Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 24 FEB 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding to Disease Outbreaks.
1. An Epidemic will see a disease rapidly spread amongst a large number of people in a given population.
2. The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) coordinated by the WHO, is an international network of institutions that provides health professionals and expert advice in time of outbreaks to countries.
3. A Pandemic is the worldwide spread of an infectious disease.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Consider the following statements Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Virus.
1. SARS Virus is a type of coronavirus which causes SARS disease.
2. SARS virus is of zoonotic in origin.
3. There is availability of vaccine for SARS and no cases have been reported worldwide since 2004.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
3. Consider the following statements regarding “Dark net” and “Deep web”.
1. The dark net is component of the greater deep web, a network of encrypted Internet content that is not accessible via traditional search engines.
2. All activities associated with the deep web are nefarious.
3. Most dark net websites use the The Onion Router (ToR) tool to help hide their identity.
4. Personal email, online banking, and other similar sites are included under the umbrella of the deep web.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. Consider the following statements regarding Guru Ravidas.
1. Guru Ravidas Jayanti is celebrated on Magh Purnima, which is the full moon day in the Hindu calendar.
2. He abandoned nirguna forms of supreme beings, and focussed on the saguna.
3. The famous saint poetess, Mirabai was a disciple of Guru Ravidas.
4. The 41 hymns of Guru Ravidas have been included in the Guru Granth Sahib.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
5. Which of the following Port and State of Location is correctly matched?
Port State
1. Kakinada Port ‎Andhra Pradesh
2. Nhava Sheva Port Karnataka
3. Vardhavan Port Maharashtra
4. Marmagoa Port Goa
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 3 only

  1. Answer-d
    Explanation
    Recently, The World Health Organization (WHO) admitted an error in its assessment of Wuhan Coronavirus risk.
    The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) coordinated by the WHO, is an international network of institutions that provides health professionals and expert advice in time of outbreaks to countries. It is a collaboration of existing institutions and networks, constantly alert and ready to respond. During outbreaks, the GOARN ensures that the right technical expertise and are skills are on the ground where and when they are needed most.
     An Endemic is an outbreak that occurs at a predictable rate in a certain area or among a set population.
     An Epidemic will see a disease rapidly spread amongst a large number of people in a given population.
     A Pandemic is the worldwide spread of an infectious disease.
    Public Health Emergency of International Concern
    A Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) is a formal declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is declared during an extraordinary event which is determined to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response. It is formulated when a situation arises that is “serious, sudden, unusual or unexpected”, which “carries implications for public health beyond the affected State’s national border” and “may require immediate international action”. Under the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR), states have a legal duty to respond promptly to a PHEIC. Since 2009, there have been six PHEIC declarations:
    1. In 2009 H1N1 (or swine flu) pandemic,
    2. In 2014 polio declaration,
    3. In 2014 outbreak of Ebola in Western Africa,
    4. In 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic,
    5. In 2015-16 Kivu Ebola epidemic,
    6. In 2020 novel coronavirus outbreak.
    The recommendations are temporary and require reviews every three months.
    SARS, smallpox, wild type poliomyelitis, and any new subtype of human influenza are automatically PHEICs and therefore do not require an IHR decision to declare them as such.

PHEIC is not only confined to infectious diseases, and may cover an emergency caused by a chemical agent or a radio nuclear material. It is a “call to action” and “last resort” measure. Most epidemics and emergencies do not gain public attention or fulfill the criteria to be a PHEIC.

2. Answer-b
Explanation
Recently, the WHO reported that a new coronavirus had been preliminarily identified by Chinese authorities. The virus is associated with an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.
A coronavirus has many “regularly arranged” protrusions on its surface, because of which the entire virus particle looks like an emperor’s crown, hence the name “coronavirus”.
Six different coronaviruses, those scientists know of, can infect people and make them sick. Apart from human beings, coronaviruses can affect mammals including pigs, cattle, cats, dogs, martens, camels, hedgehogs and some birds.
The best known are the SARS corona virus and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, both of which can cause severe respiratory diseases. Two newer human coronaviruses, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, have been known to frequently cause severe illness.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
 It is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus.
 It leads to shortness of breath and/or pneumonia. The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C (100 °F).
 There is no vaccine for SARS and no cases have been reported worldwide since 2004.
 According to WHO, SARS affected regions include China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Canada. Recently, Chinese virologists have found the origins of the SARS outbreak in 2003.
 A single population of horseshoe bats in a cave in Yunnan province in China caused the outbreak.
Novel Coronavirus
 It is a member of the coronavirus family, like other coronaviruses, has come from animals.
 New and troubling viruses usually originate in animal hosts; Ebola and flu are other examples.
 The virus causes pneumonia, those who have fallen ill are reported to suffer coughs, fever and breathing difficulties, in severe cases there can be organ failure, As this is viral pneumonia, antibiotics are of no use.
 China’s national health commission has confirmed many Human to human transmission of this disease.
 Severity of symptoms may vary some people appear to suffer only mild illness while others are becoming severely ill.
 A crucial difference is that unlike flu, there is no vaccine for the new coronavirus, which means it is more difficult for vulnerable members of the population elderly people or those with existing respiratory or immune problems to protect themselves.
 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars) and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (Mers) are both caused by coronaviruses that came from animals.

3.Answer-a
Explanation
Country’s first ‘darknet’ narcotics operative held
Accused shipped psychotropic drug parcels in the garb of sex stimulation medicines, say Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB).
A global ‘Operation Trance’, launched in December last year, entailing a joint intelligence gathering action on international postal, express mail and courier shipments containing psychotropic drugs (which can only be purchased on a doctor’s prescription) that are abused as sedatives and painkillers. The NCB was part of this operation.
Dark net and Deep web
 The dark net, also known as the “dark web,” is a component of the greater “deep web,” a network of encrypted Internet content that is not accessible via traditional search engines.
 The dark net is most often used for illegal activities such as black markets, illegal file sharing, and the exchanging of illegal goods or services (including stolen financial and private data), and the anonymity of the darknet attracts drug-dealers, hackers, and child pornography peddlers.
 Dark net markets have been instrumental in the development of cryptocurrencies because transactions completed on dark net markets using cryptocurrency like Bitcoins and Litecoin protect both the buyer and seller.
 Major Players on the darknet are Empire Market and Majestic Garden.
Dark Net vs. Deep Web
 The terms “dark net” and “deep web” are occasionally used interchangeably. However, this is not correct.
 The dark net is part of the greater deep web.
 The deep web encompasses all unindexed sites that don’t pop up when you do an Internet search.
 Not all activities associated with the deep web are nefarious.
 In most cases, these pages are not searchable through traditional channels because they are password-protected and require specific tools or authorization (like a log-in) in order to access them. Personal email, online banking, and other similar sites are included under the umbrella of the “deep web.”
Encryption and the Dark Net
 One of the most common ways that dark net websites are separated out from the surface net is through encryption. Most dark net websites use the The Onion Router (ToR) tool to help hide their identity.
What Is ToR?
ToR (‘The Onion Router’) is an open source privacy network that permits users to browse the web anonymously.
 The Tor network is a secure, encrypted protocol to ensure privacy of data and communications on the web.
 Short for ‘The Onion Router’ the system uses a series of layered nodes to hide IP address, online data, and browsing history.
 Originally developed by the U.S. government, it is now seen as dangerous in the hands of the public who may use the Tor network for illegal or unethical purposes.
 ToR allows individuals to hide their location, appearing as if they are in a different country. ToR-encrypted networks require that individuals use ToR in order to visit them. When individuals use ToR, their IP addresses and other identifying information is similarly encrypted.
 It is not difficult for an individual to access the dark net as long as they have the proper encryption tools. But it can be hard to determine who created certain websites on the dark net, and if you’ve participated in the dark net and your identity is revealed, it can be very dangerous.
 The ToR encryption tool uses many layers of encryption and anonymizes all traffic by routing it through a dense network of secure relays.
 ToR software is not illegal but the way that it is used can be illegal. ToR is not always used to access dark net services.
 The rapid rise in the development and innovation of digital products has given way to frequent data breaches and cyber thefts.
 ToR is one of such underground networks that were implemented for the purpose of protecting users’ identities.
 The ToR network is one of the many examples of emerging technologies that attempt to fill a data privacy void in a digital space plagued by cybersecurity concerns.

4.Answer-a
Explanation-
Guru Ravidas
 Guru Ravidas was a North Indian mystic poet of the bhakti movement. It is believed that the saint was born in 1377 C.E. Guru Ravidas Jayanti is celebrated on Magh Purnima, which is the full moon day in the Hindu calendar month of Magha.
 The Adi Granth of Sikhs, in addition to the Panchvani is the two of the oldest documented sources of the literary works of Guru Ravidas.
 Notably, he belonged to an untouchable caste (a leather-working Chamar community) and suffered a lot of atrocities as a result. However, the saint chose to focus on spiritual pursuits and also penned several devotional songs which made a huge impact in the Bhakti movement during the 14th to 16th century CE.
Guru Ravidas Teachings-
 Guru Ravidas spoke against the caste divisions and spoke of removing them to promote unity. His teachings resonated with the people, leading to a religion being born called the Ravidassia religion, or Ravidassia Dharam based on his teachings.
 He taught about the omnipresence of God and said that a human soul is a particle of God and hence Ravidas rejected the idea that people considered lower caste cannot meet God. He said in his teachings that the only way to meet God was to free the mind from the duality.
 Everybody is equal in all respects, irrespective of caste, color or a belief in any form of God; Emphasised on universal brotherhood and tolerance.
 He abandoned saguna (with attributes, image) forms of supreme beings, and focussed on the nirguna (without attributes, abstract) form of supreme beings.
 The 41 hymns of Guru Ravidas have been included in the Guru Granth Sahib. The famous saint poetess, Mirabai was a disciple of Guru Ravidas.

5.Answer-b
Explanation-
India has 13 major ports viz. Kolkata Port, Paradip Port, New Mangalore Port, Cochin Port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Mumbai Port, Kandla Port, Vishakhapatnam Port, Chennai Port, Tuticorin port, Ennore Port, Mormugao Port and Port Blair Port.
Recently, the Union Cabinet approved to set up the Vardhavan port in Maharashtra. The port is to be developed in “Landlord Model”. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust will act as the lead partner in developing the port. With the development of Vardhavan port, India will enter into the category of countries with top 10 container ports in the world. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP) is the biggest container port in India and 28th in the world.
 Jawaharlal Nehru Port It is also known as Nhava Sheva, situated in Maharashtra and is the largest container port in India, handling around half of containers of all major port.
 Mormugao Port Mormugao port in Goa is leading iron ore exporting port of India.
 Kakinada Deep Water Port is situated Andhra Pradesh. On land, the port is surrounded by the districts of East and West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and the entire Telangana region. Primary cargoes of this region include agricultural products, minerals, coal and fertilizers.