Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 8 August 2020

1. Which of the following Tribe and its state of living is correctly matched?
Tribe State/Region
1. Konyaks Kerala
2. Halakkis Karnataka
3. Kurumbas Nīlgiri hills
4. Marias Chhattisgarh
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 2, 3 and 4 only
Answer-d
Explanation-
Tribe State/Location
Konyaks Nagaland
Halakkis Karnataka
Kurumbas Nīlgiri hills (Karnataka,
Kerala and Tamil Nadu)
Marias Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Round Tripping Finances.
1. The black money can be invested in offshore funds that in turn invest in Indian assets.
2. An Indian company can acquire stakes in an offshore firm which has already invested in an Indian entity under the automatic route.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-a
Explanation-
Round Tripping Finances
The term ‘round-tripping’ is self-explanatory. It denotes a trip where a person or thing returns to the place from where the journey began. In the context of black money, it leaves the country through various channels such as inflated invoices, payments to shell companies overseas, the hawala route and so on. After cooling its heels overseas for a while, this money returns in a freshly laundered form; thus completing a round-trip.
This route is far from simple or straightforward. Those indulging in this game are past masters who make the money flow through multiple layers consisting of many entities and companies.
How does the money return to India?
It could be invested in offshore funds that in turn invest in Indian assets. The Global Depository Receipts (GDR) and Participatory Notes (P-Notes) are some of the other routes that have been used in the past.
An Indian company can’t acquire stakes in an offshore firm which has already invested in an Indian entity “under the automatic route”.
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/all-you-wanted-to-know-about-round-tripping/article22985805.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB).
1. It was established through an Act of Parliament, viz. the Science and Engineering Research Board Act, 2008.
2. It aims to build up best management systems which would match the best global practices in the area of promotion and funding of basic research.
3. As per the provisions of the SERB Act, the Board has an Oversight Committee which advises and assist the board.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)
One of the most notable developments in the S&T sector in the XI Plan has been the setting up of the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) through an Act of Parliament, viz. the Science and Engineering Research Board Act, 2008. Promoting basic research in Science and Engineering and to provide financial assistance to persons engaged in such research, academic institutions, research and development laboratories, industrial concerns and other agencies for such research and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto are the primary and distinctive mandate of the Board.
SERB aims to build up best management systems which would match the best global practices in the area of promotion and funding of basic research.
As per the provisions of the SERB Act 2008, the Board has an Oversight Committee. The members of the Oversight committee advise and assist the board.
Objectives:
1. Serve as a premier agency for planning, promoting and funding of internationally competitive research in emerging areas.
2. Identify major inter-disciplinary research areas, and individuals, groups or institutions and funding them for undertaking research.
3. Assist in setting up infrastructure and environment for scientific pursuit.
4. Enable in order to achieve synergy between academic institutions, research and development laboratories and industry for promoting basic research in science and engineering.
5. Evolve a system of approach to expeditiously provide funding for research, including monitoring and evaluation, by adopting modern management practices.
http://www.serb.gov.in/about.php

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Land Revenue System in British India.
1. Ryotwari system was devised by Capt. Alexander Read and Sir Thomas Munro and was firstly introduced in Madras.
2. The village committee was held responsible as a whole for collection of the taxes in Mahalwari System.
3. The Zamindars were regularized as Landlords and post was made hereditary and transferable in Permanent Settlement.
4. Warren Hastings had introduced the Izaredari system in 1773, in which the highest bidder was given the land right for 15 years.
5. Sir John Shore Report paved the way for land revenue settlement for ten years with Zamindars.
6. Roughly 49 per cent of the total area under the British rule was brought under the Zamindari System.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) All of the above
(b) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
(c) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
Answer-c
Explanation-
Land Revenue System in British India
Early Land Revenue reforms by British during the dual government in Bengal; the Company was the least concerned about the way to collect the land revenue.
The first afford was put by Warren Hastings and introduced the Izaredari system in 1773, in which the highest bidder were given the land right for 5 years.
But after the limited success this system was abolished by 1777 and Annual tenure was adopted to maximize the land revenue collection. But again this reform was proved useless and was abolished by 1786.
The new Land Tenures and Land Revenue policies after failure of all these changes, the Court of directors asked Lord Cornwallis to make long term settlement with Zamindars. Accordingly, the company adopted three types of land tenures namely (a) Permanent settlement, (b) Mahalwari Settlement and (c) Ryotwari settlement.
Permanent settlement or Zamindari Settlement The permanent settlement of land revenue was devised by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.
In fact, by an Act of 1784, the Court of directors was directed to give up the practice of annual settlement of revenue collection and to fix up the collection of revenue of land on a permanent basis.
Accordingly, Cornwallis appointed Sir John Shore and asked him to inquire about the usages, tenures and rents of land revenue collection in pre-colonial India.
Sir John Shore submitted his report in 1789. On the basis of the report, Cornwallis introduced land revenue settlement for ten years with Zamindars in 1789 and the same was made permanent in 1793.
Roughly 19 per cent of the total area under the British rule, i.e., Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of the Northern Western Provinces and northern Karnataka, were brought under the Zamindari System.
Basic Features: The basic features of the settlement were as follows:
1. The Zamindars were regularized as Landlords. The post was made hereditary and transferable. They and their successors exercised total control over lands.
2. The Zamindars could sell and purchase lands.
3. The state had no direct contact with the peasants.
4. The company’s share in the revenue was fixed permanently with the Zamindars.
5. The ryot is put at the mercy of the Zamindars and thus ryot is the worst effected due to this settlement.
The effects of this system proved to be disastrous for ryots as well zamindars. As the rent was too high, many zamindars could not pay on time and their property was seized and distress sales were conducted leading to their ruin.
Many left their villages and migrated into towns. They recruited agents to collect rent from farmers. Thus sub-zamindars were created who collected all kinds of illegal taxes besides the legal ones from the ryots.
This had resulted in a great deal of misery amongst the peasants and farmers. Nevertheless, this system proved to be a great boon to the government of Bengal.
It formed a regular income and stabilized the government of the Company. Thus, the permanent settlements proved harmful to all parties concerned and as such it was not introduced in other parts of India except northern circars in the south and in the districts of Benaras in the north. Ryotwari system
Ryotwari system, one of the three principal methods of revenue collection in British India. It was introduction in Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorg provinces of British India.
The system was devised by Capt. Alexander Read and Sir Thomas Munro and was firstly introduced in Madras (now Chennai).
The revenue rates of Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigated land. The land revenue was collected directly from each individual Ryot by government through its agents.
Every peasant was held personally responsible for direct payment of land revenue to the government. Under this settlement it was certainly not possible to collect revenue in a systematic manner. The revenue officials indulged in harsh measures for non-payment or delayed payment.
For this purpose all holdings were measured and assessed according to crop potential and actual cultivation. The advantage of this system was the elimination of Zamindars, who often oppressed the farmers.
As long as ryots paid the revenue in time, they were not evicted from the land. Besides, the land revenue was fixed for a period from 20 to 40 years at a time. Offsetting these advantages was the cost of detailed measurement and of individual collection. This system also gave much power to subordinate revenue officials, whose activities were inadequately supervised.
Mahalwari System
After the little success of Permanent settlement and Ryotwari settlement, the government devised a new and much better revenue settlement known as the Mahalwari system.
It was introduced in 1833 during the period of first Governor General of India, William Bentick.
It was introduced in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab and Gangetic Valley of British India. The Mahalwari system had many provisions of both the Zamindari System and Ryotwari System. In this system, the land was divided into Mahals.
Each Mahal comprises one or more villages. The village committee was held responsible as a whole for collection of the taxes. And ownership rights were vested with the peasants.
Though the Mahalwari system eliminated middlemen between the government and the village community and brought about improvement in irrigation facility, yet its benefit was largely enjoyed by the government.
https://rrjournals.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/518-520_RRIJM180306107.pdf

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Quit India Movement.
1. The Quit India Movement was a civil disobedience movement launched in India from Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay.
2. The movement was a product of the steady disillusionment of Gandhi with British policies during 1942 and the gravity of the Japanese threat to the security of the country.
3. All political parties except Muslim League supported the movement.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Quit India Movement
http://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/19416/1/Unit-11.pdf