Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 18 July 2020 – The Core IAS

Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 18 July 2020


1. Consider the following statements regarding the Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI).
1. It was constituted in 1995 as a registered, non-governmental society.
2. It was instrumental in the formation of the Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India (TSDSI)
3. Its core membership includes private Telecom Service Providers i.e. Airtel, Vodafone Idea Limited and Reliance Jio.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI)
COAI was constituted in 1995 as a registered, non-governmental society.
The Association is dedicated to the advancement of modern communication through the establishment of world-class mobile infrastructure, products and services and to delivering the benefits of innovative and affordable mobile communication services to the people of India.
Over the years COAI has emerged as the official voice for the Indian telecom industry and interacts directly with Ministries, Policy Makers, Regulators, Financial Institutions and Technical Bodies.
It provides a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas between these bodies and the Service Providers, who share a common interest in the development of mobile telephony in the country. COAI collaborates with other Industry Associations such as CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM, AUSPI, ISPAI, VSAT association etc., with the objective of presenting an industry consensus view to the Government on crucial issues relating to the growth and development of the Indian telecom Industry.
COAI’s core membership includes private Telecom Service Providers, namely – Bharti Airtel Limited., Vodafone Idea Limited and Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited, operating across the whole country.
Having started as an Association for mobile service providers, COAI has today expanded to be a thought leader in the Digital Communications industry, with members including Telecom service providers, telecom infrastructure players, telecom network equipment & device manufacturers, chipsets manufacturers, Social Media companies, Content Providers, E-commerce players; and still expanding to include other allied and critical stakeholders of the sector.
COAI’s present Associate Members include –Amazon Seller Services Pvt.Ltd, Apple India, Atria Convergence Technologies Pvt. Ltd, Ciena Communications India Pvt. Ltd., Cisco Systems India Pvt. Ltd., Ericsson India Pvt. Ltd., ECI Telecom India Pvt. Ltd., Facebook India Online Services Pvt. Ltd., Google India Pvt. Ltd., Huawei Telecommunications (India) Co. Pvt. Ltd, Indus Towers Ltd, Juniper Networks Solutions India Pvt. Ltd., Nokia Networks, Qualcomm India Pvt. Ltd., Sterlite Technologies Limited and ZTE Telecom India Pvt. Ltd.
Further, COAI has dedicated itself towards the training of skilled manpower to ensure efficient and optimum utilization of human resources to the industry. COAI has played a major role in the setting up and operations of the Telecom Sector Skill Council (TSSC) in India under the aegis of the National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC). TSSC is registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, with members from COAI, ICA, TCOE, NSDC, TAIPA, AUSPI, Govt., Telecom Industry and Academia.
COAI also played a major role in setting up the Telecom Centres of Excellence (TCOE) set up in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, with the Government, the Academia and the Industry working together for the sustained growth and progress of the country. The key objective of TCOEs are to create synergy amongst the academia, telecom industry and the government for creation of new services/applications, generation of IPR, development of manufacturing capability, global telecom standardization activities, and promotion of entrepreneurship.
COAI was instrumental in the formation of the Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India (TSDSI), which aims at developing and promoting India-specific requirements, standardizing solutions for meeting these requirements and contributing these to international standards.
The TSDSI contributes to global standardization in the field of telecommunications by maintaining the technical standards and other deliverables of the organization, safe-guarding the related IPR, helping create manufacturing expertise in the country, and providing leadership to the developing countries in terms of their telecommunications-related standardization needs.
COAI also interacts with various international organizations such as ITU, GSMA, UMTS, TIA, ITIC, GSA, MMF, Digital Europe, WWRF and 3GPP etc.; Country Embassies as well as the Press & Media to ensure that the issues pertaining to the mobile phone industry are discussed, understood and debated on a wider platform.
The Key Objectives
• To assist all concerned authorities through provision of requisite industry information to enable formulation of suitable policies to incentivize growth of the industry
• To help address the common problems of cellular operators relating to operational, regulatory, financial, or licensing through interactions with Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Finance, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, Financial Institutions , etc.
• To be the main interface between the main stakeholders of the Indian Telecom Ecosystem
• To continuously improve the standards and competitiveness of the Cellular Industry and to attain the status of the world class infrastructure and deliver the benefits of affordable mobile telephony services to the people of India
• To carry out studies on industry best practices and undertake research and analysis of cellular experience worldwide
• To maintain and upgrade the quality of services in terms of speech transmission, ability to access services, coverage, security etc., to facilitate the expansion of cellular services
• To dispense information and spread awareness among the national and international operators and consumers alike on issues relating to service quality and other value added services provided by the operators to their subscribers
• To encourage the advent of convergence of the technologies to facilitate the move towards complete convergence in communications as this could greatly help India mitigate the problem of low fixed line penetration and help realize India’s vision of becoming an Information Society

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Corona Kavach Application.
1. The app is designed to track the location of COVID-19 infected people and alert subscribers when they come near their location.
2. Corona Kavach app has been developed by the Ministry of health and family welfare.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Corona Kavach App
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has launched pilot or beta version of a mobile phone application called “Corona Kavach” which uses the data of confirmed COVID-19 patients to alert subscribers when they are in close proximity.
The Corona Kavach app is meant to track Coronavirus and somehow control its spread.
You are required to answer a couple of questions (if you are facing difficulty in breathing, body temperature, sore throat, and more) and it will mark you as All Good, See a Doctor, Quarantine, and Infected.
Following this, whenever you go out, you are required to enable the app and it will (by tracking your location) alert you if you are in the proximity of another person either infected by Coronavirus or at high risk. This way, you can remain safe from catching the virus.
The app will also provide you with Coronavirus-related information, information about the active cases in India, breathing capacity tracker and self-diagnostic tool.
India has recently unveiled the website for Coronavirus tracking. Users can head to the dedicated website to keep a track of the number of Coronavirus cases worldwide, especially in India.
Corona Kavach: How to download the app?
The Corona Kavach app is currently available on the Google Play Store and will be soon available for iOS users.
How Corona Kavach App Works?
Corona Kavach App requires the user’s phone number to make an account. The app is location-based; it will need access to the phone’s GPS.
Using location data does raise privacy questions, but the app’s description says the user will remain anonymous.
To log your location data on this device used to detect whether the device came in range of anyone.
Who is either a host or carrier of COVID-19? Your location data will be used if you come in the infection range of a host to identify the relevant chain of contact.
You can be intimate about the Caution status, so that you may act accordingly,” the app’s description reads.
The app will use color codes to identify the status of the user.
For example, one colour code will show if the person has never come in contact with a Covid-19 positive case.
Another one will indicate if the user has been close.
The app will use available information on all the positive Covid-19 cases registered so far by the government.
Corona Kavach will be initially available in English and Hindi, but the government plans to add regional languages as well.

3. Which of the following instruments are likely used to increase liquidity in the economy?
1. Decrease in Cash Reserve Ratio
2. Increase in Statutory Liquidity Ratio
3. Increase the cap under the Marginal Standing Facility
Choose the correct option.
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Instruments of Monetary Policy
There are several direct and indirect instruments that are used for implementing monetary policy.
Repo Rate: The (fixed) interest rate at which the RBI provides overnight liquidity to banks against the collateral of government and other approved securities under the liquidity adjustment facility (LAF).
Reverse Repo Rate: The (fixed) interest rate at which the RBI absorbs liquidity, on an overnight basis, from banks against the collateral of eligible government securities under the LAF.
Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF): The LAF consists of overnight as well as term repo auctions. Progressively, the RBI has increased the proportion of liquidity injected under fine-tuning variable rate repo auctions of range of tenors. The aim of term repo is to help develop the inter-bank term money market, which in turn can set market based benchmarks for pricing of loans and deposits, and hence improve transmission of monetary policy. The RBI also conducts variable interest rate reverse repo auctions, as necessitated under the market conditions.
Marginal Standing Facility (MSF): A facility under which scheduled commercial banks can borrow additional amount of overnight money from the Reserve Bank by dipping into their Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) portfolio up to a limit at a penal rate of interest. This provides a safety valve against unanticipated liquidity shocks to the banking system.
Corridor: The MSF rate and reverse repo rate determine the corridor for the daily movement in the weighted average call money rate.
Bank Rate: It is the rate at which the Reserve Bank is ready to buy or rediscount bills of exchange or other commercial papers. The Bank Rate is published under Section 49 of the RBI Act, 1934. This rate has been aligned to the MSF rate and, therefore, changes automatically as and when the MSF rate changes alongside policy repo rate changes.
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR): The average daily balance that a bank is required to maintain with the Reserve Bank as a share of such per cent of its Net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) that the Reserve Bank may notify from time to time in the Gazette of India.
Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): The share of NDTL that a bank is required to maintain in safe and liquid assets, such as, unencumbered government securities, cash and gold. Changes in SLR often influence the availability of resources in the banking system for lending to the private sector.
Open Market Operations (OMOs): These include both, outright purchase and sale of government securities, for injection and absorption of durable liquidity, respectively.
Market Stabilisation Scheme (MSS): This instrument for monetary management was introduced in 2004. Surplus liquidity of a more enduring nature arising from large capital inflows is absorbed through sale of short-dated government securities and treasury bills. The cash so mobilized is held in a separate government account with the Reserve Bank.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
1. Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects, including research, communication, education and development, through international cooperation.
2. It was founded in 1949 aftermath of World War-II.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
International Astronomical Union (IAU)
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) was founded in 1919.
Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects, including research, communication, education and development, through international cooperation. Its individual Members — structured into Divisions, Commissions, and Working Groups — are professional astronomers from all over the world, at the Ph.D. level and beyond, who are active in professional research, education and outreach in astronomy.
The IAU also has Junior Members. The IAU has 13054 members.
The Individual and Junior Members Directory contains 10567 names in 107 countries worldwide (these Individual Members are labeled as “active” in the IAU database: they have a valid, public email, and are affiliated to at least one Division.). Out of those countries, 82 are National Members. In addition, the IAU collaborates with various scientific organizations all over the world.
The long-term policy of the IAU is defined by the General Assembly and implemented by the Executive Committee, while day-to-day operations are directed by the IAU Officers.
The focal point of its activities is the IAU Secretariat, hosted by the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris in France. The scientific and educational activities of the IAU are organized by its 9 Scientific Divisions and, through them, its 35 specialized Commissions covering the full spectrum of astronomy, along with its 54 Working Groups. The key activity of the IAU is the organization of scientific meetings. Every year the IAU sponsors 9 international IAU Symposia. The IAU Symposium Proceedings series is the flagship of the IAU publications.
Every three years the IAU holds a General Assembly, which offers 6 IAU Symposia, some 15 Focus Meetings, and individual business and scientific meetings of Divisions, Commissions, and Working Groups and Offices.
The proceedings of Focus Meetings are published in the Astronomy in Focus series. The triennial reports of the Divisions and Commissions are published in the Transactions of the IAU – A series.
The reports of the GA business meetings are published in the Transactions of the IAU – B series.
Among the other tasks of the IAU are the definition of fundamental astronomical and physical constants; unambiguous astronomical nomenclature and informal discussions on the possibilities for future international large-scale facilities. Furthermore, the IAU serves as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and surface features on them.
The IAU also works to promote research, education and public outreach activities in astronomy for the public.
These activities culminated with the organization of the UNESCO International Year of Astronomy in 2009, which reached out to over 800 million people from 148 countries.
Following this effort, the IAU has also established in 2015 the Office of Young Astronomers (OYA), a joint venture with the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters.
In 2011 the IAU created the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD), a joint venture with the South African National Research Foundation where Astronomy is used as a tool for stimulating capacity building.
The IAU has also established in 2012 the Office for Astronomy Outreach (OAO), a joint venture with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Furthermore, the IAU has also established the Office of Young Astronomers (OYA), a joint venture with the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters.
The IAU has recently launched an international call to establish the Office of Astronomy for Education (OAE) in 2019. Regional nodes have been created in other countries as well.
In 2015 actively participated in the International Year of Light. The IAU also carries out joint educational activities associated with COSPAR and UNESCO.
This web site provides on-line information on the Union’s activities and links to the web sites of the IAU Divisions, Commissions and Working Groups. Further contact with the IAU membership is maintained through the IAU Catalyst, the revitalized, electronic-only Information Bulletin which is downloadable from this web site as well as through Press Releases and Announcements.
The new extended IAU Strategic Plan 2020–2030 provides a comprehensive overview of the IAU, describing how the different IAU activities fit together and how they complement each other, and presents its long-term goals.
In 2019, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) is celebrating its 100th anniversary. To commemorate this milestone, the IAU is organising a year-long celebration to increase awareness of a century of astronomical discoveries as well as to support and improve the use of astronomy as a tool for education, development and diplomacy under the central theme “Under One Sky”. Find more information here: IAU 100.
The IAU follows the regulations of the International Science Council (ISC) and concurs with their ‘Principle on Academic Freedom in the Conduct of Science’ on non-discrimination and universality of science.
In particular (Statute II.7): “The Principle of Freedom and Responsibility in Science: the free and responsible practice of science is fundamental to scientific advancement and human and environmental well-being. Such practice, in all its aspects, requires freedom of movement, association, expression and communication for scientists, as well as equitable access to data, information, and other resources for research. It requires responsibility at all levels to carry out and communicate scientific work with integrity, respect, fairness, trustworthiness, and transparency, recognising its benefits and possible harms.
In advocating the free and responsible practice of science, the Council promotes equitable opportunities for access to science and its benefits, and opposes discrimination based on such factors as ethnic origin, religion, citizenship, language, political or other opinion, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, disability, or age.

5. Consider the following statements about the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
1. The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, better known as the Rowlatt Act, came into force a month before the massacre in Jallianwala Bagh.
2. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre or the Amritsar Massacre took place when many villagers gathered in the park for the celebration of Baisakhi.
3. The government of India ordered an investigation of the incident by the Hunter Commission, which in 1920 censured Dyer for his actions and ordered him to resign from the military.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre also called Massacre of Amritsar, incident on April 13, 1919, in which British troops fired on a large crowd of unarmed Indians in an open space known as the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in the Punjab region (now in Punjab state) of India, killing several hundred people and wounding many hundreds more.
It marked a turning point in India’s modern history, in that it left a permanent scar on Indo-British relations and was the prelude to Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi’s full commitment to the cause of Indian nationalism and independence from Britain.
British raj: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre at Amritsar
Soon after Dyer’s arrival, on the afternoon of April 13, 1919, some 10,000 or more unarmed men, women, and children gathered in Amritsar.
During World War I (1914–18) the British government of India enacted a series of repressive emergency powers that were intended to combat subversive activities.
By the war’s end, expectations were high among the Indian populace that those measures would be eased and that India would be given more political autonomy.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Report, presented to the British Parliament in 1918, did in fact recommend limited local self-government. Instead, however, the government of India passed what became known as the Rowlatt Acts in early 1919, which essentially extended the repressive wartime measures.
The acts were met by widespread anger and discontent among Indians, notably in the Punjab region.
Gandhi in early April called for a one-day general strike throughout the country.
In Amritsar the news that prominent Indian leaders had been arrested and banished from that city sparked violent protests on April 10, in which soldiers fired upon civilians, buildings were looted and burned and angry mobs killed several foreign nationals and severely beat a Christian missionary. A force of several dozen troops commanded by Brig. Gen. Reginald Edward Harry Dyer was given the task of restoring order. Among the measures taken was a ban on public gatherings.
On the afternoon of April 13, a crowd of at least 10,000 men, women, and children gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh, which was nearly completely enclosed by walls and had only one exit.
It is not clear how many people there were protesters who were defying the ban on public meetings and how many had come to the city from the surrounding region to celebrate Baisakhi, a spring festival.
Dyer and his soldiers arrived and sealed off the exit. Without warning, the troops opened fire on the crowd, reportedly shooting hundreds of rounds until they ran out of ammunition. It is not certain how many died in the bloodbath, but, according to one official report, an estimated 379 people were killed, and about 1,200 more were wounded. After they ceased firing, the troops immediately withdrew from the place, leaving behind the dead and wounded.
The shooting was followed by the proclamation of martial law in the Punjab that included public floggings and other humiliations.
Indian outrage grew as news of the shooting and subsequent British actions spread throughout the subcontinent.
The Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore renounced the knighthood that he had received in 1915.
Gandhi was initially hesitant to act, but he soon began organizing his first large-scale and sustained nonviolent protest (Satyagraha) campaign, the noncooperation movement (1920–22), which thrust him to prominence in the Indian nationalist struggle.
The government of India ordered an investigation of the incident (the Hunter Commission), which in 1920 censured Dyer for his actions and ordered him to resign from the military.
Reaction in Britain to the massacre was mixed, however.
Many condemned Dyer’s actions—including Sir Winston Churchill, then secretary of war, in a speech to the House of Commons in 1920—but the House of Lords praised Dyer and gave him a sword inscribed with the motto “Saviour of the Punjab.”
In addition, a large fund was raised by Dyer’s sympathizers and presented to him. The Jallianwala Bagh site in Amritsar is now a national monument.

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