Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 9 July 2020

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1. Consider the following statements with reference to the Indelible Ink.
1. According to the Rule 49K of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, an elector is supposed to be marked only on the forefinger of his right hand before casting the vote.
2. The Election Commission of India can allowed the government to use indelible ink, which is used to mark voters in view of the extraordinary circumstances.
3. The Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. is the sole supplier of indelible ink for civic body, Assembly and Parliamentary polls.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-a
Explanation
Indelible Ink
The Election Commission of India had allowed the government to use indelible ink, which is used to mark voters, to mark people ordered quarantine themselves at home in view of the “extraordinary circumstances” due to the coronavirus pandemic. As according to the Rule 49 K of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, an elector is supposed to be marked on the forefinger of his left hand before casting the vote.
Indelible ink refers to the violet colored ink in India that is applied on a voter’s forefinger after she exercises her vote.
It is known to contain silver nitrate and is manufactured in secrecy.
Indelible ink remains bright for about 10 days, after which it starts fading. In 1962, the Election Commission in collaboration with the Law Ministry, the National Physical Laboratory of India and the National Research Development Corporation made an agreement with Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. to manufacture ink that couldn’t be wiped off easily.
Mysore Paints & Varnish Ltd. was founded in 1937 by Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV.
The company is the sole supplier of indelible ink for civic body, Assembly and Parliamentary polls. It also supplies ink to about 25 countries.
https://www.livemint.com/science/news/the-science-of-indelible-ink-1556023764108.html


https://eci.gov.in/files/file/11991-use-of-indelible-ink-for-affixing-stamp-indicating-home-quarantine-of-people-due-to-covid-19/

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Hanta Virus.
1. Hantaviruses in the Americas are known as New World Hantaviruses and may cause Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).
2. Each Hantavirus serotype has a specific rodent host species and is spread to people via aerosolized virus that is shed in urine, feces, and saliva, and less frequently by a bite from an infected host.
3. The Hantavirus is not novel and its first case dates back to 1993, according to the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Hanta Virus
Hantaviruses are a family of viruses spread mainly by rodents and can cause varied disease syndromes in people worldwide.
Infection with any Hantavirus can produce Hantavirus disease in people.
Hantaviruses in the Americas are known as “New World” Hantaviruses and may cause Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).
Other Hantaviruses, known as “Old World” Hantaviruses, are found mostly in Europe and Asia and may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).
Each Hantavirus serotype has a specific rodent host species and is spread to people via aerosolized virus that is shed in urine, feces, and saliva, and less frequently by a bite from an infected host.
The most important Hantavirus in the United States that can cause HPS is the Sin Nombre virus, spread by the deer mouse.
Symptoms
A person infected with the virus may show symptoms within the first to eighth week after they have been exposed to fresh urine, faeces or the saliva of infected rodents.
https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/index.html

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Mamallapuram.
1. The town’s religious centre was founded by a 7th-century-CE Pallava king Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamalla for whom the town was named.
2. The town’s five rathas, or monolithic temples, are the remnants of seven temples, for which the town was known as Seven Pagodas.
3. It is a town that lies along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Chennai.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Mamallapuram
Mamallapuram also called Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, historic town, northeast Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. It lies along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal 37 miles (60 km) south of Chennai (Madras).
The town’s religious centre was founded by a 7th-century-CE Hindu Pallava king—Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamalla—for whom the town was named.
Ancient Chinese, Persian, and Roman coins found at Mamallapuram point to its earlier existence as a seaport.
It contains many surviving 7th- and 8th-century Pallava temples and monuments, chief of which are the sculptured rock relief popularly known as “Arjuna’s Penance,” or “Descent of the Ganges,” a series of sculptured cave temples, and a Shaiva temple on the seashore.
The town’s five rathas, or monolithic temples, are the remnants of seven temples, for which the town was known as Seven Pagodas.
The entire assemblage collectively was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1984.
Cave Temples
Adi Varaha Perumal Cave Temple
The Adi Varaha Perumal Cave Temple is the earliest of all Pallava structures in Mahabalipuram.
The grandeur of the actual mandapa (pavilion) is hidden behind a rather ordinary looking latter-day structure.
The construction of this site began before the reign of Mahendravarman-I.
The temple is dedicated to Vishnu (Varaha is an incarnation of Vishnu) and its execution follows the spirit of Vaishnava Agamic texts. Both the outer hall and sanctum sanatorium are adorned with elaborate relief sculptures.
This temple houses two relief sculptures of Pallava kings, Simhavishnu (c. 537 CE – 570 CE) and Mahendravarman I, accompanied by their respective wives.
The Trimurti Cave
The Trimurti Cave is dedicated to the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara (Shiva) representing the process of creation, sustenance and destruction.
Aside from the deity, the carved pillars and sculptures also show devotees in various postures. The Varaha and Krishna Caves exhibit mythical tales related to Vishnu and Krishna.
The Mahishasuramardini Cave
The Mahishasuramardini Cave can be found at a hilltop location. Mahishasuramardini is another name of the goddess Durga who is an incarnation of Shakti (power).
She earned this name after the slaying of the demon Mahishasura. This is the second, along with the Kotikal Cave, of the caves dedicated to Durga.
Tiger Cave
Technically speaking, the Yali or Tiger Cave may not be a geographic fissure, but it boasts a set of most elaborately designed pillars and sculptures depicting several mythical creatures, lions and tigers. This also has a relief sculpture dedicated to Narasimhavarman II or Rajasimha (700 CE – 728 CE). In many ways, the Tiger Cave sums up the evolution of the Pallava’s cave temple structures over a period of time.
Descent of the Ganges
Alternatively known as Arjuna’s Penance, Descent of the Ganges is a gigantic open air bas-relief sculpted out of pink granite.
The dramatic relief sculpture narrates the tales from Indian epics such as the Mahabharata. Nearby mandapas, particularly the Krishna Mandapa, however, showcase scenes of pastoral life amid mythical figures.
Pancha Ratha
Pancha Ratha (five chariots) is an architectural ode to Mahabharata’s five Pandava brothers Yudhistir, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva, and their wife Draupadi.
Thematically and structurally, each ratha is significantly different from the other ones, but all of them were carved out of a long stone or monolith. Spread over one to three storeys, their forms vary from square to apsidal.
The walls of these ancient edifices are decorated with bas-reliefs and murals. A beautifully carved monolithic airavata (elephant) and nandi (bull) decorate the premises. Though originally meant to be places of worships, these were never consecrated and used actively for any sacred rites.
Shore Temple
The Shore Temple is located on the beach and if local lore is to be trusted it is the one surviving structure of the legendary Seven Pagodas.
Despite continuous erosive effects of the moist and salty sea air, the Shore Temple preserves its beauty in many parts. Built between 700 and 728 CE during the reign of Narasimhavarman II, this is indeed a remnant of a larger complex of temples and civil structures much of which lie under the depth of the sea now.
This five story edifice is so situated that the first rays of the rising sun fall on the presiding deity of the temple, Shiva. Visitors enter the premises through a barrel vaulted gopuram (gateway). The shikhara (roof) of the actual shrine resembles a pyramidal structure. Like other remarkable structures at Mahabalipuram, this too is embellished with intricate bas-reliefs. Monolithic sculptures are also seen scattered about the temple complex.
Olakkanneshvara Temple
Also known as the Olakkanatha Temple, the Olakkanneshvara Temple (Temple of Shiva, suggestive of the third eye of Shiva) was built about the same time as the Shore Temple.
This is located atop a hill some distance away from the beach which gave birth to a belief that it acted as a lighthouse in earlier times. This is also built atop the Mahishasuramardini Cave, but the two are different structures erected at different times.
https://www.ancient.eu/Mahabalipuram/

4. Consider the following statements with reference to the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs).
1. RRBs were set up to provide credit and other facilities to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans and small entrepreneurs in rural areas for development and productive activities.
2. NABARD is entrusted to provide refinance to lending institutions in rural areas.
3. RRBs are jointly owned by the Government of India, the concerned State Government and Sponsor Banks with the issued capital shared in the proportion of 30%, 15% and 50% respectively.
4. Regional Rural Banks were set up on the basis of the recommendations of the Narasimham Working Group (1975).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-A
Explanation-
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
The Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established in 1975 under the provisions of the Ordinance promulgated on 26th September, 1975 and Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 with a view to developing the rural economy by providing, for the purpose of development of agriculture, trade, commerce, industry and other productive activities in the rural areas, credit and other facilities, particularly to small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans and small entrepreneurs, and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto.

Regional Rural Banks were set up on the basis of the recommendations of the Narasimham Working Group (1975), and after the legislation of the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976.
The first Regional Rural Bank “Prathama Grameen Bank” was set up on 2nd October, 1975.
Stakeholders-The equity of a regional rural bank is held by the Central Government, concerned State Government and the Sponsor Bank in the proportion of 50:15:35.
The RRBs combine the characteristics of a cooperative in terms of the familiarity of the rural problems and a commercial bank in terms of its professionalism and ability to mobilise financial resources.
Each RRB operates within the local limits as notified by the Government.
The main objectives of RRBs
To provide credit and other facilities to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans and small entrepreneurs in rural areas.
To check the outflow of rural deposits to urban areas and reduce regional imbalances and increase rural employment generation.
The RRBs are required to provide 75% of their total credit as priority sector lending.
https://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Publications/PDFs/73534.pdf

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Rushikulya River.
1. It originates at an elevation of about 1000 metres from Daringbadi hills of the Eastern Ghats range.
2. Its tributaries are the Baghua, the Dhanei, and the Badanadi.
3. After Gahirmatha, the Rushikulya river mouth in Ganjam district has emerged as the second largest nesting site of the endangered olive ridley turtles.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Rushikulya River
The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and Ganjam of Odisha.
The Rushikulya originates at an elevation of about 1000 metres from Daringbadi hills of the Eastern Ghats range.
The place from where the river originates, Daringbadi is called the ‘ Kashmir of Odisha ‘.
The river meets the Bay of Bengal at Puruna Bandha in Ganjam.
Its tributaries are the Baghua, the Dhanei, the Badanadi etc.
It has no delta as such at its mouth.
Gahirmatha marine sanctuary and Rushikulya rookery coast in Ganjam district are main Olive Ridley Nesting sites in Odisha.
After 7 years, recently over one lakh turtles have laid eggs along Rushikulya coast.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rushikulya_River