Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 30 April 2020

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1. Consider the following statement regarding the Wireless Technology.
1. Li-Fi Technology does not pollute, it can be called a green technology for device-to-device communication in the Internet of Things (IoT).
2. Like Wi-Fi, Li-Fi is wireless and uses similar 802.11 protocols; but it uses visible light communication.
3. Wi-Fi allows Local Area Network to be deployed without cabling for client devices, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Wireless Technology
What is the difference between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Technology?
Wi-Fi technology is wireless local area network technology which allow electronic device to access internet. Whereas Li-Fi technology is a light based communication technology that delivers a high-speed, bidirectional network and mobile communication.
What is Li-Fi?
Li-Fi, or light fidelity, invented by German physicist and professor Harald Haas, is a wireless technology that makes use of visible light in place of radio waves to transmit data at terabits per second speeds—more than 100 times the speed of Wi-Fi.
Though it was discovered in the last decade, proofs of concept to test commercial utilization started emerging only in 2015.
How it works?
Li-Fi is a Visible Light Communications (VLC) system. This means that it accommodates a photo-detector to receive light signals and a signal processing element to convert the data into ‘stream-able’ content. Unlike Wi-Fi, which uses radio waves, Li-Fi runs on visible light.
Here, data is fed into an LED light bulb (with signal processing technology), it then sends data (embedded in its beam) at rapid speeds to the photo-detector (photodiode).
The tiny changes in the rapid dimming of LED bulbs are then converted by the ‘receiver’ into electrical signal.
The signal is then converted back into a binary data stream that the user would recognise as web, video and audio applications that run on internet enables devices.
An LED light bulb is a semi-conductor light source meaning that the constant current of electricity supplied to an LED light bulb can be dipped and dimmed, up and down at extremely high speeds, without being visible to the human eye.
Advantages:
Li-Fi could make a huge impact on the internet of things too, with data transferred at much higher levels with even more devices able to connect to one another.
Li-Fi offers great promise to overcome the existing limitations of Wi-Fi by providing for data-heavy communication in short ranges.
Due to its shorter range, Li-Fi is more secure than Wi-Fi.
Since it does not pollute, it can be called a green technology for device-to-device communication in the Internet of Things (IoT).


Li-Fi systems consume less power.
Limitations of Li-Fi:
As visual light can’t pass through opaque objects and needs line of sight for communication, its range will remain very restricted to start with. In order to enjoy full connectivity, more capable LED bulbs will need to be placed at various places.
Li-Fi requires the lightbulb is on at all times to provide connectivity, meaning that the lights will need to be on during the day.
Li-Fi is likely to face interference from external light sources, such as sunlight and bulbs, and obstructions in the path of transmission, and hence may cause interruptions in communication.
Also, initially, there will be high installation costs of visual light communication systems as an add-on to lighting systems.
Challenges:
The main challenge is to create a Li-Fi ecosystem, which will need the conversion of existing smartphones into Li-Fi enabled ones by the use of a converter/adapter. Also, an integrated chip that has both light-to-electrical conversion and data-processing capability (Wi-Fi/Bluetooth) combined into one needs to be developed and manufactured in the millions.
Potential applications:
Li-Fi can be used in street and traffic lights. Traffic lights can communicate to the vehicles and with each other. Through the use of Li-Fi, traffic control can be made intelligent and real-time adaptable. And each traffic and street light post can be converted into access points to convert roadsides into wireless hot spots.
Vehicles having LED-based headlights and tail lamps can communicate with each other and prevent accidents by exchanging information.
Visible light being safer, they can also be used in places where radio waves can’t be used such as petrochemical and nuclear plants and hospitals.
They can also be used in aircraft, where most of the control communication is performed through radio waves.
Li-Fi can also easily work underwater, where Wi-Fi fails completely, and thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military and navigational operations.
Also, it presents another unique possibility: transmitting power wirelessly, wherein the smartphone will not only receive data through Li-Fi, but will also receives power to charge itself.

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Intelligence Bureau (IB).
1. IB closely monitors developments relating to parliamentary undertakings and report back to cabinet secretariat.
2. The IB comprises employees from law enforcement agencies such as Indian Police Service (IPS) or Indian Revenue Service (IRS) and the military.
3. IB  gathers intelligence from outside India and also execute counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism tasks.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b)  1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation
Intelligence Bureau (IB)
India’s intelligence Bureau of investigation is the reputed and established intelligence agency.
The intelligence bureau is authoritatively controlled by the Ministry of Home affairs.
The Director IB (DIB), who is a member of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), is the chief of Intelligence Bureau.
It is considered as the internal news agency responsible for monitoring all aspects of governance. It is entrusted with counter- intelligence terrorism.
Intelligence Bureau closely monitors developments relating to parliamentary undertakings and report back to cabinet secretariat.
The Special Enquiry and Surveillance Unit (SES) of the intelligence bureau handle most of this work.
Intelligence Bureau (IB) is an internal intelligence agency of India which is used to gather intelligence from within India and also execute counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism tasks.
The IB comprises employees from law enforcement agencies such as Indian Police Service (IPS) or Indian Revenue Service (IRS) and the military.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Aegean Sea.
1. Aegean Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Greek peninsula on the west and Asia Minor on the east.
2. Lésbos is a greek island which is the largest island after Crete and Euboea in the Aegean Sea.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation
Aegean Sea and Lésbos Island
Aegean Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Greek peninsula on the west and Asia Minor on the east.
Lésbos, also called Mitilíni, is a greek island.
It is the largest island after Crete and Euboea in the Aegean Sea.
The island is largely volcanic in the west, and numerous thermal springs indicate the unstable subterranean structure that has caused severe earthquakes throughout history.
The irregular coast of Lésbos is penetrated by two narrow-mouthed bays, Géras (southeast) and the Gulf of Kallonís (southwest).
The principal peak is Mount Lepethymnus (Áyios Ilías) which reaches 3,176 feet.

4. Consider the following statements the Public Accounts Committee (PAC).
1. The PAC is formed every year with strength of not more than 22 members of which 15 are from LokSabha and 7 from RajyaSabha.
2. The Chairman of PAC is appointed by the Speaker of LokSabha.
3. Its chief function is to examine the audit report of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) after it is laid in the Parliament.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Public Accounts Committee
The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) is a committee of selected members of Parliament, constituted by the Parliament of India, for the auditing of the revenue and the expenditure of the Government of India.
The PAC is formed every year with strength of not more than 22 members of which 15 are from LokSabha, the lower house of the Parliament, and 7 from RajyaSabha, the upper house of the Parliament.
The term of office of the members is one year.
The Chairman is appointed by the Speaker of LokSabha. Since 1967, the chairman of the committee is selected from the opposition.
Earlier, it was headed by a member of the ruling party. Its chief function is to examine the audit report of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) after it is laid in the Parliament. CAG assists the committee during the course of investigation. None of the 22 members shall be a minister in the government.
What is the role of PAC?
Holding the Executive to account for its use of public money is one the key roles of Parliament’s Public Accounts Committee (PAC), the “mother of all Parliamentary Committees”.
It is the oldest of all House panels, with its origins in the Raj, and its job is to keep a vigil on the spending and performance of the government, to bring to light inefficiencies, wasteful expenditure, and carelessness in the implementation of policies and programmes approved by Parliament, and to make recommendations to streamline the administration for efficient, speedy and economical implementation of policy.
Historical origin
The PAC website says the Committee on Public Accounts was first set up in 1921 in the wake of the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.
With the Constitution coming into force on January, 26, 1950, the Committee became a Parliamentary Committee functioning under the Speaker with a non-official Chairman appointed by the Speaker from among the Members of Lok Sabha elected to the Committee. But even then, a member from the ruling party continued to be Chairman.
The Congress had the post until 1967, when Minoo Masani of Swatantra Party became Chairman. Since then the PAC has always been headed by a member from the Opposition.
What controversy recently occurred?
Consensus and controversy have been the contradictory faces of the PAC’s functioning over the past few decades.
On Tuesday, a BJP member of the panel wrote to Lok Sabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan expressing resentment over PAC Chairman K V Thomas’s remarks that the panel could call even Prime Minister Narendra Modi to explain the demonetisation issue if it was not satisfied with the reply of RBI Governor Urjit Patel and top finance officials.
While Thomas on Monday stated a fact about the considerable powers of the PAC, it is also a fact that no PM has ever appeared before it in the past.
There have been multiple showdowns between Congress and BJP members during hearings of the 2G; coal blocks allotment and CWG issues at the PAC.

5. Consider the following statements regarding the National Statistical Office (NSO).
1. NSO is created through the merger of the NSSO and CSO under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
2. The new NSO as an agency was envisaged firstly by Rangarajan Commission.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
National Statistical Office (NSO) — through the merger of the NSSO and CSO under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI)
The new NSO as an agency was envisaged firstly by Rangarajan Commission to implement and maintain statistical standards and coordinate statistical activities of Central and State agencies as laid down by the National Statistical Commission (NSC).
This commission had also recommended setting up of the NSC, headed by a person with a Minister of State-level designation, to serve as a nodal and empowered body for all core statistical activities of the country.
According to recent order, NSO will be formed with the merger of NSSO and CSO under MoSPI.
This recent restructuring seems to be a reaction to the resignations tendered by the member and acting Chairman of the NSC earlier this year
Composition:
As per the recent order, there will be three Director Generals —DG (Statistics), DG (Coordination, Administration and Policy) and DG (National Sample Survey) — reporting to the Secretary (S&PI) as against DG (Economic Statistics), DG (Social Statistics) and DG (Surveys) earlier.
The Field Operations Division (FOD) of the present NSSO will be a subordinate office of the MoSPI and all the other divisions of present CSO, NSSO and administrative wing will exist as divisions of MoSPI.
The Ministry has also ordered constitution of a committee to recommend the operational level modifications required to give effect to this restructuring.
The order states that the proposed NSO would be headed by Secretary (Statistics and Programme Implementation), but skips any mention of NSC, which has been the overseeing body for all the statistical work done in the country.
Aim of this step:
This order aims to streamline and strengthen the present nodal functions of the ministry and “to bring in more synergy by integrating its administrative functions within the ministry.”
This will help in meeting the requirement of the statistical system as a lack of control on these two bodies was one challenge presently.
It will align India’s statistical system with other countries.
A Data Quality Assurance Division has also been set up, replacing the Data Processing Division, which will have the responsibility to bring about improvements in survey and administrative databases. This division will be strengthened through “re-skilling and deployment of existing personnel”.
The NSO has four Divisions:
Survey Design and Research Division (SDRD): This Division, located at Kolkata, is responsible for technical planning of surveys, formulation of concepts and definitions, sampling design, designing of inquiry schedules, drawing up of tabulation plan, analysis and presentation of survey results.
Field Operations Division (FOD): The Division, with its headquarters at Delhi/Faridabad and a network of six Zonal Offices, 52 Regional Offices and 117 Sub-Regional Offices spread throughout the country, is responsible for the collection of primary data for the surveys undertaken by NSO.
Data Processing Division (DPD): The Division, with its headquarters at Kolkata and 5 other Data Processing Centers at various places, is responsible for sample selection, software development, processing, validation and tabulation of the data collected through surveys. Price and Wages in Rural India collected through schedule 3.01(R) is being processed at DPC Giridih. In addition, DPD is also processing the data of Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS). Industrial Statistics Wing (IS Wing), DPD, NSO, Kolkata is responsible for sample selection, data processing, validation and tabulation of the Annual Survey of Industries(ASI) data collected through a dedicated web-portal.
Survey Coordination Division (SCD): This Division, located at New Delhi, coordinates all the activities of different Divisions of NSO. It also brings out the bi-annual journal of NSO, titled “Sarvekshana”, and organizes National Seminars on the results of various Socio-economic surveys undertaken by NSO.