Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 7 MARCH 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT).
1. The pecuniary limit was recently brought down from 20 lakh to 10 lakh for filing applications to the DRT.
2. DRT is fully empowered to pass comprehensive orders and can travel beyond the civil procedure code to render complete justice
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Which of the following statement is incorrect in reference to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)?
(a) The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine has been found to be safe and protective against only the Zaire ebolavirus species of Ebola virus.
(b) There is no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.
(c) WHO declared ‘Ebola virus’ outbreak in Congo as an international health emergency.
(d) None of the above

 

3. Consider the following statements regarding FASTags.
1. No bank is pre-assigned to the FASTag at the time of purchase by customer from a Point-of-Sale or Online.
2. It will be issued only by the 22 certified banks through various channels such as point-of-sale at NH toll plazas, selected bank branches, etc.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements regarding Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS.)
1. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state governments and union territories.
2. The ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services.
3. The beneficiaries under this scheme are children in the age group of 0-9 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Vivad se Vishwas sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statement is correct regarding this?
(a) Initiative of the central government to deal with censorship in movies.
(b) The scheme aims to settle the huge number of pending direct tax cases.
(c) Rules of Business and Procedure in Parliament.
(d) None of the above

 

1.Answer-b
Explanation
What are DRTs?
The Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (RDDBFI Act) provides speedy redressal to lenders and borrowers through filing of Original Applications (OAs) in Debts Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) and appeals in Debts Recovery Appellate Tribunals (DRATs).
The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets & Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act) provides access to banks and financial institutions covered under the Act for recovery of secured debts from the borrowers without the intervention of the Courts at the first stage. Securitisation Appeals (SAs) can be filed with the DRTs by those aggrieved against action taken by secured creditors under the SARFAESI Act.
DRTs were established to facilitate the debt recovery involving banks and other financial institutions with their customers. Section 3 of the RDDBFI Act empowers the Central government to establish DRTs. Appeals against orders passed by DRTs lie before Debts Recovery Appellate Tribunal (DRAT).
There are 39 DRTs and 5 DRATs, which are single Member Tribunals.
Powers and functions:
DRT enforces provisions of the RDDBFI Act, 1993 and also SARFAESI Act, 2002. DRT is fully empowered to pass comprehensive orders and can travel beyond the civil procedure code to render complete justice. A DRT can hear cross suits, counter claims and allow set offs.
However, a DRT cannot hear claims of damages or deficiency of services or breach of contract or criminal negligence on the part of the lenders. In addition, a DRT cannot express an opinion beyond its domain, or the list pending before it.
The DRT can appoint Receivers, Commissioners, pass ex-parte orders, ad-interim orders, interim orders apart from powers to Review its own decisions and hear appeals against orders passed by the Recovery Officers of the Tribunal.
Other key facts:
A DRT is presided over by a presiding officer who is appointed by the central govt. and who shall be qualified to be a District Judge; with tenure of 5 years or the age of 62, whichever is earlier.
No court in the country other than the SC and the HCs and that too, only under articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution have jurisdiction over this matter.
The central government, in 2018, raised the pecuniary limit from Rs 10 lakh to Rs 20 lakh for filing application for recovery of debts in the DRT by such banks and financial institutions.

 

2.Answer-d
Explanation
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The outbreak, the second largest in history, has killed more than 1,600 people in Congo. Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain and a sore throat. It progresses to vomiting, diarrhoea and both internal and external bleeding. It is formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease (EVD).
The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the Ebola vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV (tradename “Ervebo”) for the prevention of EVD. The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine has been found to be safe and protective against only the Zaire ebolavirus species of ebolavirus.

Transmission
Scientists think people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. This is called a spillover event. After that, the virus spreads from person to person, potentially affecting a large number of people.
The virus spreads through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with:
• Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola virus disease (EVD).
• Objects (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment) contaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with or has died from EVD.
• Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates (such as apes and monkeys).
• Semen from a man who recovered from EVD (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex). The virus can remain in certain body fluids (including semen) of a patient who has recovered from EVD, even if they no longer have symptoms of severe illness. There is no evidence that Ebola can be spread through sex or other contact with vaginal fluids from a woman who has had Ebola.
When people become infected with Ebola, they do not start developing symptoms right away. This period between exposure to an illness and having symptoms is known as the incubation period. A person can only spread Ebola to other people after they develop signs and symptoms of Ebola.
Additionally, Ebola virus is not known to be transmitted through food. However, in certain parts of the world, Ebola virus may spread through the handling and consumption of wild animal meat or hunted wild animals infected with Ebola.
There is no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.
Persistence of the virus
The virus can remain in areas of the body that are immunologically privileged sites after acute infection. These are sites where viruses and pathogens, like the Ebola virus, are shielded from the survivor’s immune system, even after being cleared elsewhere in the body. These areas include the testes, interior of the eyes, placenta, and central nervous system, particularly the cerebrospinal fluid. Whether the virus is present in these body parts and for how long varies by survivor. Scientists are now studying how long the virus stays in these body fluids among Ebola survivors.
During an Ebola outbreak, the virus can spread quickly within healthcare settings (such as clinics or hospitals). Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments such as needles and syringes are important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before using again.
Ebola virus can survive on dry surfaces, like doorknobs and countertops for several hours; in body fluids like blood, the virus can survive up to several days at room temperature. Cleaning and disinfection should be performed using a hospital-grade disinfectant.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared ‘Ebola virus’ outbreak in Congo as an international health emergency.

 

3. Answer-a
Explanation
NHAI FASTag is a ‘bank-neutral’ FASTag (i.e.) No bank is pre-assigned to the FASTag at the time of purchase by customer from a Point-of-Sale or online and offers the flexibility to customer to link the FASTag with their existing bank account by using My FASTag Mobile app, currently available on Google Play Store. FASTags are now available on e-commerce platform Amazon. These were earlier launched by Indian Highways Management Company Limited (IHMCL), a company promoted by NHAI, in January 2019. This online sale initiative is an important achievement for IHMCL and will ensure easy availability of FASTag at the doorsteps of the customers.
Currently FASTags are also being issued by 22 certified banks through various channels such as Point-of-Sale at NH toll plazas, selected bank branches, etc.

 

4.Answer-b
Explanation-
Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS)
ICDS Scheme providing for supplementary nutrition, immunization and pre-school education to the children is a popular flagship programme of the government. Launched in 1975, it is one of the world’s largest programmes providing for an integrated package of services for the holistic development of the child. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state governments and union territories. The scheme is universal covering all the districts of the country.
The Scheme has been renamed as Anganwadis Services.
Objectives
 To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years;
 To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
 To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
 To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and
 To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
Beneficiaries
 Children in the age group of 0-6 years
 Pregnant women and
 Lactating mothers
Services under ICDS
The ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services, viz.
 Supplementary Nutrition
 Pre-school non-formal education
 Nutrition & health education
 Immunization
 Health check-up and
 Referral services
Three of the six services viz. immunization, health check-up and referral services are related to health and are provided through National Health Mission and Public Health Infrastructure. The services are offered at Anganwadi Centres through Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and Anganwadi Helpers (AWHS) at grassroots level.
The delivery of services to the beneficiaries is as follows:

The delivery of services to the beneficiaries is as follows:
Services Target Group Service provided by
(i) Supplementary Nutrition Children below 6 years,
Pregnant & Lactating Mothers (P&LM) Anganwadi Worker and Anganwadi Helper [MWCD]
(ii) Immunization* Children below 6 years,
Pregnant & Lactating Mothers (P&LM)
ANM/MO
[Health system, MHFW]
(iii) Health Check-up* Children below 6 years,
Pregnant & Lactating Mothers (P&LM)
ANM/MO/AWW
[Health system, MHFW]

(iv) Referral Services Children below 6 years,
Pregnant & Lactating Mothers (P&LM)
AWW/ANM/MO
[Health system, MHFW]
(v) Pre-School Education Children 3-6 years AWW
[MWCD]
(vi) Nutrition & Health Education Women (15-45 years) AWW/ANM/MO
[Health system, MHFW & MWCD]
* AWW assists ANM in identifying the target group.
Funding pattern
All components of ICDS except Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) are financed through a 60:40 ratio (central: state). The Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) component was funded through a 50:50 ratio. The North East states have a 90:10 ratio.
Under SNP, beneficiaries are given hot meals along with take-home rations. For children, the quantum of rations and meals received depends on their malnutrition levels. SNP is provided for 300 days at the rate of Rs 8 per day for children and Rs 9.50 per day for pregnant and lactating mothers. Severely malnourished children are allocated Rs 12 per day. Adolescent Girls (11-14 years out of school) are allocated Rs 9.50 per day.
For AWWs and AWHs
The AWWs and AWHs are paid fixed honorarium per month as decided by the Government from time to time. With effect from October, 2018, the AWWs and AWHs are paid honoraria of Rs.4, 500/- per month and Rs.2250/- per month.
Workers of Mini-Anganwadis Centres are being paid honoraria of Rs.3500/- . In addition, monthly performance linked incentive of Rs.250/- is also being paid to Anganwadis Helpers for facilitating proper functioning of Anganwadis Centres (AWCs). Apart from these, additional amount of honoraria is also paid by most of the State Governments /UT Administrations from their own resources.
AWWs and AWHs are provided a uniform (saris) in kind or cash (an honorarium of Rs 400) every year.
Population Norms for Setting up of AWCs/Mini-AWCs
There will be 1 Anganwadis centre (AWC) for population of 400-800; 2 AWCs for 800-1600; 3 AWCs for 1600-2400 and thereafter in multiples of 800 -1 AWC.
The norms for one AWC for Tribal/Riverine/Desert, Hilly and other difficult areas will be 300-800
Norms for one Mini AWC will be 150-400.
Norms for Anganwadis on Demand (AOD) – Where a settlement has at least 40 children less than 6 years of age but no AWC
ICDS Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project (ISSNIP)-The overall goal of the project is to improve nutritional and early childhood development outcomes of children in India. Key objectives of Phase 1 are to support the GoI and the selected States to

 

5. Answer-b
Explanation-
The Vivad se Vishwas scheme was announced by Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman during her budget speech on February 1, 2020. The scheme aims to settle the huge number of pending direct tax cases.
Vivad Se Vishwas Scheme: The Direct Tax Vivad Se Vishwas Bill, 2020:
The amnesty scheme, at present, covers disputes pending at the level of commissioner (appeals), Income Tax Appellate Tribunals (ITAT), high courts, the Supreme Court and those in international arbitration.
It offers a complete waiver on interest and penalty to the taxpayers who pay their pending taxes by March 31.
The scheme aims to benefit those whose tax demands are locked in dispute in multiple forums.
If a taxpayer is not able to pay direct taxes by March 31st then, he will get further time till June 30th. However, in that case, he would have to pay 10 percent more on the tax.
How much?
In case it is just the interest and the penalty which is in dispute, the taxpayer will have to pay 25% of the disputed amount till March 31, and subsequently, it will be 30%.
If a taxpayer is not able to pay within the March 31 deadline, he gets a further time till June 30, but in that case, he would have to pay 10% more on the tax.
In case it is just the interest and the penalty which is in dispute, the taxpayer will have to pay 25% of the disputed amount till March 31, and subsequently, it will be 30%.
Significance: The scheme aims to resolve 483,000 direct tax-related disputes pending in various appellate forums.