Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 17 August 2020


1. Consider the following statements with reference to the Respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV).
1. It is a common respiratory virus that usually causes mild, cold-like symptoms.
2. It is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year of age.
3. The genome is composed of a single strand of RNA with negative polarity.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common, and very contagious, virus that infects the respiratory tract of most children before their second birthday.
For most babies and young children, the infection causes nothing more than a cold. But for a small percentage, infection with RSV can lead to serious, sometimes life-threatening problems such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the small airways of the lungs.
RSV Symptoms
RSV infection can cause cold-like symptoms, including a cough and runny nose, which usually last 1 to 2 weeks.
When to see a doctor: Call your baby’s doctor if you notice any of the following RSV symptoms:
A high-pitched whistling or wheezing noise when they breathe
Being unusually upset or inactive
A cough with yellow, green, or gray mucus
Trouble breathing or pauses in their breaths
Refusing to breastfeed or bottle-feed
Signs of dehydration: lack of tears when crying, little or no urine in their diaper for 6 hours, and cool, dry skin
If your baby is very tired, breathes rapidly, or has a blue tint to their lips or fingernails, call 911 or go to the ER immediately.
RSV Causes and Risk Factors
Respiratory syncytial virus spreads through the air, like after a cough or a sneeze, and through direct contact like touching.
The chance of a severe infection is highest for:


Babies born prematurely
Children younger than 2 who were born with heart or lung disease
Infants and young children whose immune systems are weakened because of illness or medical treatment
Children under 8 to 10 weeks old
RSV Diagnosis
To diagnose RSV, your child’s doctor will probably look at their medical history and do a physical exam, including listening to their lungs.
Your doctor might do some tests if your child is very sick or in order to rule out other problems. Tests for RSV include:
Blood and urine tests to look for a bacterial infection and make sure your child isn’t dehydrated
Chest X-rays to look for any signs of pneumonia
Tests of material scraped out of your child’s nose or mouth
Help Prevent the Spread of RSV
You can help protect yourself and others from RSV infection by following a few prevention tips:
Wash your hands often
Keep your hands off your face
Avoid close contact with sick people
Cover your coughs and sneezes
Clean and disinfect surfaces
Stay home when you are sick
https://www.cdc.gov/rsv/index.html

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council.
1. It is a constitutional body for making recommendations to the Union and State Government on issues related to Goods and Service Tax.
2. The GST Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister and other members are the Union State Minister of Revenue or Finance and Ministers in-charge of Finance or Taxation of all the States.
3. The GST Council was created as per Article 279A of the amended Constitution.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Goods and Services Tax Council
Goods & Services Tax Council is a constitutional body for making recommendations to the Union and State Government on issues related to Goods and Service Tax.
The GST Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister and other members are the Union State Minister of Revenue or Finance and Ministers in-charge of Finance or Taxation of all the States.
The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Second Amendment) Bill, 2016, for introduction of Goods and Services tax in the country was introduced in the Parliament and passed by RajyaSabha on 3rd August, 2016 and by Lok Sabha on 8th August, 2016.
Consequent upon this, the Hon’ble President of India accorded assent on 8th September, 2016, and the same was notified as the Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. As per Article 279A (1) of the amended Constitution, the GST Council has to be constituted by the President within 60 days of the commencement of Article 279A.
The notification for bringing into force Article 279A with effect from 12th September, 2016 was issued on 10thSeptember, 2016.
As per Article 279A of the amended Constitution, the GST Council which will be a joint forum of the Centre and the States.
As per Article 279A (4), the Council will make recommendations to the Union and the States on important issues related to GST, like the goods and services that may be subjected or exempted from GST, model GST Laws, principles that govern Place of Supply, threshold limits, GST rates including the floor rates with bands, special rates for raising additional resources during natural calamities/disasters, special provisions for certain States, etc.
The Union Cabinet in its meeting held on 12th September, 2016 approved setting-up of GST Council and setting up its Secretariat. The Cabinet inter alia took decisions for the following:
a. Creation of the GST Council as per Article 279A of the amended Constitution;
b. Creation of the GST Council Secretariat, with its office at New Delhi;
c. Appointment of the Secretary (Revenue) as the Ex-Officio Secretary to the GST Council;
d. Inclusion of the Chairperson, Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC), as a permanent invitee (non-voting) to all proceedings of the GST Council;
e. Create one post of Additional Secretary to the GST Council in the GST Council Secretariat (at the level of Additional Secretary to the Government of India), and four posts of Commissioner in the GST Council Secretariat (at the level of Joint Secretary to the Government of India).
The Cabinet also decided to provide for adequate funds for meeting the recurring and non-recurring expenses of the GST Council Secretariat, the entire cost for which shall be borne by the Central Government.
The GST Council Secretariat shall be manned by officers taken on deputation from both the Central and State Governments.
The provisions of Article 279A of the Constitution of India with respect to constitution of GST Council and its mandate are as below:
GST COUNCIL
The Members of the Goods and Services Tax Council referred to in sub-clause (c) of clause (2) shall, as soon as may be, choose one amongst themselves to be the Vice-Chairperson of the Council for such period as they may decide.
The Goods and Services Tax Council shall make recommendations to the Union and the States on—
1. The taxes, cesses and surcharges levied by the Union, the States and the local bodies which may be subsumed in the goods and services tax;
2. The goods and services that may be subjected to, or exempted from the goods and services tax;
3. Model Goods and Services Tax Laws, principles of levy, apportionment of Goods and Services Tax levied on supplies in the course of inter-State trade or commerce under article 269A and the principles that govern the place of supply;
4. The threshold limit of turnover below which goods and services may be exempted from goods and services tax;
5. The rates including floor rates with bands of goods and services tax;
6. Any special rate or rates for a specified period, to raise additional resources during any natural calamity or disaster;
7. Special provision with respect to the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand; and
8. Any other matter relating to the goods and services tax, as the Council may decide.
The Goods and Services Tax Council shall recommend the date on which the goods and services tax be levied on petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel.
While discharging the functions conferred by this article, the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be guided by the need for a harmonized structure of goods and services tax and for the development of a harmonized national market for goods and services.
One-half of the total number of Members of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall constitute the quorum at its meetings.
The Goods and Services Tax Council shall determine the procedure in the performance of its functions.
Every decision of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be taken at a meeting, by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the weighted votes of the members present and voting, in accordance with the following principles, namely: —
1. The vote of the Central Government shall have a weightage of one third of the total votes cast, and
2. The votes of all the State Governments taken together shall have a weightage of two-thirds of the total votes cast, in that meeting.
No act or proceedings of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be invalid merely by reason of—
1. Any vacancy in, or any defect in, the constitution of the Council; or
2. Any defect in the appointment of a person as a Member of the Council; or
3. Any procedural irregularity of the Council not affecting the merits of the case.
The Goods and Services Tax Council shall establish a mechanism to adjudicate any dispute —
1. Between the Government of India and one or more States; or
2. Between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other side; or
3. Between two or more States, arising out of the recommendations of the Council or implementation thereof.
http://www.gstcouncil.gov.in/gst-council

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID).
1. This promotes the international sharing of all influenza virus sequences associated with human viruses and geographical as well as species-specific data associated with avian and other animal.
2. The GISAID platform was launched on the occasion of the Sixty-first World Health Assembly in 2008.
3. Germany became the official host of the GISAID Initiative through a cooperation agreement with GISAID.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)
Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) is a public platform started by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2008 for countries to share genome sequences.
The GISAID platform was launched on the occasion of the Sixty-first World Health Assembly in May 2008.
Since its launch GISAID plays an essential role in the sharing of data among the WHO Collaborating Centers and National Influenza Centers for the bi-annual influenza vaccine virus recommendations by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). It is headquartered in Munich, Germany.
The GISAID Initiative promotes the international sharing of all influenza virus sequences, related clinical and epidemiological data associated with human viruses, and geographical as well as species-specific data associated with avian and other animal viruses, to help researchers understand how the viruses evolve, spread and potentially become pandemics.
GISAID does so by overcoming disincentives/hurdles or restrictions, which discourage or prevented sharing of influenza data prior to formal publication.
The Initiative ensures that open access to data in GISAID is provided free-of-charge and to everyone, provided individuals identify themselves and agree to uphold the GISAID sharing mechanism governed through its Database Access Agreement.
GISAID calls on all users to agree to the basic premise of upholding scientific etiquette, by acknowledging the originating laboratories providing the specimen and the submitting laboratories who generate the sequence data, ensuring fair exploitation of results derived from the data, and that all users agree that no restrictions shall be attached to data submitted to GISAID, to promote collaboration among researchers on the basis of open sharing of data and respect for all rights and interests.
https://www.gisaid.org/about-us/mission/

4. Consider the following statements with reference to the International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL).
1. It is an intergovernmental organization that helps coordinate the police force of 194 member countries.
2. The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is designated as the National Central Bureau of India to assist INTERPOL.
3. It issues notices as international requests for cooperation or alerts allowing police in member countries to share critical crime-related information.
4. INTERPOL is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) All of the above
Answer-c
Explanation-
International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol)
The International Criminal Police Organization is an inter-governmental organization and have 194 member countries, and it help police in all of them to work together to make the world a safer place.
To do this, it enables them to share and access data on crimes and criminals, and we offer a range of technical and operational support.
It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923.
The General Secretariat coordinates its day-to-day activities to fight a range of crimes. Run by the Secretary General, it is staffed by both police and civilians and comprises a headquarters in Lyon, a global complex for innovation in Singapore and several satellite offices in different regions.
In each country, an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB) provides the central point of contact for the General Secretariat and other NCBs. An NCB is run by national police officials and usually sits in the government ministry responsible for policing.
The General Assembly is our governing body and it brings all countries together once a year to take decisions.
It connects all member countries via a communications system called I-24/7. Countries use this secure network to contact each other, and the General Secretariat. It also allows them to access our databases and services in real-time, from both central and remote locations.
It also coordinates networks of police and experts in different crime areas, who come together through working groups and at conferences to share experiences and ideas.
It manages 18 police databases with information on crimes and criminals (from names and fingerprints to stolen passports), accessible in real-time to countries.
It offers investigative support such as forensics, analysis, and assistance in locating fugitives around the world. Training is an important part of what it does in many areas so that officials know how to work efficiently with its services.
This expertise supports national efforts in combating crimes across three global areas it considers the most pressing today; terrorism, cybercrime and organized crime.
Officials working in each specialized crime area run a variety of different activities alongside member countries. This can be investigative support, field operations, training and networking.
Importantly, since crimes evolve, it keeps an eye on the future through research and development in international crime and trends.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is designated as the National Central Bureau of India.

Types of Notice
Red Notice: To seek the location and arrest of wanted persons wanted for prosecution or to serve a sentence.
Yellow Notice: To help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who are unable to identify themselves.
Blue Notice: To collect additional information about a person’s identity, location or activities in relation to a crime.
Black Notice: To seek information on unidentified bodies.
Green Notice: To provide warning about a person’s criminal activities, where the person is considered to be a possible threat to public safety.
Orange Notice: To warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing a serious and imminent threat to public safety.
Purple Notice: To seek or provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and concealment methods used by criminals.
INTERPOL–United Nations Security Council Special Notice: Issued for groups and individuals who are the targets of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees.
https://www.interpol.int/en/Who-we-are/What-is-INTERPOL

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act.
1. It criminalises non-maintenance of medical records by obstetricians and gynaecologists and suspends their medical licence indefinitely.
2. The main purpose of the Act is to ban the use of sex selection and misuse of pre-natal diagnostic technique for sex selective abortions and to regulate such techniques.
3. It regulates the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques, like ultrasound and amniocentesis by allowing them their use only to detect few cases.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act
In a significant judgment, the Supreme Court has upheld provisions in the anti-pre-natal sex determination law which ‘criminalises’ non-maintenance of medical records by obstetricians and gynaecologists and suspend their medical licence indefinitely.
The court held that these provisions in the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act of 1994 were necessary to prevent female foeticide in the country.
The main purpose of the Act is to ban the use of sex selection and misuse of pre-natal diagnostic technique for sex selective abortions and to regulate such techniques. However, there are only 586 convictions out of 4202 cases registered even after 24 years of existence. It reflects the challenges being faced in implementing this social legislation.
About PCPNDT Act:
The Pre-conception & Pre-natal Diagnostics Techniques (PC & PNDT) Act, 1994 was enacted in response to the decline in Sex ratio in India, which deteriorated from 972 in 1901 to 927 in 1991. The main purpose of enacting the act is to ban the use of sex selection techniques before or after conception and prevent the misuse of prenatal diagnostic technique for sex selective abortion.
Offences under this act include conducting or helping in the conduct of prenatal diagnostic technique in the unregistered units, sex selection on a man or woman, conducting PND test for any purpose other than the one mentioned in the act, sale, distribution, supply, renting etc. of any ultra sound machine or any other equipment capable of detecting sex of the foetus.
The act was amended in 2003 to improve the regulation of the technology used in sex selection. The Act was amended to bring the technique of pre conception sex selection and ultrasound technique within the ambit of the act.

The amendment also empowered the central supervisory board and state level supervisory board was constituted. In 1988, the State of Maharashtra became the first in the country to ban pre-natal sex determination through enacting the Maharashtra Regulation of Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act.
Main provisions in the act are:
The Act provides for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception.
It regulates the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques, like ultrasound and amniocentesis by allowing them their use only to detect few cases.
No laboratory or centre or clinic will conduct any test including ultrasonography for the purpose of determining the sex of the foetus.
No person, including the one who is conducting the procedure as per the law, will communicate the sex of the foetus to the pregnant woman or her relatives by words, signs or any other method.
Any person who puts an advertisement for pre-natal and pre-conception sex determination facilities in the form of a notice, circular, label, wrapper or any document, or advertises through interior or other media in electronic or print form or engages in any visible representation made by means of hoarding, wall painting, signal, light, sound, smoke or gas, can be imprisoned for up to three years and fined Rs. 10,000.
The Act mandates compulsory registration of all diagnostic laboratories, all genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, genetic clinics and ultrasound clinics.
Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 (PNDT), was amended in 2003 to The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition Of Sex Selection) Act (PCPNDT Act) to improve the regulation of the technology used in sex selection. The Act was amended to bring the technique of pre conception sex selection and ultrasound technique within the ambit of the act. The amendment also empowered the central supervisory board and state level supervisory board was constituted.
In 1988, the State of Maharashtra became the first in the country to ban pre-natal sex determination through enacting the Maharashtra Regulation of Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act.
https://www.ncpcr.gov.in/view_file.php?fid=434