Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 8 April 2020

1. Consider the following statements with reference to ‘A Future for the World’s Children’ report.
1. This is released by the World Health Organization (WHO), UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and The Lancet medical journal.
2. The report calculates the Flourishing Index and Sustainability Index of 180 countries.
3. The leading countries in the Flourishing Index trail behind in the case of the Sustainability Index, with Norway (156th), the Republic of Korea (166th) and the Netherlands (160th).
4. India secures 131st rank on a flourishing index and ranked 77th on a sustainability index.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

  1. Answer-d
    Explanation
    A Future for the World’s Children’ Report
    Recently, the WHO, UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and The Lancet medical journal have released ‘A Future for the World’s Children’ report.
    This calculates the Flourishing Index and Sustainability Index of 180 countries.
    India secures 131st rank on a flourishing index that measures the best chance at survival and well-being for children.
    Further, India ranked 77th on a sustainability index that takes into account per capita carbon emissions and the ability of children in a nation to live healthy lives.
    Flourishing Index
    Methodology:
    Flourishing is the geometric mean of Surviving and Thriving.
    The parameter of Surviving considers maternal survival, survival in children younger than 5 years old, suicide, access to maternal and child health services, basic hygiene, sanitation, and lack of extreme poverty.
    The parameter of Thriving considers educational achievement, growth and nutrition, reproductive freedom, and protection from violence.
    Global Scenario:
    Norway leads the table for survival, health, education and nutrition rates – followed by the Republic of Korea and the Netherlands.
    The Central African Republic, Chad and Somalia rank at the bottom.
    It also mentioned that the world’s survival depended on children being able to flourish, but no country is doing enough to give them a sustainable future.
    Marketing of Junk Food:
    The Index has linked an aspect of harmful marketing of junk food and sugary beverages with the alarming rise in childhood obesity.
    Thus to protect children, it has called for a new global movement driven by and for children.
    Sustainability Index
    Methodology:
    The Sustainability Index ranks countries on the basis of excess carbon emissions compared with the 2030 target.
    It also states that today’s national conditions for children to survive and thrive must not come at the cost of eroding future global conditions for children’s ability to flourish.
    Global Scenario:
    The leading countries in the Flourishing Index trail behind in the case of the Sustainability Index, with Norway (156th), the Republic of Korea (166th) and the Netherlands (160th).
    Each of the three emits 210 per cent more CO2 per capita than their 2030 target.
    The only countries on track in Flourishing as well as in Sustainability Index are Albania, Armenia, Grenada, Jordan, Moldova, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Uruguay and Vietnam.
    The lowest emitters are Burundi, Chad and Somalia whereas the U.S, Australia, and Saudi Arabia are among the 10 worst emitters.
    Recommendations
    It suggests the elimination of CO2 emissions with the utmost urgency and requests to place children and adolescents at the centre of global efforts to achieve sustainable development.
    New policies and investment in all sectors to work towards child health and rights with the incorporation of children’s voices into policy decisions.

 

2. Consider the following statements.
1. The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers included texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script and in Prakrit written in Brahmi or Kharosthi script.
2. The Kushan dynasty ruled over most of the northern Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and parts of Central Asia during 1st century AD – 3rd Century AD.
3. It is located on the right bank of the Ganga River and is one of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Answer-b
Explanation-
Archaeological Site near Varanasi
A nearly 4,000-year-old urban settlement has been unearthed in Babhaniyav village (13 km from Varanasi, Uttar pradesh) by a team of surveyors from the Banaras Hindu University (BHU).
The unearthed site could be one of the craft villages mentioned in ancient texts.
During the age of Buddha, there were suburban villages which were in the nature of craft villages, for instance, a carpenter’s village, or chariot-maker’s village in the vicinity of Varanasi.
Crafts villages have been earlier unearthed in Sarnath, Tilmapur and Ramnagar – Uttar Pradesh.
Initial survey of the site in Babhaniyav village had found a temple dating back to the 5th Century AD through 8th Century AD, potteries which are 4000-year-old and walls which are 2000-year-old.
Surveyors have also found a pillar with a two-line text in the Kushan-Brahmi script.
The Kushan dynasty ruled over most of the northern Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and parts of Central Asia during 1st century AD – 3rd Century AD.
The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers or in areas under their rule include texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script, and in Prakrit written in Brāhmī or Kharoṣṭhī script.
The site gains significance because of its proximity to Varanasi, which is said to be 5,000 years old, though modern scholars believe it to be around 3,000 years old.
According to the experts, the site could be a small sub-centre of Varanasi which grew as an urban town.
The findings are important as Babhaniyav could have been a satellite town and feeding centre for the Varanasi-Sarnath region.
A satellite town is a smaller city that is near a large(r) metropolis. It has all the necessary amenities and facilities present within its limits except for a few purposes like employment and sometimes education, it has to depend on the larger city.
Varanasi
Varanasi is in southeastern Uttar Pradesh state. It is located on the left bank of the Ganges (Ganga) River and is one of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism.
It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Its early history is that of the first Aryan settlement in the middle Ganges valley.
Varanasi was the capital of the kingdom of Kashi during the time of the Buddha (6th century BCE), who gave his first sermon nearby at Sarnath.
The city remained a centre of religious, educational, and artistic activities as attested by the celebrated Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang, who visited it in about 635 CE.
Varanasi subsequently declined during three centuries of Muslim occupation, beginning in 1194.
Varanasi became an independent kingdom in the 18th century, and under subsequent British rule it remained a commercial and religious centre.
In 1910, the British made Varanasi a new Indian state, with Ramnagar (on the opposite bank) as headquarters but with no jurisdiction over the city of Varanasi.
In 1947, after Indian independence, the Varanasi state became part of the state of Uttar Pradesh.

 

3. Consider the following statements with respect to the QR code.
1. These are two- dimensional machine readable codes that can be used to store a URL
2. QR code is highly sensitive and does not work even if it gets partially damaged.
3. It carries information both horizontally and vertically.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Answer-c
Explanation
The QR Code is a two-dimensional version of the barcode.‘QR’ stands for “Quick Response”, which refers to the instant access to the information hidden in the Code.
It consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background. Up to 7089 digits or 4296 characters can be entered in one Code.
The hidden information can be read by an imaging device such as a camera and the required data is then extracted from patterns that are present in code. It encodes same amount of data in one-tenth the space of a traditional bar code.
It carries information both horizontally and vertically. The data stored in it can be restored even if it is partially damaged or dirty.
It was first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan. Now it is widely used to get to websites more quickly. Key applications are Product tracking, item identification, general marketing etc.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
1. SAARC was established with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka in December 1985.
2. Decisions at all levels are to be taken on the basis of unanimity; and bilateral and contentious issues are excluded from the deliberations of the Association.
3. SAARC currently comprises of nine member States and eight Observers States.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Answer-b
Explanation-
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
SAARC was established with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985.
SAARC comprises of eight Member States: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The Secretariat of the Association was set up in Kathmandu on 17 January 1987.
The objectives of the Association as outlined in the SAARC Charter are: to promote the welfare of the peoples of South Asia and to improve their quality of life; to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potentials; to promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia; to contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems; to promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields; to strengthen cooperation with other developing countries; to strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interests; and to cooperate with international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes.
Decisions at all levels are to be taken on the basis of unanimity; and bilateral and contentious issues are excluded from the deliberations of the Association.
The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was first raised in November 1980. After consultations, the foreign secretaries of the seven founding countries—Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981.
Afghanistan became the newest member of SAARC at the 13th annual summit in 2005.
The Headquarters and Secretariat of the Association are at Kathmandu, Nepal.
There are currently nine Observers to SAARC, namely: (i) Australia; (ii) China; (iii) the European Union; (iv) Iran; (v) Japan; (vi) the Republic of Korea; (vii) Mauritius; (viii) Myanmar; and (ix) the United States of America.

 

5. Consider the following pairs:
Tiger Reserve State of location
1. Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh
2. Nameri Tiger Reserve West Bengal
3. Biligiri Ranganatha Orissa
Temple Tiger Reserve
4. Bhadra Tiger Reserves Karnataka
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1 and 4 only

5. Answer-d
Explanation-
The Government of Arunachal Pradesh is planning to build a 692.7 km highway through the 862 sq km Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR) in East Kameng district, Arunachal pradesh.
Named the East-West Industrial Corridor, the highway aims to connect Arunachal Pradesh with Assam. However, the project makes no mention of compensation for people likely to be displaced.
It has been argued that corridor will also be a threat to the adjoining Nameri Tiger Reserve in Assam.
Pakke Tiger Reserve
Pakke Tiger Reserve (declared in 1999 – 2000) lies in the foothills of the eastern Himalaya in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. It is also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve.
It falls within the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot.
It is home to over 2000 species of plants, 300 species of birds, 40 species of mammals, 30 species of amphibians and 36 species of reptiles. Many species of the flora and fauna are globally threatened, and PTR is one of the last remaining strongholds left for these species.
It is known for its amazing sightings of four resident hornbill species.
Nameri Tiger Reserve
Nameri Tiger Reserve (declared in 1999-2000) is located in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur district of the state of Assam.
It is on the interstate border with Arunachal Pradesh. The Pakke Tiger Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh adjoins it on its north-eastern point.
The river Jia-Bhareli (a tributary of Brahmaputra River) with its tributaries, the Nameri, Upper Dikorai and Bor Dikorai flow through the Reserve.
Besided Tiger, the reserve is also home to the sambar, barking deer, wild boar and bison.
Great hornbill
The great hornbill is the state bird of Arunachal Pradesh and Kerala. It is ‘vulnerable’ under the IUCN Red list.
The Hornbill festival celebrated in Nagaland is named after the bird – Hornbill which is the most revered and admired bird for the Nagas.
Tiger Reserve State of location
1. Pakke Tiger Reserve Arunachal Pradesh
2. Nameri Tiger Reserve Assam
3. Biligiri Ranganatha Karnataka
Temple Tiger Reserve
4. Bhadra Tiger Reserves Karnataka