Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 15 FEB 2020

 

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  1. With reference to Maratha rulers, match the following:
    Maratha Confederacy
    1. Holkar a. Baroda
    2. Bhonsale b. Poona
    3. Gaekwad c. Nagpur
    4. Peshwa d. Indore
    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
    (a) 1-a; 2-d; 3-c; 4-b
    (b) 1-d; 2-c; 3-a; 4-b
    (c) 1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d
    (d) 1-d; 2-a; 3-c; 4-b
  2.  Consider the following Statements regarding Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.

1. RTE Act, 2009 confers the right to elementary education on all children, in the age group of 6-16 years, on the basis of equality of opportunity in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.
2. The centrally sponsored scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) supports states and UTs in their efforts to implement the RTE Act.
3. RTE Act makes a specific provision for Special Training for age-appropriate admission for out-of-school children.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Consider the following statements regarding Preventive detention.
1. The Preventive detention cannot extend beyond a period of 6 months.
2. Article 22 (3) (b) allows for preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty for reasons of state security and public order.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements with Unemployment in India.
1. Cyclical unemployment figures in India are negligible. It is a phenomenon that is mostly found in capitalist economies.
2. NSSO, an organization under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation measures unemployment in India.
3. NSSO measures unemployment through Usual Status Approach and Weekly Status Approach only.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-b
Explanation-
Types of Unemployment in India
Disguised Unemployment:
It is a phenomenon wherein more people are employed than actually needed. It is primarily traced in the agricultural and the unorganised sectors of India.
Seasonal Unemployment:
It is an unemployment that occurs during certain seasons of the year. Agricultural labourers in India rarely have work throughout the year.
Structural Unemployment:
It is a category of unemployment arising from the mismatch between the jobs available in the market and the skills of the available workers in the market.
Cyclical Unemployment:
It is result of the business cycle, where unemployment rises during recessions and declines with economic growth. Cyclical unemployment figures in India are negligible. It is a phenomenon that is mostly found in capitalist economies.
Technological Unemployment:
It is loss of jobs due to changes in technology. In 2016, World Bank data predicted that the proportion of jobs threatened by automation in India is 69% year-on-year.
Frictional Unemployment:
The Frictional Unemployment also called as Search Unemployment, refers to the time lag between the jobs when an individual is searching for a new job or is switching between the jobs.
Vulnerable Employment:
This means, people working informally, without proper job contracts and thus sans any legal protection. These persons are deemed ‘unemployed’ since records of their work are never maintained. It is one of the main types of unemployment in India.
Measurement of Unemployment in India
National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), an organization under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) measures unemployment in India on following approaches:
 Usual Status Approach: This approach estimates only those persons as unemployed who had no gainful work for a major time during the 365 days preceding the date of survey.
 Weekly Status Approach: This approach records only those persons as unemployed who did not have gainful work even for an hour on any day of the week preceding the date of survey.
 Daily Status Approach: Under this approach, unemployment status of a person is measured for each day in a reference week. A person having no gainful work even for 1 hour in a day is described as unemployed for that day.

5. Consider the following statements regarding
1. H1N1 flu is the subtype of Influenza-A virus, is also known as swine flu.
2. World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic in 2009.
3. Pandemrix and Celvapan are effective vaccines against the virus that causes swine flu.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

  1. Answer-b
    Explanation-
    Maratha Confederacy
    Holkar Indore
    Bhonsale Nagpur
    Gaekwad Baroda
    Peshwa Poona
  2. Answer-b
    Explanation
    Article 21-A of the Constitution of India and its consequent legislation, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 became operative in the country in 2010. The RTE Act confers the right to elementary education on all children, in the age group of 6-14 years, on the basis of equality of opportunity in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards. All states and UTs have notified their state RTE Rules. The centrally sponsored scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) supports states and UTs in their efforts to implement the RTE Act. Its interventions include, inter alia, opening of new schools, construction of schools and additional classrooms, constructing toilets and drinking water facilities, provisioning for teachers, in-service training for teachers and academic resource support, free textbooks and uniforms, support for improving learning achievement levels, research, evaluation and monitoring.
    The RTE Act makes a specific provision for Special Training for age-appropriate admission for out-of-school children. A majority of out-of-school children belong to disadvantaged communities – scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, Muslims, migrants, children with special needs, urban deprived children, working children, children in other difficult circumstances, for example, those living in difficult terrain, children from displaced families, and areas affected by civil strife, etc. Special training may be in the form of residential or non-residential courses organized, preferably in the premises of the school, but if such facilities are not available in school, alternate facilities which are safe, secure and accessible may be identified and used
    RTE-SSA provides a clear thrust and special focus on education for girls and children belonging to disadvantaged groups and weaker sections. The general interventions under SSA apply to all girls and children belonging to disadvantaged and weaker sections; these include ensuring availability of primary and upper primary schools within the habitation as prescribed under the RTE Rules, uniforms, textbooks, etc. Special Training interventions are also largely focused on girls and disadvantaged groups, because it is this category of children who are most deprived of opportunities to pursue their education

4. Answer-b
Explanation
Preventive Detention:
 Preventive Detention is the most contentious part of fundamental rights in the Indian constitution.
 The Article 22 (3) of the Indian constitution provides that if a person is arrested or detained under a law providing for preventive detention, then the protection against arrest and detention under Article 22 (1) and 22 (2) shall not be available.
Types of arrests:
 Punitive Detention: Detention as a punishment for the crime committed by an individual. It takes place after the actual commission of an offence or at least after an attempt has been made.
 Preventive Detention: The imprisonment of a person with the aim of preventing them from committing further offences or of maintaining public order.
The grounds for Preventive detention are:
 Security of state.
 Maintenance of public order.
 Maintenance of supplies and essential services and defence.
 Foreign affairs or security of India.

 

5.Answer-d
Explanation-
 Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu).
 Influenza viruses infect the cells in the nose, throat and lungs.
 The virus enter one’s body when he inhale contaminated droplets or transfer live virus from a contaminated surface to your eyes, nose or mouth.
Influenza complications include:
1. Worsening of chronic conditions, such as heart disease and asthma.
2. Pneumonia.
3. Neurological signs and symptoms, ranging from confusion to seizures.
4. Respiratory failure.
 H1N1 flu is also known as swine flu, it is called swine flu because in the past, the people who caught it had direct contact with pigs.
 From 2009 till 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic.
What is the issue with government’s action?
 It has issued a guidance “recommending” vaccines for health-care workers, and deeming them “desirable” for those above 65 years of age and children between six months and eight years.
 Surprisingly, people with pre-existing chronic diseases, who are most susceptible to H1N1 complications according to the WHO, have been ignored.
What measures are needed?
 With H1N1 becoming a seasonal flu virus strain in India even during summer, it is advisable that health-care workers and others at risk get themselves vaccinated.
 Despite the sharp increase in cases and deaths, the vaccine uptake has been low.
 Besides vaccination, there needs to be greater awareness so that people adopt precautionary measures such as frequent hand washing, and cough etiquette.
 Vaccines have been developed to protect against the virus that causes swine flu. There are two different brands of vaccine – Pandemrix and Celvapan. Many people given the Pandemrix vaccine will only need one dose. People who have the Celvapan vaccine will need two doses three weeks apart.