Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 16 May 2020

1. Consider the following statements regarding the Central Information Commission (CIC).
1. The President can remove the CIC or any Information Commissioner (IC) on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
2. The IC is eligible for appointment as CIC but cannot hold office for more than a total of five years including his term as IC.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
1. Answer-c
Explanation
Central Information Commission (CIC)
The President can also remove the Chief Information Commissioner or any Information Commissioner on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. However, in these cases, the President has to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for an enquiry. If the Supreme Court, after the enquiry, upholds the cause of removal and advises so, then the President can remove him.
The RTI (Amendment) Act, 2019
The RTI (Amendment) Bill received the assent of the President on the 1st August, 2019 and became an Act of Parliament. The Right to Information (Amendment) Act, 2019 is an amendment to the Right to Information Act, 2005.
Recently, government notified the new RTI Rules under the Act.
The Act to allow the government to fix the terms and conditions of service of the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and Information Commissioners (ICs) of the both Centre and the states. Under the recently notified Rules,
a) The terms of service of the CIC, including her/his pay and perks, will be the same as that of the Cabinet Secretary, which is significantly lower than that of the CEC.
b) And those of the ICs are similar to that of a Secretary to the Government of India.
The CIC was earlier on a par with the CEC, who occupies position 9A in the table (along with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, and Chairman, UPSC). After being downgraded to Cabinet Secretary Rank, would mean a downgradation in the „Table of Precedence‟.
The CIC and the ICs now have a fixed tenure of just three years (earlier a fixed term of five years).

2. Consider the following statements regarding Legal aid and right to be defended.
1. Article 38A, part of the DPSP, states that equal opportunity to secure justice must not be denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities, and provides for free legal aid.
2. Article 22(1) gives the fundamental right to every person not to be denied the right to be defended by a legal practitioner of his/her choice.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
2.Answer-b
Explanation-
Legal aid and right to be defended
Article 22(1) gives the fundamental right to every person not to be denied the right to be defended by a legal practitioner of his or her choice.
Article 14 provides for equality before the law and equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
Article 39A, part of the Directive Principles of state policy, states that equal opportunity to secure justice must not be denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities, and provides for free legal aid.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the entanglement theory.
1. Scientists of Raman Research Institute (RRI) have recently devised a new test for fairness of qubit using this theory.
2. Entanglement is a special type of correlation that exists in the quantum world with no classical counterpart.
3. This work is a significant contribution to the domain of quantum state discrimination, which is an essential aspect of quantum information science.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
3.Answer-d
Explanation-
Researchers from Raman Research Institute (RRI) have devised a new test for fairness of quantum coin or ‘qubit’ (the basic unit of information in a quantum computer) using entanglement theory. Entanglement is a special type of correlation that exists in the quantum world with no classical counterpart.
The researchers from RRI made use of this quantum resource to arrive at a test for fairness of a quantum coin (a qubit).
This work is a significant contribution to the domain of quantum state discrimination, which is an essential aspect of quantum information science.
It brings out the crucial role of entanglement in improving our ability to discriminate quantum states.
Such advantage is valuable in quantum sensors. Raman Research Institute (RRI), located in Bangalore, is an autonomous institution under the Department of Science & Technology (DST).

4. Perseverance sometimes seen in the news recently, which of the following is correct regarding this?
(a) This is the scheme for political coherence in India.
(b) It is NASA’s rover for exploring Mars.
(c) All weather helicopter developed by Russia.
(d) None of the above.
4.Answer-b
Explanation
Perseverance
NASA has renamed its newest Mars rover Perseverance. The rover weighs just less than 1,043 kilograms. The Perseverance rover will be managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labs (JPL) and will hunt for signs of past microbial life on Mars. Perseverance will also characterise the planet’s climate and geology, and collect samples of Martian rocks and dust.
NASA has plans for a future mission which could bring these samples back to Earth. The rover is currently is undergoing final assembly and checkout at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The rover is targeted to land on Mars’ Jezero Crater a little February 18, 2021.
The Mars 2020 is part of a larger program that includes missions to the Moon as a way to prepare for human exploration of the planet.
NASA plans to put the next man and first woman on the moon by 2024 and wants a sustained human presence on the Moon by 2028 with its Artemis program.

5. Consider the following regarding the jet stream in northern India.
1. Southern branch of the jet stream exercises an important influence on the winter weather in India.
2. It is a part of jet stream which blows over the Asian continent.
3. Its mean position is around 25 degree north of latitude.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
5.Answer-d
Explanation-
Jet stream
All of Western and Central Asia remains under the influence of westerly winds along the altitude of 9-13 km from west to east.
These winds blow across the Asian continent at latitudes north of the Himalayas roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands.
These are known as jet streams.
Tibetan highlands act as a barrier in the path of these jet streams. As a result, jet streams get bifurcated.
One of its branches blows to the north of the Tibetan highlands, while the southern branch blows in an eastward direction, south of the Himalayas. It has its mean position at 25°N in February at 200-300 mb level.
It is believed that this southern branch of the jet stream exercises an important influence on the winter weather in India.
Jet streams are narrow bands of strong winds that flow over thousands of kilometres from west to east.
Major jet streams are found near the upper levels of the atmosphere, around 9 to 16 km from the earth’s surface, and can reach speeds of over 320 kph.
The jet streams shift to the north or south depending on the season.
During winters, the wind current is the strongest. They are also closer to the Equator during winter. The major jet streams are the Polar Front, Subtropical, and Tropical jet streams.
In India, the Tropical jet stream influences the formation and durat