Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 21 FEB 2020

 

 

 

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1. Consider the following statements regarding National Investigation Agency (NIA).
1. The NIA was set up in 2009 under the NIA Act, 2008.
2. NIA (Amendment) Bill, 2019 enhances the jurisdiction of NIA to investigate scheduled offences committed outside India targeting Indians as well as Indian assets abroad.
3. NIA (Amendment) Bill, 2019 restricts the functions of NIA to investigate offences related to human trafficking and counterfeit currency.
4. NIA’s jurisdiction will be subject to international treaties and domestic laws of other countries.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

2. Consider the following statements with respect to Sharang artillery gun.
1. It is indigenously upgraded 155mm edition of Bofors gun.
2. The gun’s range has now gone from 27km to over 36km with the upgrade.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

3. Consider the following statements regarding with Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).
1. It is a proposed free trade agreement between members of ASEAN and six free trade agreements countries.
2. RCEP provides for trade in goods only.
3. Recently, India has decided to join the RCEP.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Consider the following statements regarding World Trade Organisation (WTO).
1. It is the only international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
2. WTO recognizes as least-developed countries (LDCs) those countries which have been designated as such by the United Nations.
3. The WTO Ministerial Conference is the apex decision-making body which meets annually.
4. WTO is not a UN specialized agency.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

10. Consider the following statements regarding Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY).
1. It is a maternity benefit programme being implemented in all districts of the country.
2. First position was awarded to Madhya Pradesh in PMMVY awards.
3. The scheme promises a total sum of ₹6,000 to be given in three installments to pregnant women and lactating mothers.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

1.Answer-a
Explanation
NIA (Amendment) Bill, 2019
There are three major amendments to the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act of 2008.
Under the existing Act, the NIA can investigate offences under Acts such as the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, and the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967. The latest amendments will enable the NIA to additionally investigate offences related to human trafficking, counterfeit currency, manufacture or sale of prohibited arms, cyber-terrorism, and offences under the Explosive Substances Act, 1908.
Under the Act, for the offences under its purview, NIA officers have the same power as other police officers and these extend across the country. The Bill amends this to give NIA officers the power to investigate offences committed outside India. Of course, NIA’s jurisdiction will be subject to international treaties and domestic laws of other countries.
The existing Act allows the Centre to constitute special courts for NIA’s trials. But the Bill enables the Central government to designate session’s courts as special courts for such trials.
What is NIA?
The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was set up in 2009 under the NIA Act, 2008. It was set up in the wake of the Mumbai terror attack. At present, NIA is functioning as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in India. It aims to be a thoroughly professional investigative agency matching the best international standards at the national level, by developing into a highly trained, partnership-oriented workforce. It aims to discourage the existing and potential terrorist groups/individuals. It aims to develop as a storehouse of terrorist related information.

 

2.Answer-b
Explanation-
The Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) recently handed over Sharang, the first 130mm M46 artillery gun upgraded to 155mm, 45 calibre upgunning to the Indian Army at the ongoing Defexpo.
The gun’s range has now gone from 27km to over 36km with the upgrade. It also has more explosive capability and hence and more damage potential.
The Army inducted its first modern artillery guns system in November 2018. These include M777 Ultra Light Howitzers (ULH) from the U.S. and K9 Vajra-T self propelled artillery guns. The Army has the older, battle proven Bofors 155mm guns in service. The 155mm Dhanush towed gun system, developed based on the Bofors guns, is under induction.

 

3.Answer-b
Explanation-
RCEP is a trade deal that is currently under negotiation among 16 countries. These countries include 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and 6 countries with which the ASEAN bloc has free trade agreements (FTA). The ASEAN countries have FTAs with India, Australia, China, South Korea, Japan and New Zealand.
India has decided not to join the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) – at least for now.

 

4.Answer-a
Explanation
Only the Least-Developed Countries status is designated by UNO. (i.e) WTO recognizes as least-developed countries (LDCs) those countries which have been designated as such by the United Nations. There are no WTO definitions of “developed” and “developing” countries. WTO allows member countries to classify themselves as “developed” or “developing”. However, other members can challenge the decision of a country to be classified as “developing”.
World Trade Organization
 The WTO came into being in 1995; it is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
 The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations; the HQ is located in Geneva.
 Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
 Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members’ parliaments.
 Trade friction is channeled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments.
 The WTO Ministerial Conference generally meets once in two years.
 The WTO has 164 members representing 98 per cent of world trade. Over 20 countries are seeking to join the WTO.
 The WTO derives most of the income for its annual budget from contributions by its members.
 The WTO Secretariat, with offices only in Geneva, is headed by a Director-General.
 The Uruguay Round, conducted from 1987 to 1994, culminated in the Marrakesh Agreement, which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).
 Although the WTO is not a UN specialized agency, it has maintained strong relations with the UN and its agencies since its establishment.

 

5. Answer-b
Explanation
Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
The scheme promises a total sum of ₹5,000 to be given in three installments to pregnant women and lactating mothers. Those who receive similar benefits from their employers and government employees are excluded from the scheme.
The benefit is provided only for the first live birth and the money is to be credited to the beneficiary’s Aadhaar linked savings account in different intervals over a period of nearly 14 months.
Each installment is paid after the mothers meet certain conditions — the first installment after early registration of pregnancy; the second installment after six months of pregnancy on the completion of at least one antenatal checkup; and the third installment after the registration of childbirth and the first cycle of immunisation of the child.
The government has clubbed this with the Janani Suraksha Yojana, which provides a benefit of ₹700-₹1,000, to claim that women will get “on an average” ₹6,000 for every first child.
PMMVY is implemented through a centrally deployed web based MIS software application and the focal point of implementation is Anganwadi Centre (AWC) and ASHA/ANM.
Union Minister of Women & Child Development recently gave away the PMMVY awards to States, Union Territories and Districts for best performance at a function in New Delhi.
In the category of best performance since inception of the Scheme to States/ UTs having population of more than 1 crore the first position was awarded to the State of Madhya Pradesh, followed by Andhra Pradesh and Haryana was in the third position.