Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 16 FEB 2020

 

 

 

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Consider the following statements regarding Cooperative banks.
1. Co-operative banks in India are registered under the States Cooperative Societies Act.
2. In rural India, there exist only 2-tier short-term rural cooperative structure i.e. state cooperative banks (SCBs) and central cooperative banks (CCBs).
3. The Co-operative banks are also regulated by RBI and governed by the Banking Regulations Act 1949 and Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Consider the following statements in reference to The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019.
1. The surrogate mother will have an option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.
2. The penalty for offences under this is imprisonment up to 7 years and a fine up to 10 lakh rupees.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2


3. Consider the following statements with respect to Bharatanatyam Dance.
1. The Abhinaya Darpana is one of the main sources of textual material, for the study of the technique and grammar of body movement in this dance.
2. On the gopurams of the Chidambaram temple, one can see a series of Bharatnatyam poses, frozen in stone.
3. Rukmini Devi Arundale created a Renaissance. Before her, this art was almost dead.
4. Emotions, Musical notes, Rhythm and Drama are the components of this dance.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. Consider the following statements regarding Brihadisvara temple of Tanjavur.
1. It was known in the inscriptions as Dakshina Meru.
2. It is one among the UNESCO‟s world Heritage site.
3. The construction of this temple was inaugurated by the Chola King, Rajaraja I.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Which of the following places in news and their country of location are correctly matched?
Places in news Country of location
1. Batticaloa Ethopia
2. Jaffna Sri Lanka
3. Wuhan Indonesia
4. Antanambao Comoros
Choose the correct option.
(a) 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1 and 2 only

1.Answer-c
Explanation
In rural India, there exists a 3-tier short-term rural cooperative structure. Tier-I includes state cooperative banks (SCBs) at the state level; Tier-II includes central cooperative banks (CCBs) at the district level; and Tier- III includes primary agricultural credit societies (PACSs).
In 19 states, there exists a 3-tier short-term cooperative credit structure, comprising SCBs, CCBs and PACSs. And in 12 states, there exists a 2-tier short-term cooperative structure. In the north-eastern states, including Sikkim, the structure is 2-tier, comprising only SCBs and PACSs.
Co-operative banks in India are registered under the States Cooperative Societies Act. The Co-operative banks are also regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and governed by the Banking Regulations Act 1949 and Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.

2.Answer-a
Explanation
 It prohibits commercial surrogacy but allows altruistic surrogacy.
 Surrogacy clinics must apply for registration within a period of 60 days from the date of appointment of the appropriate authority.
Surrogacy is permitted, when
 When the intending couples suffer from proven infertility.
 When Altruistic and not commercial.
 When Children are not produced for sale, prostitution or other forms of exploitation.
 For any condition or disease specified through regulations.
What are the eligibility criteria for the intending couple?
They should have ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ issued by the appropriate authority.
What are the eligibility criteria for surrogate mother?
She should get a certificate of eligibility from the appropriate authority; the surrogate mother has to be:
 A 25 to 35 years old married woman with a child of her own, who is a close relative of the intending couple.
 Can surrogate only once in her lifetime.
 Should possess a certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy.
 She cannot provide her own gametes for surrogacy.
What are National and State Surrogacy Boards?
• Central governments shall constitute the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and by state governments the State Surrogacy Boards (SSB).
• Functions of the NSB include advising the Centre on policy matters, laying down the code of conduct of surrogacy clinics and supervising the SSBs.
What are the other procedures?
A child born out of a surrogacy procedure will be deemed to be the biological child of the intending couple. An abortion requires the written consent of the surrogate mother and the authorisation of the appropriate authority, compliant with the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The surrogate mother will have an option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.
What are the offences and penalties?
 Undertaking or advertising commercial surrogacy;
 Exploiting the surrogate mother;
 Abandoning, exploiting or disowning a surrogate child;
 Selling or importing human embryo or gametes for surrogacy.
The penalty for such offences is imprisonment up to 10 years and a fine up to 10 lakh rupees.

 

3.Answer-d
Explanation
Bharatnatyam Dance is considered to be over 2000 years old. Several texts beginning with Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra (200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.) provide information on this dance form. The Abhinaya Darpana by Nandikesvara is one of the main sources of textual material, for the study of the technique and grammar of body movement in Bharatnatyam Dance.
A dance that encompasses Bhav, Rag, Ras and Taal is ‘Bharatanatyam’. Also called as ‘Sadir’, it was conventionally performed by Devadasis (girls offered to God in the temple) in Hindu Temples of South India. Thus, also known as ‘Dasiattam’. Developed in the Tanjore and other regions of South India prominently Tamil Nadu, this could possibly be the Oldest Classical Dance form of India (around 2000 years old).
The word meaning of Bharatnatyam
• Bha: Bhava which means emotions
• Ra: Rag meaning musical notes.
• Ta: Taal meaning the Rhythm.
• Natyam: The Sanskrit word for Drama.
The evidence of Bharatanatyam
• Silappatikaram (where its existence was mentioned in this ancient Tamil epic).
• Brihaddeshwara temple was a major center for Bharatnatyam since 1000CE.
• The Gopurams of Chidambaram display the poses of Bharatnatyam, chaaris, and Karanas that are carved in the stones.
The makeup used for Bharatanatyam
• Immense and charismatic makeup (hair as a single bun is tied just before the plaits).
• The eye-catching costume (bright colored Sari- today the costume comes in 7 pieces that are worn simply, for men – dhoti).
• Glowing ornaments.
The repertoire of Bharatanatyam
• Alarippu – Invocation
• Jatiswaram – Nritta part
• Shabdam – Short compositions with word
• Varnam – a story, that includes both Nritta and Nritya
• Padam – Religious prayer, Bhajan, Keertanam.
• Thillana – Origin in the Tarana of Hindustani Music
• Ends with Mangalam.
The music and instruments used for the Bharatanatyam
• Carnatic Style, Vocalists Called – Nattuvanar (normally Guru).
• Verses are usually in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Sanskrit.
• Mridangam, Nadaswaram, Nattuvangam, Flute, Violin veena etc.
The revival of Bharatanatyam from ancient to modern day platform
• Rukmini Devi Arundale created a Renaissance. Before her, this art was almost dead. She raised this art form to a Puritan form.
• Also, T.Balasaraswati‘s efforts helped to uplift this art form to the form known today.
• Rukmini Devi founded the Kalakshetra in Adyar and thus gave a new hope to the promotion of this Dance form.
• The famous Bharatanatyam dancers are Yamini Krishnamurthy, Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, Saroja Vaidyanathan, Janaki Rangarajan Etc.

4. Answer-d
Explanation-
 The Brihadisvara temple at Tanjavur marks the greatest achievement of the Chola architects.
 Known in the inscriptions as Dakshina Meru.
 The construction of this temple was inaugurated by the Chola King, Rajaraja I.
 This temple was built in 1010 A.D and celebrated its Millennium year of existence in 2010.
 Its Unique Architectural Excellence prompted UNESCO to declare this temple as World Heritage Monument in 1987.

5. Answer-a
Explanation-
1. Batticaloa Sri Lanka
2. Jaffna Sri Lanka
3. Wuhan China
4. Antanambao Madagascar