Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 23 July 2020

FOR PREVIOUS UPDATE of CURRENT MCQ CLICK HERE

1. Consider the following statements regarding the National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS). 1. The ultimate goal of this is to improve quality of life and maintain ecosystem health of the region to ensure long-term ecological security to the country.
2. The Scheme will be implemented by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
3. It is a Central Sector Grant-in-aid Scheme, focused to address the issues related to conservation and sustainable management of natural resources in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation
National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS)
It is a Central Sector Grant-in-aid Scheme and its targets to provide much needed focus, through holistic understanding of system’s components and their linkages, in addressing the key issues relating to conservation and sustainable management of natural resources in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR).
The ultimate goal is to improve quality of life and maintain ecosystem health of the region to ensure long- term ecological security to the country.
As the Mission specifically targets the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), the jurisdiction of NMHS includes 11 Himalayan states/UTs fully (i.e., Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Ladakh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand) and two states partially (i.e., hill districts of Assam and West Bengal).
The Mission strategy is to focus on enhancing livelihoods of local communities, in line with the National Environment Policy, 2006 of the Government, with a basic premise that the most secured and effective basis for conservation is to ensure that people dependent on particular resources obtain better livelihoods from the act of conservation than from the degradation of the resources.
Implementation

The Scheme will be implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), and it will have its nodal and serving hub with G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development (GBPIHED) with a fully dedicated Project Management Unit for the NMHS.
To guide the overall implementation, a Steering Committee, Chaired by the Secretary MoEF&CC, is in place.
Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region
It spreads over 3,500 square kilometers across eight countries including India, Nepal and China.
Eight National Missions under NAPCC

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/NAPCC-eight-core-national-missions_tbl1_280830136
https://nmhs.org.in/#

2. Consider the following statements regarding the National Teleconsultation Centre (CoNTeC).
1. It is a Telemedicine Hub established by AIIMS, New Delhi, wherein expert doctors from various clinical domains will be available 24×7 to answer the multifaceted questions from specialists from all over the country.
2. It is also fully integrated with the National Medical College Network (NMCN) to conduct a full fledged Video Conference (VC).
3. The modes of communication will include simple mobile telephony as well as two way video communications, using WhatsApp, Skype and Google Duo.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
National Teleconsultation Centre (CoNTeC)
The Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare launched the National Teleconsultation Centre (CoNTeC).
The project CoNTeC, an acronym for COVID-19 National Teleconsultation Centre, has been conceptualised by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and has been implemented by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
CoNTeC has been made operational at AIIMS with a view to connect the Doctors across the country to AIIMS in real time for treatment of the COVID-19 patients.
The CoNTeC is a Telemedicine Hub established by AIIMS, New Delhi, wherein expert doctors from various clinical domains will be available 24×7 to answer the multifaceted questions from specialists from all over the country.
It is a multi-modal telecommunications hub through which 2 way audio-video and text communications can be undertaken from any part of the country as well as the world at large. The modes of communication will include simple mobile telephony as well as two way video communications, using WhatsApp, Skype and Google Duo.
The CoNTeC is also fully integrated with the National Medical College Network (NMCN) to conduct a full fledged Video Conference (VC) between the 50 Medical Colleges connected through the NMCN with its National Resource Centre located at SGPGI, Lucknow.
The patient management advice offered will be standardized as per the national guidelines supplemented protocols developed by the team at AIIMS, nominated by the Director, AIIMS.
How to Contact the CoNTeC?
A single mobile number (+91 9115444155) can be dialled from anywhere in the coutnry/world by COVID-19 treating doctors to reach the CoNTeC which has six lines that can be used simultaneously at present.
The incoming calls will be picked up by the CoNTeC Managers, who will then handover the call to the appropriate expert doctors from the clinical domains as desired by the calling specialists managing the COVID-19 cases anywhere in the country.
The Managers will guide the callers in establishing a two way video call using the WhatsApp, Skype or Google Duo as preferred by the caller. The callers from the NMCN network can connect anytime using the Telemedicine infrastructure at their end.
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=200767

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package.
1. The scheme will provide an insurance cover of 50 lakh rupees for ninety days to public healthcare providers.
2. The scheme will also include accidental loss of life on account of contracting COVID-19.
3. The insurance provided under this scheme would be over and above any other insurance cover being availed of by the beneficiary.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package
As per the announcement made under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package, the launch of ‘Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package: Insurance Scheme for Health Workers Fighting COVID-19’ has been approved with the following conditions:
It will provide an insurance cover of Rs. 50 lakh for ninety (90) days to a total of around 22.12 lakh public healthcare providers, including community health workers, who may have to be in direct contact and care of COVID-19 patients and who may be at risk of being impacted by this.
It will also include accidental loss of life on account of contracting COVID-19;
On account of the unprecedented situation, private hospital staff/ retired/volunteer/ local urban bodies/contract/daily wage/ ad-hoc/outsourced staff requisitioned by States/ Central hospitals/autonomous hospitals of Central/States/UTs, AIIMS & INIs/ hospitals of Central Ministries can also be drafted for COVID-19 related responsibilities.
These cases will also be covered subject to numbers indicated by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
The insurance provided under this scheme would be over and above any other insurance cover being availed of by the beneficiary.
https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1609041

4. Consider the following statements with reference to the Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020.
1. The Schemes gives longer timelines for corporates to comply with various filing requirements under the Companies Act 2013 and LLP Act, 2008.
2. Ministry of Finance has introduced this scheme to provide relief to law abiding companies.
3. The Schemes also significantly reduce the related financial burden on companies, especially for those with long standing defaults, thereby giving them an opportunity to make a fresh start.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020
In pursuance of the Government of India’s efforts to provide relief to law abiding companies and Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) in the wake of COVID 19, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA), has introduced the “Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020” and revised the “LLP Settlement Scheme, 2020” which is already in vogue to provide a first of its kind opportunity to both companies and LLPs to make good any filing related defaults, irrespective of duration of default, and make a fresh start as a fully compliant entity.
The Fresh Start scheme and modified LLP Settlement Scheme incentivise compliance and reduce compliance burden during the unprecedented public health situation caused by COVID-19.
The USP of both the schemes is a one-time waiver of additional filing fees for delayed filings by the companies or LLPs with the Registrar of Companies during the currency of the Schemes, i.e. during the period starting from 1st April, 2020 and ending on 30th September, 2020.
The Schemes, apart from giving longer timelines for corporates to comply with various filing requirements under the Companies Act 2013 and LLP Act, 2008, significantly reduce the related financial burden on them, especially for those with long standing defaults, thereby giving them an opportunity to make a “fresh start”. Both the Schemes also contain provision for giving immunity from penal proceedings, including against imposition of penalties for late submissions and also provide additional time for filing appeals before the concerned Regional Directors against imposition of penalties, if already imposed.
However, the immunity is only against delayed filings in MCA21 and not against any substantive violation of law.
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=200825

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Biological Weapons Convention.
1. It is a legally binding treaty that effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, retention, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin weapons.
2. It is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning an entire category of weapons of mass destruction.
3. India has ratified this and pledges to abide by its obligations.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Biological Weapons Convention
The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) is a legally binding treaty that outlaws biological arms. After being discussed and negotiated in the United Nations’ disarmament forum starting in 1969, the BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972, and entered into force on March 26, 1975.
It currently has 183 states-parties, including Palestine, and four signatories (Egypt, Haiti, Somalia, Syria, and Tanzania).
Ten states have neither signed nor ratified the BWC (Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Israel, Kiribati, Micronesia, Namibia, South Sudan and Tuvalu).
Terms of the Treaty
The BWC bans:
The development, stockpiling, acquisition, retention, and production of:
1. Biological agents and toxins “of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;”
2. Weapons, equipment, and delivery vehicles “designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.”
The transfer of or assistance with acquiring the agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and delivery vehicles described above.
The convention further requires states-parties to destroy or divert to peaceful purposes the “agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and means of delivery” described above within nine months of the convention’s entry into force. The BWC does not ban the use of biological and toxin weapons but reaffirms the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which prohibits such use. It also does not ban biodefense programs.
Verification
The treaty regime mandates that states-parties consult with one another and cooperate, bilaterally or multilaterally, to solve compliance concerns. It also allows states-parties to lodge a complaint with the UN Security Council if they believe other member states are violating the convention. The Security Council can investigate complaints, but this power has never been invoked. Security Council voting rules give China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States veto power over Security Council decisions, including those to conduct BWC investigations.
Membership and Duration
The BWC is a multilateral treaty of indefinite duration that is open to any country.
Implementation
The convention has been flagrantly violated in the past. The Soviet Union, a state-party and one of the convention’s depositary states, maintained an enormous offensive biological weapons program after ratifying the BWC. Russia says that this program has been terminated, but questions remain about what happened to elements of the Soviet program. Iraq violated its commitments as a signatory state with its biological weapons program, which was uncovered by the UN Special Commission on Iraq after the Persian Gulf War. Iraq became a state-party after the war.
In November 2001, the United States publicly accused Iraq, as well as member state North Korea, of breaching the convention’s terms. Washington also expressed concern about compliance by Iran and Libya, which are also states-parties, and by Syria. The United States itself raised concerns in 2001 about whether some of its activities, ostensibly being conducted as part of its biodefense program, are permitted under the BWC. In 2002, Washington added Cuba, also a state-party, to its list of countries conducting activities that violate the convention.
In a 2017 report on compliance with the BWC, the United States indicated that Russia was the only state to have outstanding compliance issues with the BWC.
Review Conferences
States-parties have convened a review conference about every five years to review and improve upon the treaty’s implementation.
https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/bwc