Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 27 June 2020

CLICK HERE FOR PREVIOUS UPDATE On MCQ

1. Consider the following statements about Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri.
1. He became a life member of the Lok Sevak Mandal, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai.
2. His vision for self-sufficiency in food grains led to sowing the seeds of the Green Revolution, and promotion of the White Revolution.
3. The title Shastri was bestowed on him upon graduating from Kashi Vidyapeeth, as a mark of scholarly achievement.
4. A member of Mahatma Gandhi’s noncooperation movement against British government in India, he was imprisoned for a short time.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on 2nd October, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
He was given the title “Shastri” meaning “Scholar” by Vidya Peeth as a part of his bachelor’s degree award.
He introduced a slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan” and played a pivotal role in shaping India’s future.
He became a life member of the Servants of the People Society (Lok Sevak Mandal), founded by Lala Lajpat Rai. There he started to work for the upliftment of backward classes, and later he became the President of that Society.
He participated in the non-cooperation movement and the Salt Satyagraha.
He was the second Prime Minister of Independent India.
In 1961, he was appointed as Home Minister, and he appointed the Committee on Prevention of Corruption. He created the famous “Shastri Formula” which consisted of the language agitations in Assam and Punjab.
He promoted the White Revolution, a national campaign to increase milk production. He also promoted the Green Revolution, to increase the food production in India.
In 1964, he signed an agreement with the Sri Lankan Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike, in concern with the status of Indian Tamils in Ceylon. This agreement is known as Srimavo-Shastri Pact.
He was awarded the Bharat Ratna the India’s highest civilian award posthumously in 1966.
He signed Tashkent Declaration on 10 January, 1966 with the paksitan President, Muhammad Ayub Khan to end the 1965 war.
https://www.pmindia.gov.in/en/former_pm/shri-lal-bahadur-shastri/
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lal-Bahadur-Shastri

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Ribonucleic acid (RNA).
1. RNA complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses.
2. RNA is synthesized from DNA by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase during a process called transcription.
3. The nitrogenous bases in RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil, which replace thymine in DNA.
4. The RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Ribonucleic acid or RNA
Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is named for the ribose sugar group found in the backbone. In 1953, Alexander Rich, with famed chemist Linus Pauling, discovered the structure of RNA at Caltech using X-ray crystallography.
RNA is a single-stranded nucleotide chain containing the adenine (A), cytosine (C), uracil (U), and guanine (G) bases. RNA is known to be involved in several important roles like transcribing genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins.
RNA acts as a messenger between DNA to protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions of ribosomes, and serves as an essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis.
The three types of RNA include tRNA (transfer), mRNA (messenger), and rRNA (ribosomal). RNA is usually single-stranded, but any given strand may fold back upon itself to form a secondary structure (i.e., tRNA and rRNA).
RNA is synthesized from DNA by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase during a process called transcription. The new RNA sequences are complementary to their DNA template, rather than being identical copies of the template. RNA is then translated into proteins by structures called ribosomes.
RNA, abbreviation of ribonucleic acid, complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses.
RNAs can also form complexes with molecules known as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). The RNA portion of at least one cellular RNP has been shown to act as a biological catalyst, a function previously ascribed only to proteins.
In protein synthesis, mRNA carries genetic codes from the DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes, the sites of protein translation in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. The ribosome protein subunits are encoded by rRNA and are synthesized in the nucleolus. Once fully assembled, they move to the cytoplasm, where, as key regulators of translation, they “read” the code carried by mRNA. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA specifies incorporation of a specific amino acid in the sequence that makes up the protein. Molecules of tRNA (sometimes also called soluble, or activator, RNA), which contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, bring the specified amino acids to the ribosomes, where they are linked to form proteins.
RNA in Disease
Important connections have been discovered between RNA and human disease. For example, as described previously, some miRNAs are capable of regulating cancer-associated genes in ways that facilitate tumour development. In addition, the dysregulation of miRNA metabolism has been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease.
The emergence of techniques such as RNA sequencing has led to the identification of novel classes of tumour-specific RNA transcripts, such as MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), increased levels of which have been found in various cancerous tissues and are associated with the proliferation and metastasis (spread) of tumour cells.
A class of RNAs containing repeat sequences is known to sequester RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), resulting in the formation of foci or aggregates in neural tissues. These aggregates play a role in the development of neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and myotonic dystrophy. The loss of function, dysregulation, and mutation of various RBPs has been implicated in a host of human diseases.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Special Mention Account (SMA).
1. It is an account which is exhibiting signs of incipient stress resulting in the borrower defaulting in timely servicing of her debt obligations.
2. As early recognition of such accounts will enable banks to initiate timely remedial actions to prevent their potential slippages into NPAs.
3. It has been decided that Primary (Urban) Co-operative Banks (UCBs) having total assets of ₹1000 crore and above shall report credit information, including classification of an account as SMA.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Special Mention Account (SMA)
Special Mention Account (SMA) is an account which is exhibiting signs of incipient stress resulting in the borrower defaulting in timely servicing of her debt obligations, though the account has not yet been classified as NPA as per the extant RBI guidelines.
As early recognition of such accounts will enable banks to initiate timely remedial actions to prevent their potential slippages into NPAs, it is advised that UCBs having total assets of ₹500 crore and above as on 31st March of the previous financial year shall take necessary steps to classify loans/advances accounts as SMA, as under:

https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=11768&Mode=0

4. Consider the following statements about Hyper-sonic weapons.
1. Hypersonic weapons refer to weapons that travel faster than Mach 1 and have the capability to maneuver during the entire flight.
2. Hypersonic missiles are also capable of maneuvering in flight, allowing them to evade missile defense tracking systems and interceptors.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-b
Explanation-
Hypersonic weapons
Hypersonic weapons incorporate the speed of a ballistic missile with the maneuvering capabilities of a cruise missile. Hypersonic weapons refer to weapons that travel faster than Mach 5 (~3,800mph) and have the capability to maneuver during the entire flight.
As a pentagon report stated, “While the designed speed of the hypersonic missile is faster than that of sound, its advantage lies in its enhanced maneuverability and smooth flight path, which is much harder to track than that of traditional missiles.”
Hypersonic weapons are specifically designed for increased survivability against modern ballistic missile defense systems.
These missiles are capable of delivering conventional or nuclear payloads at ultra-high velocities over long ranges.
Hypersonic missiles are delivered in two ways: (1) they can be fired from the last stages of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) or Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBM) and skip along the top of the atmosphere using specialized jet engines to accelerate to hypersonic speeds; or (2) they can be launched independently or released from a bomber—similar to cruise missiles—before accelerating to ultra-high speeds.
Hypersonic vehicles typically consist of a Supersonic Combustion Ramjet, or Scramjet propulsion system to enable such high speeds. A Scramjet engine is an engine that uses “air breathing” technology.

Conventional Ramjet Engine

This means that the engine collects oxygen from the atmosphere as it is traveling and mixes the oxygen with its hydrogen fuel, creating the combustion needed for hypersonic travel.
This is different than a traditional ramjet, which is used on space shuttles and satellite launches.
The traditional ramjet engine carries liquid oxygen, and hydrogen together, adding a tremendous amount of weight to the vessel.
Most of the added weight comes from the liquid oxygen (the oxidizer), which is nearly 70% of the fuel used in space launches.
For a scramjet to work the air traveling into the engine must already be at supersonic speed.
This is so the air is properly condensed to the required density to effectively combust with the hydrogen mix. To reach supersonic speed, the vessel is usually launched with a traditional booster engine, and once it has reached the proper speed and altitude (generally around Mach 5 and 100,000ft) the scramjet is activated.

Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (Scramjet) Engine
Other options currently in development are dual mode ramjet (DMRJ), which works as a ramjet until the craft reaches proper speed and altitude, and then begins to work as a scramjet. By using the DMRJ, the vessel can operate without a booster, which allows it to operate in a more clandestine manner.
In contrast to conventional Reentry Vehicles (RV) that travel at supersonic speeds (between Mach 1 and Mach 5), hypersonic weapons travel along the edge of space and accelerate to between Mach 5 (around 3,800 mph) and Mach 10 (over 7,500 mph). While conventional ballistic missiles are launched at steep trajectories that inhibit speed during the high friction of launch and reentry, hypersonic missiles glide atop the atmosphere while engaging specialized jet engines to perpetually accelerate up to hypersonic speeds.
This ability to travel at ultra-high velocity is the primary appeal of hypersonic missiles because it extends their range and allows them to bypass modern layered missile defenses.
Hypersonic missiles are also capable of maneuvering in flight, allowing them to evade missile defense tracking systems and interceptors. This is in contrast to conventional RVs, which descend through the atmosphere on a predictable ballistic trajectory that can be tracked and intercepted by modern missile defense systems.

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Wildlife SOS.
1. It was established in 2020 to protect and conserve India’s natural heritage, forest and wildlife wealth.
2. It is mainly known for its work with the Dancing Bears of India.
3. It also emphasizes the value of ex-situ research in veterinary areas, behavioural studies, reproductive physiology and other fields.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-A
Explanation-
Wildlife SOS
Wildlife SOS was established in 1995 by a small group of individuals inspired to start a movement and make lasting change to protect and conserve India’s natural heritage, forest and wildlife wealth. Today, the organisation has evolved to actively work towards protecting Indian wildlife, conserving habitat, studying biodiversity, conducting research and creating alternative and sustainable livelihoods for erstwhile poacher communities or those communities that depend on wildlife for sustenance.
Kartick Satyanarayan and Geeta Seshamani with their shared enthusiasm dedicated themselves to the mission of eradicating the abusive practice of ‘dancing’ bears in India completely.
Today it is an organisation responsible for taking action against animal cruelty, rescuing wildlife in distress, working to resolve man-animal conflicts while promoting and educating the public about the need for habitat protection.
Wildlife SOS is committed to working with communities who depend on wildlife for sustenance and providing them alternative and sustainable livelihoods as that is the key to sustainable conservation.
Wildlife SOS also emphasizes the value of ex-situ research in veterinary areas, behavioural studies, reproductive physiology and other fields in collaboration with national and international universities and organisations.
Although Wildlife SOS is mainly known for its work with the “Dancing Bears” of India, it also has active projects to help Leopards, Elephants, Reptiles and other animals.
It work on various projects targeted at environment and biodiversity conservation as well as reducing our carbon footprint. With the help of our dedicated staff and volunteers, grant programs and supportive agencies, both national and international, everyday they renew their commitment to the animals and to finding innovative ways to sustain and grow their mission. Wildlife SOS has formal ‘co-operative’ agreements in place with state governments and forest departments in more than nine states in India.
https://wildlifesos.org/about-us/history/