Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 29 May 2020

1. Which of the following countries share land border with Qatar?
1. Saudi Arabia
2. Oman
3. Iraq
4. Bahrain
5. United Arab Emirates
Select the correct answer from the codes.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 4 and 5
Answer-b
Explanation-
Qatar is the country where the recent US-Taliban deal was signed
Qatar, more formally referred to as the State of Qatar, is a nation located on the western edge of the Asia.
The country is relatively small in size, spanning an area of roughly 4,471 square miles, making it the 158th largest country in the world.
Qatar is situated on the Qatar Peninsula, which is on the north-eastern coast of the larger Arabian Peninsula.
Countries with international borders to Qatar are Saudi Arabia; it shares maritime borders with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain.
Politically, Qatar has been referred as a either a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy. The country’s land border is shared with Saudi Arabia to the south, while the remainder of Qatar is surrounded by the Persian Gulf.
Additionally, an arm of the Persian Gulf also separates Qatar from Bahrain.
Since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868, the country has been ruled by the house of Thani.
In 2017, Qatar had a population of 2.6 million people, 313,000 of which were citizens while the remaining 2.3 million were expatriates.

2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Kuchipudi Dance form.
1. In 17th century, Kuchipudi style was conceived by Siddhendra Yogi, a talented Vaishnava poet and visionary who had the capacity to give concrete shape to some of his visions.
2. The dance form has emerged from a popular theatrical art ‘Kuchipudi Yakshagaana’ named after the place of its origin, the village Kuchipudi in modern day karnataka.
3. The music that accompanies the dance is according to the classical school of Carnatic music and is delightfully syncopatic.
4. It is performed as dance drama i.e. performance in groups and also as solo items.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-b
Explanation-
Kuchipudi Dance
Kuchipudi is one of the classical styles of Indian dance. Around the third and fourth decade of this century it emerged out of a long rich tradition of dance-drama of the same name.
In fact, Kuchipudi is the name of a village in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. It is about 35 km. from Vijayawada. Andhra has a very long tradition of dance-drama which was known under the generic name of Yakshagaana.
In 17th century Kuchipudi style of Yakshagaana was conceived by Siddhendra Yogi a talented Vaishnava poet and visionary who had the capacity to give concrete shape to some of his visions. He was steeped in the literary Yakshagaana tradition being guided by his guru Teerthanaaraayana Yogi who composed the Krishna-Leelatarangini a kaavya in Sanskrit.
It is said that Siddhendra Yogi had a dream in which Lord Krishna asked him to compose a dancedrama based on the myth of the bringing of paarijaata flower for Sathyabhaama, the most beloved queen of Krishna. In compliance with this command Siddhendra Yogi composed the Bhaamaakalaapam which is till now considered the piece-deresistance of the Kuchipudi repertoire. Siddhendra Yogi initiated young Brahmin boys of Kuchipudi village to practice and perform his compositions particularly Bhaamaakalaapam. The presentation of Bhaamaakalaapam was a stupendous success.
Its aesthetic appeal was so great that the then Nawab of Golconda, Abdul Hasan Tanishah issued a copper plate in 1675 A.D. granting the village Kuchipudi as an Agrahaarama to the families of Brahmins who pursued this art. At that time all the actors were male and the female impersonation was of a superb quality. To have an idea of the high standard of female impersonation one should see Vedaantam Satyanarayana Sharma, a great Kuchipudi dancer, even today doing the role of Satyabhaama.
The followers of Siddhendra Yogi wrote several plays and the tradition of Kuchipudi dance-drama continues till today. It was Lakshminarayan Shastry (1886-1956) who introduced many new elements including solo dancing and training of female dancers in this dance style.
Solo dancing was there earlier, but only as a part of the dance drama at appropriate sequences. ‘At times, even though the dramatic situation did not demand, solo dancing was being presented to punctuate the presentation and to enhance the appeal. One such number is tarangam inspired by the Krishna-leela tarangini of Teerthanarayana Yogi.
To show the dexterity of the dancers in footwork and their control and balance over their bodies, techniques like dancing on the rim of a brass plate and with a pitcher full of water on the head was introduced. Acrobatic dancing became part of the repertoire. By the middle of this century, Kuchipudi fully crystallized as a separate classical solo dance style. Thus there are now two forms of Kuchipudi; the traditional musical dance-drama and the solo dance.
From the later part of the fourth decade of this century a sequence of the presentation of the solo recital has been widely accepted. A recital of Kuchipudi begins with an invocatory number, as is done in some other classical dance styles. Earlier the invocation was limited to Ganesha Vandana. Now other gods are also invoked. It is followed by nritta, that is, non-narrative and abstract dancing. Usually jatiswaram is performed as the nritta number. Next is presented a narrative number called shabdam. One of the favourite traditional shabdam numbers is the Dashaavataara. The Shabdam is followed by a natyanumber called Kalaapam. Many Kuchipudi dancers prefer to perform entry of Satyabhama from the traditional dance-drama Bhaamaakalaapam. The song “bhamane, satyabhamane, the traditionalpraveshadaaru (the song that is rendered at the time of the entry of a character) is so tuneful that its appeal is universal and ever fresh. Next in the sequence comes a pure nrityaabhinaya number based on literary-cum musical forms like padam, jaavli, shlokam, etc. In such a number each of the sung words is delineated in space through dance, drishya-kavita (visual poetry). A Kuchipudi recital is usually concluded with tarangam. Excerpts of Krishna-leela-tarangini are sung with this number. In this the dancer usually stands on a brass plate locking the feet in shakatavadanam paada and moves the plate rhythmically with great dexterity.
The music that accompanies the dance is according to the classical school of Carnatic music and is delightfully syncopatic. The accompanying musicians, besides the vocalist are: a mridangam player to provide percussion music, a violin or veena player or both for providing instrumental melodic music, and a cymbal player who usually conducts the orchestra and recites the sollukattus(mnemonic rhythm syllables).
http://ccrtindia.gov.in/kuchipudi.php

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Oil paintings technology.
1. Oil painting, painting in oil colours, a medium consisting of pigments suspended in drying oils.
2. Artists’ oil colours are made by mixing dry powder pigments with selected refined linseed oil to a stiff paste consistency and grinding it by strong friction in steel roller mills.
3. Top-grade brushes are made in two types: red sable and bleached hog bristles.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
https://www.britannica.com/art/oil-painting

4. Consider the following statements regarding the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC).
1. NCDC is an institute under the Indian Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
2. It was established in 1963 for research in epidemiology and control of communicable diseases.
3. The institute was established to function as a national centre of excellence for control of communicable diseases.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)
NCDC (previously known as National Institute of Communicable Diseases) is an institute under the Indian Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
It was established in July 1963 for research in epidemiology and control of communicable diseases.
The institute was established to function as a national centre of excellence for control of communicable diseases.
The function of the institute also included various areas of training and research using multi-disciplinary integrated approach.
The institute was, in addition, expected to provide expertise to the States and Union Territories (UTs) on rapid health assessment and laboratory based diagnostic services.
Surveillance of communicable diseases and outbreak investigation also formed an indispensable part of its activities.
Doctors from NCDC had been previously summoned to investigate potential outbreaks of diseases including suspected cases of Pneumonic plague in Punjab in 2002, SARS outbreaks in 2004, meningitis outbreak in Delhi in 2005, and avian influenza in 2006.
https://ncdc.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=19&lid=34
5. Consider the following statements regarding the Right to Property in India.
1. Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property.
2. The right to property is now considered to be not only a constitutional or statutory right, but also a human right.
3. Under the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978, right to property was made a Constitutional right under Article 300A.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Article 300A of the Constitution
The Supreme Court has reiterated that forcible dispossession of a person of his private property without due process of law is a violation of human rights.
Right to Property:
Right to private property was previously a fundamental right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a fundamental right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978.
Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property.
The right to property is now considered to be not only a constitutional or statutory right, but also a human right.
Article 300A states that – No person shall be deprived of his property save by the authority of law.
Therefore, the article protects an individual from interference by the State and dispossesses a person of the property unless it is in accordance with the procedure established by law. Though compensation is not expressly mentioned in the Article, in K.T Plantation Pvt. Ltd. Vs. State of Karnataka, 2011 the SC held that public purpose was a pre-condition for deprivation of a person of his property under Article 300A of the Constitution and the right to claim compensation was also inbuilt in that Article.
In the case, the then CJI S.H. Kapadia said that -“The requirement of public purpose is invariably the rule for depriving a person of his property, violation of which is amenable to judicial review. Acquisition of property for a public purpose may meet with a lot of contingencies, like deprivation of livelihood, leading to violation of Article 21, but that per se is not a ground to strike down a statute or its provisions.”
Notes on Article 300A
If the State intends to appropriate private property without the owner’s consent by acting under statutory provisions for compulsory acquisition, the procedure authorized by law has to be mandatorily and compulsorily followed.
In State of Jharkhand vs. Jitendra Kumar Srivastava, 2013, the SC held that pension is not a bounty but it is a property and cannot be taken away without complying with due process of law.
The right to property includes within it the right to use the property in accordance with the law as it stands at a particular time.
In Tukaram Kana Joshi vs M.I.D.C, 2013 the SC said that human rights are a domain under individual rights and are gaining a bigger multi-faceted dimension and the Right to property is a part of this new dimension.
The Section 29 of the State Finance Corporations Act 1951 deals with Rights of Financial Corporation in case of default. The corporation has the power to take possession of the property of an individual concerned if the latter defaults on payment of any loan or advance or any installment and such an action of possession are not violative of Articles 14, 19, 21 or 300A of the constitution.