Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 22 July 2020

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1. Consider the following statements about Bahadurshah Zafar.
1. The first War of Independence in India started in 1857 under the leadership of Bahadur Shah Zafar.
2. He was the second son of Akbar Shah II and Lal Bai.
2. He had taken refuge in Humayun’s Tomb during the first War of Independence in 1857.
4. He was also a great patron of eminent and famous Urdu poets like Mirza Ghalib, Zauk, Momin and Daagh of his time.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Bahadurshah Zafar
Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor of India who was born in 1775 at Delhi.
He was named Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar during his birth but was more popular as Bahadur Shah Zafar.
His father was Akbar Shah and his mother was Lalbai.
He ascended the throne at a very advanced age, after the death of his father, in 1837.
He was last ruler of the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for about 300 years.
He did not rule over his empire with a strong hand because of the rising power of the British.
During Bahadur Shah Zafar’s reign, Urdu poetry developed and reached its acme.
Influenced by his grandfather and father who were also poets, even he developed this creative skill. He also contributed in the literary field.
His poetry mostly dealt with love and mysticism. He even wrote of the pain and sorrow that he faced by the British.
He was also a great patron of eminent and famous Urdu poets like Mirza Ghalib, Zauk, Momin and Daagh of his time.
Most of his Urdu Ghazals were lost during the war of 1857. Some of them which were saved were compiled and named Kulliyat-I-Zafar.
The first War of Independence in India started in 1857 under the leadership of Bahadur Shah Zafar. He was appointed as the Commander-in-Chief by the freedom fighters. Initially the revolt was quite successful, but later on it was crushed by the powerful British army and Bahadur Shah Zafar, was overthrown.
Despite the failure of the revolt the revolutionaries considered Bahadur Shah Zafar as the Emperor of India. Zafar was hiding at Humayun’s tomb, in Delhi, along with his three sons and a grandson when the British army came and killed his sons and grandson and he was charged of treachery.
In 1858, he was exiled to Rangoon in Myanmar, he lived there for five years and died at the age of 87, in 1862.
He was buried in the shrine Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah in Rangoon, which is located near the Shwe Degon Pagoda at 6 Ziwaka Road, at Rangoon.
https://www.mapsofindia.com/who-is-who/history/bahadur-shah-zafar.html
2. Consider the following statements regarding the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).
1. It refers to seven security forces in India under the authority of Ministry of Defence Affairs.
2. Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are headed by officers of the Indian Police Service.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-b
Explanation-
Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs)
What is the role of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs)?
Under the Constitution, police and public order are state subjects. However, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) assists state governments by providing them support of the Central Armed Police Forces.
The Ministry maintains seven CAPFs:
(i) The Central Reserve Police Force, which assists in internal security and counterinsurgency,
(ii) The Central Industrial Security Force, which protects vital installations (like airports) and public sector undertakings,
(iii) The National Security Guards, which is a special counterterrorism force, and
(iv) Four border guarding forces, which are the Border Security Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Sashastra Seema Bal, and Assam Rifles.
The Union Home Ministry has fixed the retirement age of all Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) personnel at 60 years.
The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) refers to seven security forces in India under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.
Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are headed by officers of the Indian Police Service.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Red Flag Alaska 20-1.
1. It is a Pacific Air Forces-sponsored exercise meant to provide realistic training in a simulated combat environment over the Joint Pacific Alaska range complex.
2. The IAF joined Red Flag for the first time in 2008 in Nevada.
3. The IAF would not take part in every edition of the biennial exercise because of the high cost involved.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Red Flag Alaska 20-1
Recently, the U.S. Air Force has cancelled the Phase-I of Red Flag due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
It is a Pacific Air Forces-sponsored exercise meant to provide realistic training in a simulated combat environment over the Joint Pacific Alaska range complex.
RED FLAG-Alaska is a series of Pacific Air Forces commander-directed field training exercises for US forces to provide joint offensive counter-air, interdiction, close air support, and large force employment training in a simulated combat environment.
It is USA’s flagship multilateral air exercise.
Key Points
The Red Flag Alaska 20-1 was scheduled to be held in Alaska from 30th April to 15th May, 2020.
It has been cancelled owing to the travel restrictions imposed by the U.S. Department of Defence.
The Indian Air Force (IAF) was also to take part in the exercise with its Sukhoi Su-30 fighter jets.
The IAF joined Red Flag for the first time in 2008 in Nevada.
It has deployed Su-30MKI, Jaguar strike aircraft, the Il-78 tankers and the C-17 strategic airlift aircraft in the exercise.
However, it had said it would not take part in every edition of the biennial exercise because of the high cost involved.
https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/coronavirus-us-cancels-red-flag-air exercise/article31201649.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
1. The Home Ministry has power to invoke Sections of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, to imprison those who violate government instructions.
2. The National Executive Committee are formed under this act, which has power to investigate the duty compliance of the officers.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
Disaster Management Act, 2005
Centre suspends two Delhi govt. officers
The National Executive Committee formed under the Disaster Management Act, 2005, found that the “officers, who were responsible to ensure strict compliance” with the instructions issued regarding containment of spread of COVID19, “have prima facie failed to do so”.
The Home Ministry has also invoked Sections 51 to 60 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, to imprison those who violate government instructions.
https://www.ndmindia.nic.in/images/The%20Disaster%20Management%20Act,%202005.pdf

5. Consider the following statement regarding the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
1. The definition of ‘air pollutant’ as per Air Act, 1981 includes Solid, liquid and gaseous substances including noise.
2. Air Act, 1981, is empowered to Pollution Control Committee to set standard for ambient air quality.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-a
Explanation-
India participated in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972 to take appropriate steps for the preservation of the natural resources of the earth which, among other things, include the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.
Based on the concluding guidelines of this conference, the Air Act was formulated by the government of India in 1981.
The Air Act (1981)
This is an Act to provide for the prevention and control and abatement of air pollution through various management guidelines and restrictions. One of the prime objectives of this act is carrying out the purposes mentioned above by assigning a set of responsibilities, powers, and functions to the Boards for the prevention and control of air pollution.
The act was introduced and incorporated into the Constitution of India in 1981 laying down guidelines for the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.
Central & State Pollution Control Boards (PCBs)
Under this act, one Central board and numerous State boards shall be appointed by notification in the Official Gazette called Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) respectively with effect from a date not later than six months of the commencement of this Act.
The Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution that was formed in 1974 post the signing off the water act shall exercise the powers and perform the functions of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution under this Act.
The State Boards shall investigate, assess, and monitor the issues of concern regarding the quality and pollution of the water resources available in their jurisdiction and shall report the same through quarterly and annual reports during board meetings to the Central Board. The Central Board hereby shall look into the State Board’s reports and also monitor and handle major issues regarding national water resources.
Note- Pollution Control Committee (PCC) is an autonomous regulatory body come into existence after Notification of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), which delegated all its powers and functions to PCC, under Section 4(4) of Water Act & Section 6 of Air Act.
https://dpccocmms.nic.in/standardMaster/functionsOfDPCC.gsp