Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 9 June 2020

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1. Consider the following statements with respect to the Ramakrishna Mission.
1. It was established in 1897 by Swami Vivekananda, the chief disciple of Swami Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
2. The mission worked to help the poor, improve the conditions of women, and fight against untouchability and superstition and to overhaul the education system.
3. Swami Vivekananda gave social relevance to monasticism and spiritual relevance to the life of the normal householder.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Ramakrishna Mission
The Ramakrishna Mission was established in 1897 by Swami Vivekananda, the chief disciple of
Swami Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
The first Math was established at Baranagar. In 1899, another ‘math’ was started at Belur, which became the central ‘math’.
It looks after the organization and working of all ‘maths’ spread all over India and even outside it. It is also the educational centre of the saints of the Ramakrishna Mission.
The Mission has drawn all into ideals and principles from the life and teachings of Sri Ramakrishna.
Born in a poor Brahmin family, the childhood name of Ramakrishna was Gadadhar Chattopadhyay.
He is regarded as one of the greatest spiritual leaders of India. He was the devotee of Goddess
Kali, and lived and worshipped at the Dakshineswar temple.
His disciple Vivekananda {born Narendranath Datta} represented the very soul of Hinduism and Spiritualism.
His message of spiritualism contributed remarkably towards strengthening not only Hindu religion and society but also Indian nationalism. He regarded religion as the manifestation of the divinity that is already in man. He once said, ‘Religion is neither in books, nor in intellectual consent, nor in reason. Reason, theories doctrines, books, religious ceremonies are all helps to religion, religion consists in realization.’ He believed in the fundamental unity of all religions.
Contributions of Ramakrishna Mission
Thoughts of Swami Vivekananda and his contribution are as follows:
The mission worked to help the poor, improve the conditions of women, and fight against untouchability and superstition and to overhaul the education system.
He stressed the supremacy of the Hindu religion and culture.
He anticipated that Hinduism was based on spiritual values while the western culture and civilization was materialistic.
He believed in the unity and equality of all religions.
Economically, he was in favour of agro based small-scale industries.
Humanism was the soul of his religious, spiritual and social ideas.
He gave social relevance to monasticism and spiritual relevance to the life of the normal householder.
He was the first to ask the priests to make it their mission to alleviate the sufferings of human beings.
He believed that Indian Nationalism can be based on four pillars viz. Consciousness and pride in the ancient glory of India; Awakening of the country men; Development of moral and physical strength and Unity based on common spiritual ideas
He wanted that the Indian youth should rise, awake and work to eradicate hunger and ignorance among the masses.
Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902)
Born as Narendranath Dutta in Calcutta in January 1863.
Was influenced by Ramakrishna Paramahamsa who became his Guru.
Became a monk and travelled all over India and the West.
His writings and speeches did a lot to spread Hindu philosophy in the West especially Advaita Vedanta and Yoga philosophies.
In 1886, he formally accepted monastic vows.
He established many Mathas in India the most important being the Belur Math in Belur, Howrah district.
He founded the Ramakrishna Mission in May 1897.
He died in 1902 in Belur Math in West Bengal.
Contributions
Swami Vivekananda is credited with introducing the West to the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga.
He worked in the field of social service.
He spoke to people in India and urged them to eliminate the caste system and promote science and industrialisation.
He also inspired many people to join the national independence movement.
He urged the youth of the country to fight colonial oppression, do social service and work for the people in unity.
His teachings opened up interfaith debates and interfaith awareness.
He also worked against superstitions and advocated the upliftment of women’s position in society.
He wanted the people to embrace the spirit of equality and free thinking.
His interpretation of Vedanta is called neo-Vedanta.
He worked towards a better understanding of Hinduism and also towards nationalism.
According to him, the best form of worship was the service of the people.
He laid stress on physical and moral strength. One of his many quotes say, “You Will Be Nearer To Heaven through Football than through the Study of the Gita.”
2. Consider the following statements with respect to the happiness curriculum class.
1. This is one of the flagship schemes of the Delhi government in the education sector launched in 2018 in all government schools.
2. The assessment under this curriculum is qualitative, focusing on the process rather than the outcome.
3. The objectives of this curriculum include developing self-awareness and mindfulness.
4. The curriculum is designed for students of class’s nursery through the eighth standard.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-d
Explanation-
Happiness Curriculum Class
The curriculum is one of the flagship schemes of the Delhi government in the education sector launched in July 2018.
1. The curriculum calls for schools in India to promote development in cognition, language, literacy, numeracy and the arts along with addressing the wellbeing and happiness of students.
2. It further says that future citizens need to be “mindful, aware, awakened, empathetic, and firmly rooted in their identity…” based on the premise that education has a larger purpose, which cannot be in isolation from the “dire needs” of today’s society.
Objectives:
The objectives of this curriculum include developing self-awareness and mindfulness, inculcating skills of critical thinking and inquiry, enabling learners to communicate effectively and helping learners to apply life skills to deal with stressful and conflicting situations around them.
How is the curriculum implemented?
The curriculum is designed for students of classes nursery through the eighth standard.
Group 1 consists of students in nursery and KG, who have bi-weekly classes (45 minutes each for one session, which is supervised by a teacher) involving mindfulness activities and exercise. Children between classes 1-2 attend classes on weekdays, which involve mindfulness activities and exercises along with taking up reflective questions.
The second group comprises students from classes 3-5 and the third group is comprised of students from classes 6-8 who apart from the aforementioned activities, take part in self-expression and reflect on their behavioral changes.
The learning outcomes of this curriculum are spread across four categories:
1. becoming mindful and attentive (developing increased levels of self-awareness, developing active listening, remaining in the present).
2. Developing critical thinking and reflection (developing strong abilities to reflect on one’s own thoughts and behaviors, thinking beyond stereotypes and assumptions).
3. Developing social-emotional skills (demonstrating empathy, coping with anxiety and stress.
4. developing better communication skills) and developing a confident and pleasant personality (developing a balanced outlook on daily life reflecting self-confidence, becoming responsible and reflecting awareness towards cleanliness, health and hygiene).
How assessment is carried out?
For the evaluation, no examinations are conducted, neither will marks be awarded. The assessment under this curriculum is qualitative, focusing on the “process rather than the outcome” and noting that each student’s journey is unique and different.

3. Consider the following statements about Mahatma Jyotirao Phule.
1. Mahatma Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj on September, 1873.
2. His most critical works of writings were Sarvajnik Satyadharma Pustak and Ghulamgiri.
3. He started a school for girls in Pune in 1848, which was the first such school by Indians.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Mahatma Jyotirao Phule
Mahatma Phule was a prolific social activist and thinker, who pioneered women’s education in India especially in Maharashtra.
He was born on 11 April 1827 in Katgun, Satara District in Maharashtra. He belonged to the Mali caste of gardeners and his family was mostly illiterate.
His family was well-off owing to success in the flower business. His father Govindrao carried on the family business while also owning some farmland. His mother Chimnabai died when he was just 9 months old.
Phule attended primary school where he learnt the basic 3 R’s. He was then pulled off from school and engaged in the family business. However, a family friend on seeing the child Phule’s intelligence convinced his father to enrol him in an English missionary school. Phule completed his English schooling in 1847.
His life changed its course in 1848. He was attending a wedding procession of his Brahmin friend when he was rebuked and insulted by his friend’s parents for taking part in the procession because he was from a “lowly” caste. He was then faced with the acute injustices of the caste system. He then made it his life’s mission to eradicate the caste system and work for the emancipation of the people.
It was in the same year that he read American political activist and philosopher’s work ‘Rights of Man’. This book influenced his idea of social justice.
Phule understood that the lower castes and women in society were a disadvantaged lot and that their deliverance lay in education.
He taught reading and writing to his wife Savitribai. They then started a school for girls in Pune in 1848, which was the first such school by Indians. He faced social ostracism because of this and even had to leave his parental home.
Later, he started a school for children of the lower castes. He advocated widow remarriage and fought against female infanticide. As an example in the fight against the caste system and untouchability, he opened up the well of his house to people from all castes.
He opened a home for widows and infants as well.
As a staunch opponent of the caste system, Phule attacked the Vedas and the role of Brahmins in society.
He also openly expressed his gratitude to the colonial missionaries who felt, treated the lower castes as worthy human beings.
He is credited with using the word ‘Dalit’ for the depressed classes for the first time. It is a Marathi word meaning ‘broken’ or ‘crushed’.
Mahatma Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj on September 24, 1873. Through the society, he opposed caste system, idolatry and denounced the need for priests. He also championed the necessity of rational thinking. He promoted respect for all religions but shunned the rituals associated with them.
Phule inspired many latter-day leaders including B R Ambedkar.
Savitribai was also an active participant in the movement and she continued the work after her husband’s death.
Phule was also the Commissioner of the Poona Municipality from 1876 till 1883.
Mahatma Phule passed away in Pune aged 63.
Some of Mahatma Phule’s published works
• Tritiya Ratna
• Brahmananche Kasab
• Powada : Chatrapati Shivajiraje Bhosle Yancha (Life of Shivaji)
• Manav Mahammand (Muhammad) (Abhang)
• Gulamgiri
• Satyashodhak Samajokt Mangalashtakasah Sarva Puja-vidhi
• Sarvajanic Satya Dharmapustak
• Shetkaryacha Asud

4. Consider the following statements regarding the No Confidence Motion.
1. A motion of No Confidence Motion against the Government can be introduced only in the LokSabha
2. The Constitution of India mentions about a Confidence and No Confidence Motion.
3. The tradition of the Trust Vote and the Motion of No Confidence is the legacy of the British.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
No Confidence Motion
A “No Confidence Motion” becomes a vehicle on its own by virtue of which a unity gets established in the opposition. Secondly, for a particular period, the nation’s gaze appears to switch towards the omissions and commissions of the Government of the day.
The first LokSabha was formed on April 17th, 1952. Parliament saw the first ever “No Confidence Motion” against the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s government in August 1963. This motion was brought in August 1963, by Acharya JB Kripalani who gathered only 62 votes in favour and 347 votes were cast against the motion.
Importance of “No Confidence Motion
The “No Confidence Motion” is an important tool against the Council of Ministers (COM) in the LokSabha.
If 51% of the members of the house vote in favour of the “No Confidence Motion”, it is passed and the Government is deemed to have lost majority and has to resign from office.
The Government has to prove its majority in the house either by bringing in a vote of confidence or the opposition can ask the Government to prove its majority after it brings a “No Confidence Motion”.
At times, the opposition also brings the “No Confidence Motion” to force the Government to discuss important issues.
A motion of “No Confidence Motion” against the Government can be introduced only in the LokSabha under rule 198.
Procedure to move a “No Confidence Motion”:
The procedure is specified under rule 198 of the LokSabha. The Constitution of India does not mention about either a Confidence or a No Confidence Motion.
Although, Article 75 does specify that the Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the LokSabha.
A motion of No Confidence can be introduced only in the LokSabha and by the opposition.
It can be admitted when a minimum of 50 members, support the motion in the house.
According to Rule 198(1)(a): Leave to make the motion shall be asked for by the member when called by the Speaker.
According to Rule 198(1)(b): The member asking for such a leave would need to give a written notice of the motion to the Secretary-General of the LokSabha by 10 AM on the day he/she proposes to move the motion.
If the notice is received after 10 AM, it shall have been deemed to be received on the next day on which the house sits.
According to Rule 198(2) states that if the Speaker is of the opinion that the motion is in order, he/she shall read the motion to the house, requesting those members who are in favour of it to rise in their places.
If at least 50 members support the motion, the Speaker declares that the leave is granted.
The motion is taken up within 10 days from the date on which the leave is asked for.
According to Rule 198(3), if leave is granted the Speaker may allot a day/part of day/days for discussion of the motion. This is done after considering the state of business in the house.
According to Rule 198(4): the Speaker shall put every question necessary to determine the decision of the house on the motion at the appointed hour on the allotted day.
According to Rule 198(5): the Speaker may prescribe a time limit for speeches.
If the motion is passed in the house, the Government is bound to vacate the office.
There is no special provision in the rules for a Confidence Motion.
Such a motion is moved as an ordinary motion under Rule 184. When no party has a clear majority, the President may appoint a Prime Minister.
This person is expected to prove his/her majority through a Confidence Motion, for instance, President KR Narayanan, appointed Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Prime Minister on the basis of written support by a majority of MP’s but had asked him to secure the confidence of Parliament in 10 days.
The No Confidence Motion is an important function of Parliamentary proceedings. Members who back the No Confidence Motion indicate that they have lost the Confidence in the Government. It is rare that the opposition manages to beat the party in power with more numbers, but there are instances when it was passed in the house.
Besides the No Confidence Motion, there are provisions in both houses of Parliament to raise matters of an urgent public importance. Notices can be given under various rules of the LokSabha and the RajyaSabha to draw the attention of the house to such matters.
Here’s a look at various such motions in Parliament:
A motion is a formal notice made to the house by a member to get a decision of the house on an important issue. After a motion is introduced, a vote is taken and the motion is adopted if a required number of members are supporting.
Adjournment Motion: As per Rule 56 of the Lok Sabha, an adjourment motion is brought to draw the attention of the house to a matter of urgent public importance, having serious consequences. In order to discuss the adjournment motion, the regular proceedings of the house are postponed.
The Adjournment motion is allowed only in the LokSabha, and not in the RajyaSabha.
The adjournment motion needs the support of at least 50 members.
Discussion on the adjournment motion usually begins at 4 in the evening. If an adjournment motion is passed, it is considered as a criticism of the Government policy on the issue. However, the adjournment motion does not pose any threat to the stability of the Government.
Calling Attention Notice:
A calling attention notice is when a Member of Parliament with the permission of the Speaker of the LokSabha or the Chairman of the RajyaSabha draws the attention of a minister to a matter of urgent public importance.
Notice must be given before 10 AM on the day of the sitting for calling attention. The Minister then presents his statement on the issue on the floor of the house. Clarificatory questions can be asked after the Minister’s statement to which he/she has to reply. Calling Attention falls under Rule 197 of the LokSabha and Rule 180 of the RajyaSabha. There is no discussion or voting in Calling Attention Notice. This motion too does not pose a threat to the Government.
Short Duration Discussion:
Under the provision of a Short Duration Discussion, any Member of Parliament (MP) can raise a discussion on a matter of urgent public importance. The Discussion is held under Rule 193 of the LokSabha and Rule 176 of the RajyaSabha.
The member needs to give notice to the Secretary-General specifying clearly the matter to be raised and the reasons for doing so. The notice needs to be supported by the signatures of at least two other members.
The Speaker in the LokSabha or the Chairman in the RajyaSabha may allot two sittings in a week on which such matters may be taken up for discussion.
The Minister-in-charge responds at the end of the discussion. There is no voting in Short Duration Discussion.
Questions of Privilege: Any MP may raise a question involving breach of privilege either of a member of the house or of a committee. Questions can be raised only with the consent of the Speaker in the LokSabha and Chairman in the RajyaSabha. The Question of Privilege can be brought under Rule 222 of the LokSabha. In the RajyaSabha, the Question of Privilege can be raised under Rule 187
Cut Motion:
A cut motion is moved to reduce the amount of a demand made by a ministry during the discussion on Demand for Grants.
The LokSabha Speaker may or may not admit the Cut Motion.
Censure Motion:
Similarly, a censure motion is moved to criticize or reject a policy of the Government.
The President addresses a joint sitting of both the houses after every general election before the start of the first session. The house may discuss the matters referred to in the President’s address in a Motion of Thanks moved by a member and seconded by another member.
The discussion on the Motion of Thanks concludes with the response of the Prime Minister.
Note
The Parliamentary system in India is based on the British Parliamentary model. The tradition of the Trust Vote and the Motion of No Confidence is the legacy of the British. India’s Parliamentary system is based on Britain’s Westminster model.
A Historical Note:
The No Confidence Motion was first introduced in the United Kingdom. In 1742, the Motion of no confidence was passed against Sir Robert Walpole’s government and it was the first time that a Prime Minister of Great Britain resigned after a vote of No Confidence by the House of Commons.

5. Which of the following were the feature(s) of the Sufis Movements?
1. Opposition to orthodoxy
2. Emphasised on spiritualism for service of mankind
3. Discouraged material life
4. Encouraged religious unity
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer-d
Explanation-
Sufis Movements
The Sufis Movements was based on the doctrine of relationship between God and man is through love, worship, spiritualism etc.
Features of the Sufis Movements –
 Opposition to orthodoxy
 Emphasised on spiritualism for service of mankind
 Discouraged material life
 Encouraged religious unity
 Love, worship, spiritualism
 Emphasised on purity of mind and heart
 Organised in different silsilas
 Absorb ideas and practices from various faiths
What is Sufi Movement?
The 10th century A.D marks the important changes in the realm of ideas and beliefs in the Islamic religion – the rise of the Sufi mystic orders.
The core concept of Sufi Movement is Darikh-i-Duniya / Wahad-ul-wahjud, meaning “Universal Brotherhood”. It outwardly rejected the religion and emphasized love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow human beings.
Mystics, who are called Sufis, were persons of deep devotion who were disgusted by the display of wealth and degeneration of morals following the establishment of the Islamic empire.
The Sufis were organized in 12 orders or Silsilahs. A Silsilah was generally led by a prominent mystic who lived in a Khanqah or hospice along with his disciples.
The Sufi orders are broadly divided into two: Ba-shara – Those who followed the Islamic Law and Be-shara – Those who were not bound by the Islamic Law.
The Sufi saints made themselves popular by adopting musical recitations called “Sama”, to create a mood of nearness to God.
Qawwali is the form of sufi devotional music popular in South Asia and ghazal is a form of Qawwali.
What are the major Silsilahs followed in India?
The four main Sufi orders – Chisti, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya and Naqshbandi order were practiced in India.
Chisti Order
The Saints of Chisti Order were lived in poverty and lead a hermit life. They did not accept State service. This order is primarily followed in Afghanistan and Indian Subcontinent.
The Chisti order in India was established in India by Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti in 1192, shortly after the death of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
He died in 1236 and his tomb in Ajmer was constructed by Ghiasuddin Khalji of Malwa. Mohammed Bin Tuqlaq visited the tomb and later it came under State Management during Mughal Ruler Akbar’s reign.
One of the other notable Sufi saints was Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki who organized work in Delhi and the contemporary Delhi Sultanate Ruler was Illtutmish who was deeply devoted to Chisti Order.
Another famous Sufi saint was Nizamuddin Auliya and he adopted yogic breathing exercises, so much so that the yogis called him sidh or ‘perfect.’
Auliya’s famous disciple was Amir Khusrow who is called as “father of Qawwali” and “Parrot of India” and introduced the Ghazal Style to India.
After the death of Nasruddin Chiragh-i-Delhi in the 14th century, the chishtis order declined.
Suharwardi Order
It entered India at the same time as the Chishtis and its activities were confined to the Punjab and Multan.
This order was established in India by Bahauddin Zakanya.
The Most well-known saints were Shaikh shihabuddin Suharwadi and Hamid-ud-din Nagori.
Another Saint Shaikh Fakhruddin Ibrahim Iraqi composed a treatise called Hamat which is a commentary on the Unity of Being (Wahdat-al-Wujud) and he was highly respected by the Delhi Sultans from Alauddin Khilji to Muhammad Bin Tughluq.
Unlike the Chishtis, the suharwardi saints did not believe in leading a life of Poverty. They accepted the service of the state and held important posts mainly under Delhi Sultanate ruler Iltutmish.
Qadri Order
This order was established in India by Niyammad-ulla-Qadiri and was introduced in India over Babur period.
A great follower of Qadri Order was Dara Shiko, who was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah jahan.
During Aurangazeb’s reign, the Qadri order lost its patronage.
Nasqabhandi Order
This order was founded by Bahibillah and the followers were very orthodox compared to all other orders.
This order was popularized in India by Babur who was deeply devoted to Naqshbandiyya leader Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar.
One of the disciples of Khwaja was Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi who opposed all those practices and beliefs of Akbar and demanded re-imposition of Jizyah.
Later he was imprisoned by Jahangir for claiming a status beyond that of the Prophet.