Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 20 June 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding the Supplementary demands for grants.
1. These grants are presented and passed by the Parliament before the end of the financial year.
2. When grants, authorised by the Parliament, fall short of the required expenditure, an estimate is presented before the Parliament for Additional grants.
3. Supplementary, additional or excess grants are mentioned in the Constitution of India.
4. It is granted when the amount is authorised by the Parliament through the appropriation act.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation
Supplementary Demands for Grants
The LokSabha is discussing supplementary demands for grants for 2019-20. This includes 78 grants and four appropriations. If the government needs to spend any additional money, it can introduce Supplementary Demands for Grants during the year.
When grants, authorised by the Parliament, fall short of the required expenditure, an estimate is presented before the Parliament for Supplementary or Additional grants. These grants are presented and passed by the Parliament before the end of the financial year.
When actual expenditure incurred exceeds the approved grants of the Parliament, the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Railways presents a Demand for Excess Grant. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India bring such excesses to the notice of the Parliament.
The Public Accounts Committee examines these excesses and gives recommendations to the Parliament. The Demand for Excess Grants is made after the actual expenditure is incurred and is presented to the Parliament after the end of the financial year in which the expenses were made.
Supplementary, additional or excess grants and Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants are mentioned in the Constitution of India 1949.
Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Copenhagen Accord.
1. Under the accord, Annex-I countries commit to implement economy-wide emissions targets for 2020, and non-Annex-I countries will implement mitigation actions.
2. The accord declares the immediate establishment of a mechanism to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries to support efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to enhance forest sinks.
3. The Copenhagen Accord provided for explicit emission pledges by all major economies including, for the first time, China and other major developing countries, but no clear path toward a binding treaty.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Copenhagen Accord
The Copenhagen Accord is a political (as opposed to legal) agreement of a novel form. Formal decisions under the U.N. climate process are typically taken by consensus. As some parties opposed the accord, the decision entering it into the conference’s proceedings is not technically an acceptance of its substantive content by the Conference of the Parties (or by the parallel Meeting of the Parties under Kyoto).
Rather, the decisions by the two bodies only “take note” of the attached accord. Individual countries, in all likelihood a strong majority of the Convention’s 192 parties, will affix their names to the accord in the coming weeks.
The accord declares itself “operational immediately,” although many of its provisions will require further elaboration (in some cases explicitly, and in other cases presumably, by the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties). The timeline for doing so is not specified.
In substance, the accord speaks to all of the core elements of the Bali Action Plan: a long-term goal; mitigation; adaptation; finance; technology; forests; and measurement, reporting and verification.
Long-Term Goal
The agreement “recogniz [es] the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius.” It also calls for a review of the accord by 2015, including a consideration of strengthening the long-term goal “in relation to temperature rises of 1.5 degrees Celsius.”
Mitigation
Under the accord, Annex I (developed) countries “commit to implement” economy-wide emissions targets for 2020, and non-Annex I (developing) countries “will implement mitigation actions.” (Least developed and small island countries “may undertake actions voluntarily and on the basis of support.”)
The developed country targets and an initial set of developing country actions are to be entered into two appendices by January 31, 2010. It is widely expected, although not specified in the accord, that the targets and actions entered will be consistent with those floated by governments in the run-up to Copenhagen. Additional developing country actions can be added to the appendix on an ongoing basis. Actions for which developing countries are seeking support are to be recorded in a registry, and those receiving support will later be listed in the developing country appendix.
Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV)
The emission targets of Annex I countries, and their delivery of finance for developing countries, will be MRV’d “in accordance with existing and any further guidelines” from the COP. These guidelines are to ensure “rigorous, robust and transparent” accounting of both targets and finance.
Actions by developing countries “will be subject to their domestic” MRV, with the results reported in biennial national communications. The information reported will be subject to “international consultation and analysis under clearly defined guidelines that will ensure that national sovereignty is respected.” Developing country actions receiving international support will be subject to international MRV under guidelines adopted by the COP.
Adaptation
Developed countries “shall provide adequate, predictable and sustainable” finance, technology and capacity-building to support the implementation of adaptation actions in developing countries.
Forestry
The accord declares the “immediate establishment of a mechanism…to enable the mobilization of financial resources from developed countries” to support efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to enhance forest sinks.
Finance
“Scaled up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding” is to be provided to developing countries to support mitigation efforts (including forest-related), adaptation, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building. For the period 2010-2012, developed countries have a “collective commitment” to provide “new and additional resources…approaching USD 30 billion.” Developed countries also commit to a goal of jointly mobilizing $100 billion a year by 2020, “in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation.” The long-term finance is to be a mix of public (bilateral and multilateral) and private resources.
The accord calls for a new Copenhagen Green Climate Fund as one channel for delivering finance and a High Level Panel “to study the contribution of the potential sources of revenue” toward the long-term funding goal.
Technology
The agreement establishes a new Technology Mechanism to accelerate technology development and transfer for both adaptation and mitigation.
Relation to UNFCCC and Kyoto – The accord endorses two parallel decisions under the Convention and the Protocol (see below) extending the two formal negotiating tracks that existed prior to Copenhagen. Those decisions, however, do not cross-reference the accord. Thus, while some parties will likely look to those negotiating processes to elaborate and fully operationalize the accord, no formal link was established.
https://www.c2es.org/content/cop-15-copenhagen/

3. Consider the following statements regarding the International Labour Organization (ILO).
1. It is a tripartite organization, the only one of its kind bringing together representatives of governments, employers and workers in its executive bodies.
2. In 1919, ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations.
3. India is a founder member of the International Labour Organization.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
International Labour Organization (ILO)
The unique tripartite structure of the ILO gives an equal voice to workers, employers and governments to ensure that the views of the social partners are closely reflected in labour standards and in shaping policies and programmes.
The main aims of the ILO are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
The ILO was founded in 1919, in the wake of a destructive war, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice. The ILO became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946.
The only tripartite U.N. agency, since 1919 the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States , to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
ILO was created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice.
It is a tripartite organization, the only one of its kind bringing together representatives of governments, employers and workers in its executive bodies.
Since 1919, the International Labour Organization has maintained and developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity.
In 1969, ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
India is a founder member of the International Labour Organization.
The Headquarter of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.
Structure of ILO
The ILO accomplishes its work through three main bodies which comprise governments’, employers’ and workers’ representatives:
International Labour Conference: it sets the International labour standards and the broad policies of the ILO. It meets annually in Geneva. It is often referred to as an International Parliament of Labour.
It is also a forum for discussion of key social and labour questions.
Governing Body: it is the executive council of the ILO. It meets three times a year in Geneva.
It takes policy decisions of ILO and establishes the programme and the budget, which it then submits to the Conference for adoption.
The work of the Governing Body and the Office is aided by tripartite committees covering major industries.
It is also supported by committees of experts on such matters as vocational training, management development, occupational safety and health, industrial relations, workers’ education, and special problems of women and young workers.
International Labour Office: it is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization.
It is the focal point for ILO’s overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General.
Regional meetings of the ILO member States are held periodically to examine matters of special interest to the regions concerned.
The Functions of the ILO
Creation of coordinated policies and programs, directed at solving social and labour issues.
Adoption of international labour standards in the form of conventions and recommendations and control over their implementation.
Assistance to member-states in solving social and labour problems.
Human rights protection (the right to work, freedom of association, collective negotiations, protection against forced labour, protection against discrimination, etc.).
Research and publication of works on social and labour issues.
Objectives of the ILO
To promote and realize standards and fundamental principles and rights at work.
To create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment.
To enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all.
To strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.
International Labour Standards
The ILO sets international labour standards with conventions, which are ratified by member states. These are non-binding.
Conventions are drawn up with input from governments, workers’ and employers’ groups at the ILO and are adopted by the International Labour Conference.
In ratifying an ILO convention, a member state accepts it as a legally binding instrument. Many countries use conventions as a tool to bring national laws in line with international standards.
https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang–en/index.htm

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Indira Gandhi Matritva Poshan Yojana.
1. The Rajasthan government has announced a maternity benefit scheme under which it will offer ₹6,000 for the birth of the second child.
2. Unlike the Central scheme, they will not have to submit an Aadhaar card for the States scheme and the money will be transferred directly to their bank accounts.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
Indira Gandhi Matritva Poshan Yojana
The Rajasthan government has announced a maternity benefit scheme for four districts in the State on a pilot basis under which it will offer ₹6,000 for the birth of the second child.
The scheme will be implemented in Udaipur, Pratapgath, Banswara and Dungarpur, where nutrition indicators among children and anaemia levels among mothers are worse than the average for the State. The government aims to reach out to 75,000 beneficiaries annually.
It estimates an expenditure of ₹45 crore per year. Beneficiaries will receive cash in three or five instalments upon meeting certain conditions. However, unlike the Central scheme they will not have to submit an Aadhaar card for the States scheme and the money will be transferred directly to their bank accounts. This cash benefit will ensure adequate nutrition for the second child.
The State scheme will complement the Central government’s Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana which offers ₹5,000 for the birth of the first child.

5. Consider the following statements about the Abel Prize.
1. The Abel Prize recognizes contributions to the field of mathematics that are of extraordinary depth and influence.
2. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters awards the Abel Prize based on a recommendation from the Abel committee.
3. The sole Indian recipient of the Able Prize is S. ramanujan
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Abel Prize
The Abel Prize for Mathematics for 2020 is awarded to Israeli-American Hillel Furstenberg and Russian born Gregory Margulis, both probability experts.
The Abel Prize was established by the Norwegian government in 2002 on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of Niels Henrik Abel’s birth. The Abel Prize recognizes contributions to the field of mathematics that are of extraordinary depth and influence.
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters awards the Abel Prize based on a recommendation from the Abel committee. The prize carries a cash award of 7,5 million NOK and has been awarded annually since 2003.
In addition to honouring outstanding mathematicians, the Abel Prize shall contribute towards raising the status of mathematics in society and stimulating the interest of children and young people in mathematics.
Among the projects that get support is the Norwegian Mathematical Olympiad and the Abel Symposium.
Karen Uhlenbeck, a mathematician and professor at the University of Texas, was awarded Abel Prize for 2019. It’s the first time the prize has gone to a woman.
The sole Indian recipient of the Able Prize is Indian American mathematician S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan. He was awarded for his fundamental contribution to probability theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviation.
There is no Nobel Prize in mathematics, and for decades, the most prestigious awards in math were the Fields Medals, awarded in small batches every four years to the most accomplished mathematicians who are 40 or younger. Along with the Fields Medal, which is awarded every four years at the Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), Abel Prize is one of the world’s most prestigious maths prizes in the field of mathematics.
https://www.abelprize.no/c53671/artikkel/vis.html?tid=53702