gorakhpur, Motihari, Nathula and Moreh.
Under Section 38 (Z) of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, it is mandated to collect and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities and to disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies for immediate action so as to apprehend the criminals; to establish a centralized wildlife crime data bank; co-ordinate actions by various agencies in connection with the enforcement of the provisions of the Act; assist foreign authorities and international organization concerned to facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control; capacity building of the wildlife crime enforcement agencies for scientific and professional investigation into wildlife crimes and assist State Governments to ensure success in prosecutions related to wildlife crimes; and advise the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications, relevant policy and laws.
It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna as per the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and EXIM Policy governing such an item.
Vision
The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau envisages attaining excellence as intelligence and enforcement agency, matching international standards in the field of wildlife crime intelligence in its core capabilities, functioning as one team integrated into the intelligence community. It aims to conserve the wildlife wealth by proper and effective intervention into matters related to capacity building of enforcement agencies in the field of wildlife crime enforcement and by providing professional assistance to create deterrence to the organized wildlife crime nexus.
Mission
To develop mechanism for gathering of intelligence related to wildlife crime and illegal wildlife trade in the country.
To disseminate intelligence to the concerned agencies for timely and result oriented action.
To develop wildlife crime database management system for better analysis and record generation to effectively implement wildlife policy in the country.
To co-ordinate the efforts and actions of various state and central enforcement agencies towards better enforcement of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
To develop infrastructure and capacity building of the enforcement officials into wildlife crime and illegal trade and equip them with latest know how of trends and methods to counter the actions of organized wildlife crime networks.
To implement obligations under various international conventions and protocols in force at present and to assist the efforts of various international law enforcement agencies towards enforcement of legal provisions.
To advice Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications and suggest changes in relevant policy related to wildlife crimes.
http://wccb.gov.in/Content/FAQs.aspx

4. Consider the following statements with reference to the Prime Minister Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations (PM-CARES) Fund.
1. This will be a dedicated national fund with the primary objective of dealing with any kind of emergency or distress situation.
2. Prime Minister is the Chairman of this trust and its Members include Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.
3. This fund will enable micro-donations allowing a large number of people will be able to contribute with smallest of denominations.
4. Donations to this fund will be exempted from income tax.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Prime Minister Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations (PM-CARES) Fund
Keeping in mind the need for having a dedicated national fund with the primary objective of dealing with any kind of emergency or distress situation, like posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and to provide relief to the affected, a public charitable trust under the name of ‘Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund’ (PM CARES Fund)’ has been set up.
Prime Minister is the Chairman of this trust and its Members include Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.
PM Narendra Modi has always believed and shown in actions that public participation is the most effective way to mitigate any issue and this is yet another example.
This fund will enable micro-donations as a result of which a large number of people will be able to contribute with smallest of denominations.
This fund will enable micro-donations allowing a large number of people will be able to contribute with smallest of denominations.
Donations to this fund will be exempted from income tax under section 80(G).
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1608851

5. Which of the following places in news and their country of location are correctly matched?
Places in news Country of location
1. Lombardy Spain
2. Khorasan Afghanistan
3. Abadan Iran
Choose the correct option.
(a) 2 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 3 only
Answer-d
Explanation-
Khorasan (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area comprising the east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
Lombardy is a region in Northern Italy. Its capital, Milan, is a global hub of fashion and finance.
Abadan is a city and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province, which is located in the southwest of Iran. It lies on Abadan Island.
Places in news Country of location
Lombardy Italy
Khorasan Iran
Abadan Iran