Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 17 June 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding the Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
1. He served as the first President of Bangladesh and later as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
2. He played a crucial role in advocating political autonomy for East Pakistan, the detached eastern part of Pakistan.
3. A popular leader in East Pakistan, Rahman played an important role in the six-point movement and the Anti-Ayub movement.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Before joining politics, Rahman studied law and political science in Kolkata and Dhaka and agitated for Indian independence.
He is referred to as Sheikh Mujib or simply Mujib, the title ‘Bangabandhu’ meaning ‘friend of Bengal’.
In 1949, he joined the Awami League, a political party which advocated greater autonomy for East Pakistan.
A popular leader in East Pakistan, Rahman played an important role in the six-point movement and the Anti-Ayub movement.
Role in Bangladesh liberation
In 1970, his party secured an absolute majority in the Pakistani general elections; the country’s first, winning more seats than all parties in West Pakistan, including Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party.
The election results were not honoured; leading to a bloody civil war, and Sheikh Mujib declared Bangladesh’s independence from Pakistan on March 26, 1971.
The declaration coincided with a ruthless show of strength by the Pakistani military, in which tanks rolled out on the streets of Dhaka and several students and intellectuals were killed.
India under then PM Indira Gandhi provided full support to Rahman and Bangladesh’s independence movement, resulting in the creation of a sovereign government at Dhaka in January 1971.
His legacy
Rahman, who had been arrested and taken to West Pakistan, returned to Bangladesh after being freed in January 1972.
For the next three years, Rahman held the new country’s prime ministerial post, and became a celebrated icon in India as well, admired for his moving speeches and charismatic personality.
On 15 August 1975, Rahman was killed in a military coup along with his wife and three sons, including 10-year-old Sheikh Russel.
His daughters, the current Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and her younger sister Sheikh Rehana, survived as they were abroad at the time.

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020.
1. This Bill will extend the upper limit for permitting abortions from 20 weeks to 24 under special circumstances.
2. The Bill adds the definition of termination of pregnancy to mean a procedure undertaken to terminate a pregnancy by using medical or surgical methods.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020
The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020, which seeks to amend the MTP Act, 1971, was passed in Lok Sabha recently.
Key changes:
1. It seeks to extend the upper limit for permitting abortions from 20 weeks to 24 under special circumstances.
2. The “special categories of women” include rape survivors, victims of incest, the differently abled and minors.
3. The Bill proposes requirement of opinion of one registered medical practitioner (RMP) for termination of pregnancy up to 20 weeks of gestation.
4. It also provides for the requirement of opinion of two RMPs for termination of pregnancy of 20 to 24 weeks.
5. Constitution of a Medical Board: Every state government is required to constitute a Medical Board. These Medical Boards will consist of the following members: (i) a gynaecologist, (ii) a paediatrician, (iii) a radiologist or sonologist, and (iv) any other number of members, as may be notified by the state government.
6. Under the Bill, if any pregnancy occurs as a result of failure of any device or method used by a woman or her partner to limit the number of children, such an unwanted pregnancy may constitute a grave injury to the mental health of the pregnant woman.
Need for overhaul
1. The present abortion law, which is about five decades old, permits abortion up to a maximum foetal gestation period of 20 weeks.
2. In recent years, there have been strong demands to rise the foetal gestation period for abortion beyond 20 weeks.
Significance:
The move to amend the MTP Act, 1971 is a progressive step towards empowerment of women. It will provide greater reproductive rights to women as abortion is considered an important aspect of the reproductive health of women. Deaths and injuries from unsafe abortions are largely preventable provided services are performed legally by trained practitioners.
https://prsindia.org/billtrack/medical-termination-pregnancy-amendment-bill-2020

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Powers of Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
1. It has power to issue a show cause notice on receipt of a complaint from any person or law enforcement agencies to ascertain if Aadhaar was procured through fraudulent means.
2. The Aadhaar number is omitted or deactivated in accordance with Regulations 27 and 28 of Aadhaar Regulations, 2016 in case of proven fraud but this p[ower lies with Ministry.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-A
Explanation-
Powers of Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)
The government informed the Lok Sabha that the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) might issue a show cause notice on receipt of a complaint from “any person” or law enforcement agencies to ascertain if Aadhaar was procured through fraudulent means or by submitting false or fake documents. In case the allegation is found to be correct, after a due inquiry, the Aadhaar number is omitted [cancelled] or deactivated [suspended], as the case may be, in accordance with Regulations 27 and 28 of Aadhaar (Enrolment and Update) Regulations, 2016.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the SEIR model.
1. This model proved to be predictive for a variety of acute infectious diseases like Ebola and SARS.
2. The model classifies the population into four mutually exclusive groups i.e. susceptible, exposed, infectious, and removed.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
SEIR Model

The SEIR model assumes people carry lifelong immunity to a disease upon recovery, but for many diseases the immunity after infection wanes over time. In this case, the SEIRS model is used to allow recovered individuals to return to a susceptible state
A prediction model for COVID-19
Many diseases have a latent phase during which the individual is infected but not yet infectious. This delay between the acquisition of infection and the infectious state can be incorporated within the SIR model by adding a latent/exposed population, E, and letting infected (but not yet infectious) individuals move from S to E and from E to I.
The SEIR model proved to be predictive for a variety of acute infectious diseases like Ebola and SARS.
The model classifies the population into four mutually exclusive groups: susceptible (at risk of contracting the disease), exposed (infected but not yet infectious), infectious (capable of transmitting the disease), and removed (those who recover from the disease).

https://www.idmod.org/docs/hiv/model-seir.html

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Article 213 of the Indian Constitution.
1. The ordinance must be laid before the state legislature when it reassembles and it must be upheld by the State legislature, failure to which the ordinance would be invalid.
2. This article empowers the governor to promulgate ordinance on urgent matter during recess of legislature.
3.Power to promulgate ordinance is a discretionary power of governor
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Article 213 of the Indian Constitution
Governor of an Indian state draws ordinance making power from Article 213 of the constitution.
This article empowers the governor to promulgate ordinance on urgent matter during recess of legislature. To issue an ordinance, the governor must be satisfied with the circumstances that make it necessary for him / her to take immediate action.
Governor cannot promulgate an ordinance in any of the three situations give below:
If the ordinance has the provisions which of embodied in a bill would require president’s sanction.
If the ordinance has the provisions which the governor would reserve as a bill containing them for the president’s sanction.
If an act of the state legislature has the same provisions that would be invalid without the assent of the president.
All ordinances promulgated by the Governor in the state have the same effect and force. The ordinance must be laid before the state legislature when it reassembles and it must be upheld by the State legislature, failure to which the ordinance would be invalid.
213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature
(1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if
(a) A Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or
(b) He would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or
(c) An Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President; it had received the assent of the President
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance
(a) Shall be laid before the legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the House, and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and
(b) May be withdrawn at any time by the Governor Explanation Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause
(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void: Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the president and assented to by him.