Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 15 August 2020

1. Which of the following places in news and their country of location are correctly matched?
Places in news Country of location
1. Bamba Iran
2. Bamako Mali
3. Bogota Colombia
4. Quetta Afghanistan
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 4 only
Answer-c
Explanation-

Places in news Country of location
Bamba Mali
Bamako Mali
Bogota Colombia
Quetta Pakistan

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Ordinance Powers of the President of India.
1. Article 123 of the Constitution grants the President certain law making powers to promulgate Ordinances.
2. The President can only promulgate an Ordinance when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session.
3. Ordinances must be approved by Parliament within six weeks of reassembling or they shall cease to operate.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Ordinance Powers of the President of India
Article 123 of the Constitution grants the President certain law making powers to promulgate Ordinances when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session and hence it is not possible to enact laws in the Parliament.
An Ordinance may relate to any subject that the Parliament has the power to legislate on. Conversely, it has the same limitations as the Parliament to legislate, given the distribution of powers between the Union, State and Concurrent Lists.
Thus, the following limitations exist with regard to the Ordinance making power of the executive: i. Legislature is not in session: The President can only promulgate an Ordinance when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session.
ii. Immediate action is required: The President cannot promulgate an Ordinance unless he is satisfied that there are circumstances that require taking ‘immediate action’.
iii. Parliamentary approval during session: Ordinances must be approved by Parliament within six weeks of reassembling or they shall cease to operate. They will also cease to operate in case resolutions disapproving the Ordinance are passed by both the Houses.
The maximum validity of an ordinance is 6 months and 6 weeks.
A constitutional amendment cannot be made through ordinance route.
https://www.prsindia.org/hi/theprsblog/ordinance-making-powers-executive-india

3. Consider the following statements regarding the National Zoological Park (NZP).
1. In the year 1982 it was given the status of the National Zoological Park with the idea of it being the model zoo of the country.
2. It not only provides a home for endangered species, but also helps them to breed in captivity under in-situ conservation.
3. It is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt. of India
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation-
National Zoological Park (NZP)
National Zoological Park is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt. of India located in New Delhi.
The Park was formally inaugurated on 1st November, 1959 by Mr Punjab Rao Deshmukh, Hon’ble Minister, Govt. of India.
This Park was initially known as Delhi Zoo. In the year 1982 it was given the status of the National Zoological Park with the idea of it being the model zoo of the country.
Director, National Zoological Park who is from All India Service is the sole authority at National Zoological Park.
He is assisted by various officials’.
Vision
Visitor experience will be far more rewarding and enriching than it is today.
Quality of animal care exhibits, conservation education and sustainable management practices will take the zoo to the next level.
The ‘National Zoological Park’ (NZP) will truly be the Nation’s Zoo in terms of state of art facilities and management practices.
It will be a role model in the country for other zoos to seek guidance and inspiration.
NZP shall also endeavor to breed endangered species through organized breeding programs for the purpose of display, exchange and rehabilitation in wild.
NZP will be a top of the mind educational and recreational facility in the region.
Mission
• To generate awareness and compassion in the society towards wild life and to garner their support for the national conservation effort.
• To play an effective role in reducing man animal conflicts in urban landscape.
• To play an effective role in species preservation.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Gini Coefficient and Atkinson Index Measures.
1. The most popular measure of income inequality, the Gini coefficient is derived from the Lorenz curve framework.
2. The Atkinson index’s main weakness as a measure of income distribution is that it is incapable of differentiating different kinds of inequalities.
3. The Gini coefficient allows for varying sensitivity to inequalities in different parts of the income distribution.
4. The Atkinson inequality measure puts more weight to the lower end, thus it accounts better for child mortality, illiteracy, and income poverty.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-b
Explanation-
Gini Coefficient and Atkinson Index Measures of Inequality
The most popular measure of income inequality, the Gini coefficient is derived from the Lorenz curve framework. The Gini coefficient’s main weakness as a measure of income distribution is that it is incapable of differentiating different kinds of inequalities.
The Atkinson index allows for varying sensitivity to inequalities in different parts of the income distribution. The Atkinson inequality measure puts more weight to the lower end, thus it accounts better for child mortality, illiteracy, and income poverty.

5. Consider the following statements about the Prasar Bharati.
1. It is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act and came into existence in 1997.
2. The objectives of public service broadcasting are achieved through All India Radio and Doordarshan.
3. The general superintendence, direction and management of the affairs of Prasar Bharati are vested in the Prasar Bharati Board, which is headed by the Minister of Information and Broadcasting (Ministry of I&B).
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Prasar Bharati is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act and came into existence on 23.11.1997.
It is the Public Service Broadcaster of the country. The objectives of public service broadcasting are achieved in terms of Prasar Bharati Act through All India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of I&B and since the above said date became constituents of Prasar Bharati.
The general superintendence, direction and management of the affairs of Prasar Bharati are vested in the Prasar Bharati Board, which is headed by the Chairman and comprises of, the Executive Member (Chief Executive Officer), the Member (Finance), the Member (Personnel), six Part-time Members, a representative of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting and the Directors General of All India Radio and Doordarshan as ex-officio Members.
The Chairman is a Part Time Member with three year tenure, subject to the age limit of 70 years. The Chief Executive Officer has tenure of five years, subject to the age limit of 65 years.
Member (Finance) and Member (Personnel) are Whole Time Members with six year tenure, subject to the age limit of 62 years.
The Prasar Bharati Board meets at least 6 times in a year and the meetings are presided over by the Chairman.
The Board delegates powers and responsibilities to the Chief Executive Officer who discharges his functions accordingly.
Mission & Objectives
The major objectives of the Prasar Bharati Corporation as laid out in the Prasar Bharati Act, 1990 are as follows:
• To uphold the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the Constitution.
• To promote national integration.
• To safeguard citizens’ rights to be informed on all matters of public interest by presenting a fair and balanced flow of information.
• To pay special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health & family welfare and science & technology.
• To create awareness about women’s issues and take special steps to protect the interests of children, aged and other vulnerable sections of the society.
• To provide adequate coverage to diverse cultures, sports and games and youth affairs.
• To promote social justice, safeguarding the rights of working classes, minorities and tribal communities.
• To promote research and expand broadcasting faculties & development in broadcast technology.