Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 3 July 2020

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1. Consider the following statements about U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).
1. It is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices.
2. It has responsibility for regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors.
3. It is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA)
The Food and Drug Administration is the oldest comprehensive consumer protection agency in the U. S. federal government.
Since 1848 the federal government has used chemical analysis to monitor the safety of agricultural products- a responsibility inherited by the Department of Agriculture in 1862 and by later by the FDA.
Although it was not known by its present name until 1930, FDA’s modern regulatory functions began with the passage of the 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act, a law a quarter-century in the making that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated and misbranded food and drugs–had been the driving force behind this law and headed its enforcement in the early years, providing basic elements of protection that consumers had never known before that time.
Since then, the FDA has changed along with social, economic, political and legal changes in the United States.
Examining the history of these changes illuminates the evolving role that FDA has played in promoting public health and offers lessons to consider as we evaluate current regulatory challenges.
FDA Organization
FDA is an agency within the Department of
Health and Human Services.
Effective March 31, 2019, FDA began operational implementation of agency reorganization. FDA’s reorganization reflects the agency’s commitment to modernizing its structure to advance its mission to protect and promote public health, and to meet the challenges of rapid innovation across the industries regulated by FDA.
The FDA’s reorganization will realign several entities across the agency to promote strategic priorities, and will elevate the role of the centers, offices and field forces.
The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) mission is to protect and advance public health by helping to speed innovations that provide our nation with safe and effective medical products and that keep our food safe and reduce harm from all regulated tobacco products.
FDA Mission
The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
FDA also has responsibility for regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors.
FDA is responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medical products more effective, safer, and more affordable and by helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medical products and foods to maintain and improve their health.
FDA also plays a significant role in the Nation’s counterterrorism capability. FDA fulfills this responsibility by ensuring the security of the food supply and by fostering development of medical products to respond to deliberate and naturally emerging public health threats.
https://www.fda.gov/about-fda

2. Consider the following statements with respect to the National Food Security Act (NFSA).
1. Government of India enacted NFSA in 2013 which gives legal entitlement to 67% of the population to receive highly subsidized food grains.
2. Under the Act, foodgrain is allocated 5 kg per person per month for priority household’s category and at 35 kg per family per month for Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) families.
3. There is no identified category of BPL under NFSA, but the AAY beneficiaries are clearly identified.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c)  1 and 3 only
(d) 2 only
Answer-a
Explanation-
National Food Security Act (NFSA)
Government of India enacted National Food Security Act (NFSA) in July, 2013 which gives legal entitlement to 67% of the population (75% in rural areas and 50% in urban areas) to receive highly subsidized food grains.
Under the Act, foodgrain is allocated @ 5 kg per person per month for priority households category and @ 35 kg per family per month for AAY families at a highly subsidized prices of Rs. 1/-, Rs. 2/- and Rs. 3/- per kg for nutri-cereals, wheat and rice respectively.
Coverage under the Act is based on the population figures of Census, 2011. The Act is now being implemented in all 36 States/UTs and covers about 81.35 crore persons.
The annual allocation of foodgrain under National Food Security Act and Other Welfare Schemes is about 610 Lakh Metric Tons.
The coverage of the sugar subsidy scheme introduced with effect from June, 2013, after de-regulation of sugar sector, targeted Below Poverty Line (BPL) population (inclusive of poorest of poor person in the country i.e. AAY families) and all the population of North Eastern States/ Special Category States/ Hilly States and Island Territories.
Now, the NFSA is being universally implemented in the country.
There is no identified category of BPL under the NFSA. However, the Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) beneficiaries are clearly identified.
As such, the Government of India has reviewed the Sugar Subsidy Scheme and decided to continue it for AAY families with effect from June, 2017.
The Central Government is reimbursing a fixed subsidy of Rs. 18.50 per kg @ 1 Kg per month per AAY families to participating States/UTs”.
In order to liquidate the excess stock of foodgrain in the Central Pool, Government of India avails the available options of disposal of the excess stock of foodgrain through Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS) and Export on Government-to-Government basis, as export from public stockholding is not compliant to WTO norms.”
Stock of wheat and rice are sold to bulk consumer/traders/ State Government from the central Pool at pre-determined prices in the open market from time to time through e-tender to enhance the supply especially during the lean season and in the deficit regions and thereby to moderate the open market prices. 100 lakh metric tons of wheat and 50 lakh metric tons of rice have been set as target for sale under OMSS (D) during 2019-20.
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=191101
https://dfpd.gov.in/nfsa-act.htm

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).
1. In order to make Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) more effective the Government had launched the AAY in December 2000.
2. Currently, beneficiary families under the scheme are distributed 25 kg of rice and wheat at the rates of Rs. 3 per kg and Rs. 2 per kg respectively.
3. Under the scheme, subsidies are fully borne by the central government and States/UT bears the distribution cost.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
In order to make TPDS more focused and targeted towards the poorest of the poor category of the population, the “Antyodaya Anna Yojana” (AAY) was launched in December 2000.
AAY contemplates identification of poorest of the poor families from amongst the number of BPL families covered under TPDS within the states and providing those foodgrains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs.2 per kg for wheat and Rs.3 per kg for rice.
The States/UTs are required to bear the distribution cost, including margin to dealers and retailers as well as the transportation cost.
Thus the entire food subsidy is being passed on to the consumers under the scheme.
The identification of the Antyodaya families and issuing of distinctive Ration Cards to these families is the responsibility of the concerned State Governments.
Allocation of foodgrains under the scheme is being released to the States/UTs on the basis of issue of distinctive AAY Ration Cards to the identified Antyodaya families.
The scale of issue that was initially 25 kg per family per month has been increased to 35 kg per family per month with effect from 1st April 2002.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) was launched for one crore families to be identified from the Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.
Coverage under this scheme has been expanded thrice since then i.e. during 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 covering additional 50 lakh households each time. Thus the total coverage under AAY was raised to 2.50 crores AAY families (i.e.38% of BPL).
Detailed guidelines were issued to the States/UTs for identification of the Antyodaya families under the AAY and additional Antyodaya families under the expanded AAY. In order to identify the households criteria adopted:- Landless agriculture labourers, marginal farmers, rural artisans/craftsmen, such as potters, tanners, weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters, slum dwellers and persons earning their livelihood on daily basis in the informal sector like porters, coolies, rickshaw pullers, hand cart pullers, fruit and flower sellers, snake charmers, rag pickers, cobblers, destitute and other similar categories in both rural and urban areas.
Households headed by widows or terminally ill persons/disabled persons/persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or societal support.
Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60 years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or assured means of subsistence.
All primitive tribal households.
The above guidelines have further been amended vide letter dated 3rd June, 2009 to include all eligible BPL, families of HIV positive persons in the AAY list of on priority.
https://pib.gov.in/newsite/mbErel.aspx?relid=95141
https://dfpd.gov.in/aay_C.htm

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine.
1. These are oral prescription drugs that have been used for treatment of malaria and certain inflammatory conditions.
2. HCQ is used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and porphyria cutanea tarda.
3. A study suggests that both HCQ and Chloroquine have in vitro activity against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and other coronaviruses, with HCQ having higher potency against SARS-CoV-
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine HCQ and Chloroquine are oral prescription drugs that have been used for treatment of malaria and certain inflammatory conditions.
Chloroquine has been used for malaria treatment and chemoprophylaxis.
HCQ is used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Both drugs have in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and other coronaviruses, with HCQ having relatively higher potency against SARS-CoV-2.
Based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine or HCQ are currently recommended for treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in several countries.
HCQ against COVID-19
The drug shows antiviral activity in vitro against coronaviruses, and specifically, SARS-CoV-2.
Further, the study suggests that prophylaxis (treatment given to prevent disease) with HCQ at approved doses could prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and may help to improve viral shedding.
Clinical trials are under way in China to know whether the drug can be used for treatment.
ICMR Recommended Use of HCQ:
The restricted population for usage of HCQ includes, namely, ‘Asymptomatic (showing no symptoms) Healthcare Workers’ and ‘asymptomatic household contacts’ of laboratory-confirmed cases.
The above mentioned population has been advised to use the HCQ to contain further spread of the pandemic.
However, the drug is not recommended as a preventive healthcare in children under 15 years of age.
ICMR also advised that placing healthcare workers under HCQ treatment should not instill a sense of false security and they need to follow all prescribed public health measures such as frequent washing of hands, respiratory etiquettes, keeping a distance of minimum one meter and use of personal protective equipment, etc.
It has been also advised that the drug should only be given on the prescription of a registered medical practitioner.
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/education/current-affairs/what-is-hydroxychloroquine/articleshow/74773543.cms

5. Consider the following statements about Sri Chakravarti Rajagopalachari.
1. In 1939, Rajagopalachari took a step to abolish untouchability and caste prejudice and issued the Madras Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act.
2. After Independence, He was chosen to be the last Governor-General of India, in the absence of Lord Mountbatten.
3. He wrote a Tamil translation of the Ramayan, which was later published as Chakravarthi Thirumagan.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Born: 10 December 1878
Place of Birth: Thorapalli Village, Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu
Parents: Chakravarti Venkataryan (father) and Chakravarti Singaramma (mother)
Spouse: Alamelu Mangalamma
Children: Narasimhan, Krishnaswamy, Ramaswami (sons) Lakshmi, Namagiri Ammal (daughters)
Education: R.V. Government Boys Higher Secondary School, Hosur, Central College, Bangalore, Presidency College, Madras
Political Association: Indian National Congress, National Democratic Congress, Swatantra Party
Political Ideology: Right-wing, liberal, pacifist
Publications: ‘Siraiyil Tavam’, ‘Chakravarti Thirumagan’ (Tamil) ‘Bhagwad Gita’, ‘Ramayana’, ‘Mahabharata’, Upanishads’, ‘Bhaja Govindam’ (Translations to English), ‘Hinduism, Doctrine and Way of Life’, ‘Words of Freedom Ideas of A Nation’, ‘Avvaiar – A Great Tamil Poetess’ (English)
Awards: Bharat Ratna (1954), Sahitya Akademi Award (1958)
Death: December 25, 1972
Introduction
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was an eminent Indian politician, freedom fighter, statesman and lawyer. He was the last Governor-General of India and the first Indian to occupy the post. During his illustrious career, Rajagopalachari headed the Indian National Congress and acted as Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, the Union Minister for Home Affairs, and the Chief Minister of the state of Madras. One of the first recipients of Bharat Ratna, the nation’s highest civilian award, he also founded the Swatantra Party. A keen observer of world affairs, he was a strong advocate of world peace, disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Early Life
Rajagopalachari was born on 10 December 1878 in Thorapalli Village, Madras Presidency.
In 1891, he passed his matriculation examination and in 1894, obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree from Central College, Bangalore. Thereafter, he enrolled at the Presidency College, Madras to study law and passed out in 1897.
Role in Indian Independence Movement
In 1900, Rajagopalachari started practicing law in Salem and the next year became a member of the Salem municipality.
He joined the Indian National Congress and attended the 1906 Calcutta session as well as the Surat session, the next year.
In 1917, he came into limelight with his defence of P. Varadarajulu Naidu, an independence activist, against charges of sedition.
In 1919, Rajagopalachari actively participated in the agitations against the draconian Rowlatt Act. He gave up his law practice and became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation movement.
In 1921, he became the General Secretary of the Congress Party and was elected to its Working Committee.
Following the split of INC in 1923, Rajagopalachari became heavily involved in the ‘Vaikom Satyagraha’— movement against untouchability—and also became Civil Disobedience Enquiry Committee member.
Rajagopalachari lent his support to Gandhi’s Dandi march in 1930. He broke the salt law along with activist Sardar Vedaratnam at Vedaranyam, near Nagapattinam and was arrested by the British.
He became the president of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee and persuaded the Indian National Congress to participate in the general elections in 1937.
Premier of Madras Presidency
Following the 1937 elections, Congress Party came to power in the Madras Presidency and C Rajagopalachari became the Premier of the Madras Presidency.
Among his first notable actions was the issuance of the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act 1939 that permitted Dalits and Shanars to enter Hindu temples.
To ease farmer debt, he also introduced the Agricultural Debt Relief Act in 1938. However, his decision to ban alcohol sales and levy additional sales tax and impose austerity measures that involved the closure of hundreds of primary schools run by the government backfired.
He ran into further controversy by making Hindi compulsory in educational institutions. Following the outbreak of the Second World War and the Viceroy’s decision to declare war on Germany without India’s consent, the Congress ministers, including Rajagopalachari, resigned en masse in protest.
Second World War
In accordance with the Defence of India rules, in December 1940, Rajagopalachari was arrested for his protest against the declaration of war and sentenced to one-year in prison.
At this point in time, his stance on the Britain’s war against Germany changed. He also advocated dialogue with the British and opposed the Quit India Movement.
He reasoned that opposing British rule would actually be counterproductive at a time when India could possibly be invaded. His advocacy of entering into a dialogue with the Muslim league that was demanding the partition of the country became a matter of concern.
Rajagopalachari resigned from the Congress Party over various disagreements over Madras Congress legislative party resolutions and differences with K. Kamaraj, the leader of the Madras Provincial Congress.
As a senior statesman, Rajaji initiated discussions between Gandhi and Jinnah regarding the partition. His suggestion that a district could choose to become a part of any of the two countries with an “absolute majority” threshold of 55% triggered a massive debate among the nationalists.
Jawaharlal Nehru picked Rajagopalachari to serve as the Minister for Industry, Supply, Education, and Finance from 1946 to 1947 in his interim government.
Governor of West Bengal
With India and Pakistan attaining independence, Bengal split into two and Rajagopalachari was appointed as the first governor of West Bengal even though he was disliked by the Bengalis for his censure of Subhas Chandra Bose during the Congress session of 1938.
Rajagopalachari declared that his priority was to deal fairly and firmly with both Hindus and Muslims so that the state could have the peace and stability. He also vehemently opposed the proposal to include certain areas of Orissa and Bihar into West Bengal fearing that it would aggravate the already simmering sentiments of the people.
Governor General of India
When Governor-General Lord Mountbatten went on leave to attend the wedding of Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth in London, Rajagopalachari served as the Acting Governor-General of India. From November 10 to 24, 1947, Rajaji stayed in the viceroy’s palace but led a very austere life. Mountbatten was very impressed with him and made Rajaji his second choice after Vallabhbhai Patel to succeed him after he departed India in June 1948. With both Nehru and Patel, himself disagreeing with Mountbatten’s first choice, it was Rajagopalachari who served as the last Governor-General of India, the only Indian to ever hold the office.
Minister in Nehru Cabinet
Rajaji was elected from Madras to the Constituent Assembly and in 1950, was invited by Nehru to join his cabinet. In the initial days he had no portfolio but after Patel’s demise on 15 December 1950, he became the Home Minister. However, in less than a year, it was evident that there were sharp differences of opinion between him and Nehru on various issues of domestic and foreign policy. Tired of always being overruled by Nehru, Rajagopalachari resigned and returned to Madras.
Chief Minister of Madras State
Following the 1952 elections in Madras, no party got clear majority and the-then Madras Governor Sri Prakasa appointed Rajagopalachari as the Chief Minister after nominating him to the Madras Legislative Council. Rajagopalachari managed to prove his majority by getting some opposition members to join the Indian National Congress. During his tenure, a powerful movement for a separate Andhra State began that culminated in the carving out of the Andhra state from the Telugu-speaking districts of Madras on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.
Other decisions that affected the economy and social fabric of Madras included the end to rationing of sugar, measures to regulate the running of universities, reduction in the hours of formal schooling for elementary school students. The last move was heavily criticized and ultimately led to the resignation of Rajagopalachari as Chief Minister on 13 April 1954 after much drama and politics.
Split from Congress
In January 1957, Rajagopalachari resigned from the Indian National Congress and established the Congress Reform Committee (CRC) with some other dissidents. It contested the 1957 state assembly elections and won 13 seats to emerge as the second-largest party in Madras. To balance the increasing leftist tendency of the INC, Rajaji along with other political luminaries and resentful heads of the former princely states established the right-wing Swatantra Party that stood for equality and opposed government interference and control over the private sector. The Swatantra Party won six seats in Madras state assembly elections and 18 in the Lok Sabha elections of 1962.
Later Years & Death
The government of India had adopted Hindi as the country’s official language but allowed a 15-year transition time for the non-Hindi areas by making a provision for English to be on par with Hindi. As the deadline of 26 January 1965 loomed, there were violent anti-Hindi protests in Madras State. Critical of the decision, Rajaji reversed his earlier support for Hindi and recommended discarding the decision at the Madras State Anti-Hindi conference in Tiruchirapalli on 17 January 1965.
Active even at the age of 88, Rajagopalachari forged an alliance between the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, the Swatantra Party, and the Forward Bloc to defeat the Congress Party in the February 1967 Madras Legislative Assembly elections. The Swatantra Party also won 45 seats in the 1967 Lok Sabha elections to emerge as the single-largest opposition party.
In 1971, the Swatantra Party withdrew its support of the state government as it was opposed to prohibition being relaxed to increase state revenues. It joined a coalition of Congress (O), Jan Sangh, and the Samyukta Socialist Party to form the National Democratic Front. However, it fared badly in the 1971 Indian general elections, and the Swatantra party became marginalised both at the Centre and in Tamil Nadu.
On 17 December 1972, Rajagopalachari was admitted to the Government Hospital, Madras suffering from dehydration, uraemia, and a urinary infection. He died on 25 December 1972, at the ripe age of 94.
https://learn.culturalindia.net/c-rajagopalachari.html
https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/c-rajagopalachari-276533-2015-12-10