Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 25 June 2020

CLICK HERE FOR PREVIOUS UPDATE On MCQ

1. Consider the following statements regarding the World Happiness Report-2020.
1. This year the World Happiness Report focuses especially on the environment i.e. social, urban, and natural.
2. This report is released by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
3. The rankings are based on polling which looks at six variables i.e. GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, freedom, generosity, and absence of corruption.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
World Happiness Report 2020
The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness that ranks 156 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be.
The World Happiness Report 2020 for the first time ranks cities around the world by their subjective well-being and digs more deeply into how the social, urban and natural environments combine to affect our happiness.
It is released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network for the United Nations by the UN General Assembly.
March 20 was designated as the World Happiness Day by the UN General Assembly in 2012.
The rankings are based on polling (Gallup World Poll) which looks at six variables: GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, freedom, generosity, and absence of corruption.
Highlights
Finland is ranked as the world’s happiest nation for the third consecutive year.
Nordic states dominated the top 10, along with countries such as Switzerland, New Zealand and Austria.
Luxembourg edged into the 10th spot for the first time this year.
The countries at the bottom are those afflicted by violent conflicts and extreme poverty, with Zimbabwe, South Sudan and Afghanistan classified as the world’s least happy nations.
India’s Performance
India previously ranked at 140 dropped to 144.

Its rank is way lower than its neighbours. Nepal is ranked 92; Pakistan is at 66, Bangladesh at 107 and Sri Lanka at 130.
India is a new entrant to the bottom-fifteen group.

https://happiness-report.s3.amazonaws.com/2020/WHR20.pdf

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Nirbhaya Fund Framework.
1. It provides for a non-lapsable corpus fund for safety and security of women to be administered by the Ministry of Finance (MoF) of the Government of India.
2. It provides for an Empowered Committee (EC) of officers chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD).
3. As per this framework, monitoring and reporting mechanisms are mandated at State/ UT level as well as at the level of the concerned Central Ministries/ Departments.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Nirbhaya Fund
The Nirbhaya Fund Framework provides for a non-lapsable corpus fund for safety and security of women to be administered by the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) of the Ministry of Finance (MoF) of the Government of India. Further, it provides for an Empowered Committee (EC) of officers chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD) to appraise and recommend proposals to be funded under this framework.
It also provides for the concerned Ministry/ Department to seek approval of the designated competent financial authority, as well as of the DEA for funding of such proposals under the Nirbhaya Framework.
As per this framework, the MoF through DEA is the nodal Ministry for any accretion into and withdrawal from the corpus and the MWCD is responsible to review and monitor the progress of sanctioned projects/ schemes in conjunction with the concerned Central Ministries/ Departments. Budget allocations against approved projects are made in the budget of the respective Ministries/ Departments through Demands or Supplementary Demands for Grants.
As such, in accordance with the Nirbhaya framework guidelines, the EC and the MWCD have been reviewing the progress of sanctioned projects/ schemes in conjunction with the concerned Central Ministries/ Departments with the aim to ensure proper and expeditious utilisation of Nirbhaya Fund for improving safety and security of women and the girl child.
Further, as per this framework, monitoring and reporting mechanisms are mandated at State/ UT level as well as at the level of the concerned Central Ministries/ Departments.
The projects appraised by the EC are at various stages of implementation having staggered gestation periods for completion of the projects.
Central Victim Compensation Fund (CVCF) has been funded under the Framework of Nirbhaya Fund to support States/ UTs for their Victim Compensation Scheme. The total cost of the project appraised by EC is Rs.200.00 Cr.
The CVCF is a one-time grant of top-up funds to the States/UTs subsequent to the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court. Funds were released to States/UTs in 2016-17. No further activity remains on part of the central government. Further, Hon’ble Supreme Court vide order dated 11.05.2018 had directed all States/UTs to modify their victim compensation scheme in terms of the scheme prepared by the National Legal Services Authority.
As ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India, the State Governments/ UTs are responsible for registration and investigation of crimes under the Code of Criminal Procedure, as well as grant of financial assistance/ compensation to victims. Details on number of victims and their dependent families who have been paid compensation are not maintained centrally.
https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1579539
https://wcd.nic.in/sites/default/files/Approved%20framework%20for%20Nirbhaya%20Fund_0.pdf

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Institutions of National Importance (INI).
1. This status is bestowed to an Institution is established by Act of Parliament and declared as INI.
2. Each institute is governed by their own Act.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 Only 
(b)  2 only
(c)  Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation
Institutions of National Importance
Institution or Institute of National Importance (INI) is a status conferred by the Parliament on a public institution of higher education in India.
The status is conferred to an institution which “serves as a pivotal player in developing highly skilled personnel within the specified region of the country/state”.
“Institutions for scientific or technical education financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be institutions of national importance.”
These institutes receive special recognition and funding from the government.
Empowered to grant degrees.
The Constitution provides for institutions imparting scientific or technical education, financed by the central government, to be declared institutions of national importance.
Each institute is governed by their Act.
Examples: IITs, AIIMS, NITs, National Institute of Design, etc.
https://mhrd.gov.in/institutions-national-importance
https://prsindia.org/policy/discussion-papers/role-private-sector-higher-education#_ednref9

4. Consider the following statements regarding the draft Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2020.
1. It is introduced leasing as another category to get defence equipment at affordable rates.
2. This also envisions long-term product support which would be three to five years after the warranty period is over.
3. This is aligned with the vision of the government to empower the private industry through the Make in India initiative.
4. A price variation clause has been introduced that will be applicable to all cases where the total cost of contract is more than Rs 2,000 crore and the delivery schedule exceeds 60 months.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-a
Explanation-
Draft Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2020
What is DPP?
The Defence Procurement Procedure mainly contains processes that need to be followed to streamline and simplify defence procurement procedures and ultimately achieve the objective of self reliance in meeting all the security needs of the Indian Armed Forces by promoting indigenous design, development and manufacture of Defence weapon systems and, platforms in a time-bound manner without any delays.
The government issued the draft Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2020 wherein it introduced “leasing” as another category to get defence equipment at affordable rates.
Moreover, the indigenous content stipulated in various categories of procurement was enhanced to support the “Make in India” initiative, a statement issued by the government said.
For example, under the “Buy (Indian-IDDM)” category of the new DPP, only Indian products — designed in-house, developed and manufactured with a minimum of 50 per cent indigenous content of the total contract value — of an Indian vendor would be classified.
This category, which gets the highest priority during defence procurement, till now had products with 40 per cent or more indigenous content, according to the DPP 2016.
In the new DPP, a new category of “Buy (Global-Manufacture in India)” has been introduced, which is on number five priority-wise.
Foreign vendors’ products that have a minimum of 50 per cent indigenous content will come under this new category.
The DPP 2020 also envisions long-term product support — which would be three to five years after the warranty period is over.
“To sustain and support platform/equipment through its operational life-cycle, the service headquarters will ensure that product support requirements for at least 3 to 5 years beyond the warranty period will be procured along with the main equipment,” the DPP stated.
To facilitate greater participation of the Indian industry and develop a robust defence industrial base, use of indigenous raw materials, special alloys and software has been incentivised under the DPP 2020.
Moreover, a “price variation clause” has been introduced that will be applicable to all cases where the total cost of contract is more than Rs 1,000 crore and the delivery schedule exceeds 60 months.
According to the DPP, this clause would be inserted in procurement contracts to cater to the escalation of price from the last date of submission of bids till the finalisation by the CNC (Contract Negotiation Committee).
The DPP 2020 stated: “Leasing is introduced as a new category for acquisition, in addition to the existing ‘Buy and Make’ category to substitute huge initial capital outlays with periodical rental payments.”
“Leasing is permitted under two categories i.e lease (Indian), where the lessor is an Indian entity and the owner of the assets, and lease (global), where the lessor is a global entity,” it said.
The draft has now been put up on the Defence Ministry website for public consultations till April 17, after which it will be finalised.
Unveiling the new DPP, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh said, “The DPP-2020 is aligned with the vision of the government to empower the private industry through the ‘Make in India’ initiative, with the ultimate aim of turning India into a global manufacturing hub.”
https://mod.gov.in/dod/sites/default/files/draftdppnew200320c_0.pdf
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=159864

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).
1. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides secretariat services to IPBES.
2. Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Report and Global Environment Outlook reports are released by this organisation
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-A
Explanation-
The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is an independent intergovernmental body established by States to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and sustainable development.
It was established in Panama City, on 21 April 2012 by 94 Governments.
It is not a United Nations body. However, at the request of the IPBES Plenary and with the authorization of the UNEP Governing Council in 2013, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides secretariat services to IPBES.
IPBES currently has over 134 member States. A large number of NGOs, organizations, conventions and civil society groupings also participate in the formal IPBES process as observers, with several thousand individual stakeholders, ranging from scientific experts to representatives of academic and research institutions, local communities and the private sector, contributing to and benefiting from our work.
IPBES is unique – harnessing the best expertise from across all scientific disciplines and knowledge communities – to provide policy-relevant knowledge and to catalyze the implementation of knowledge-based policies at all levels in government, the private sector and civil society.
The work of IPBES can be broadly grouped into four complementary areas:
Assessments: On specific themes (e.g. “Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production”); methodological issues (e.g. “Scenarios and Modelling); and at both the regional and global levels (e.g. “Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services”).
Policy Support: Identifying policy-relevant tools and methodologies, facilitating their use, and catalyzing their further development.
Building Capacity & Knowledge: Identifying and meeting the priority capacity, knowledge and data needs of our member States, experts and stakeholders.
Communications & Outreach: Ensuring the widest reach and impact of our work.
Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Report is released by this.

https://ipbes.net/global-assessment
https://www.popsci.com/un-extinction-report-stats-climate/