Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 25 April 2020

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1. Consider the following statements regarding the DNA Fingerprinting.
1. The technique of DNA fingerprinting was developed in 1984 by Alec Jeffreys, after he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA, which do not contribute to the functions of genes, are repeated within genes.
2. DNA fingerprinting is a valuable tool for confirming pedigree in animals, such as purebred dogs and racehorses.
3. Sample contamination, faulty preparation procedures, and mistakes in interpretation of results are major sources of error in DNA fingerprinting.
4. In case of the change in gene frequency or genetic drift, Fingerprinting can be used to trace the role of this change in evolution.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) All of the above

  1. Answer-d
    Explanation
    DNA fingerprinting, also called DNA typing, DNA profiling, genetic fingerprinting, genotyping, or identity testing, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The technique was developed in 1984 by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, after he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as minisatellites), which do not contribute to the functions of genes, are repeated within genes.
    DNA Fingerprinting
    DNA fingerprinting is a technique that shows the genetic makeup of living things. It is a method of finding the difference between the satellite DNA regions in the genome.
    What is DNA Fingerprinting?
    Satellite DNA regions are stretches of repetitive DNA which do not code for any specific protein. These non-coding sequences form a major chunk of the DNA profile of humans. They depict a high level of polymorphism and are the basis of DNA fingerprinting. These genes show a high level of polymorphism in all kind of tissues as a result of which they prove to be very useful in forensic studies.
    Any piece of DNA sample found at a crime scene can be analysed for the level of polymorphism in the non-coding repetitive sequences. After the DNA profile is traced, it becomes easier to find the criminal by performing the DNA fingerprinting for the suspects.
    Apart from crime scenes, Fingerprinting applications also prove useful in finding the parents of an unclaimed baby by conducting a paternity test on a DNA sample from the baby.
    DNA Fingerprinting Applications
    As discussed earlier the technique of fingerprinting is used for DNA analysis in forensic tests and paternity tests.
    Apart from these two fields, it is also used in determining the frequency of a particular gene in a population which gives rise to diversity.
    In case of the change in gene frequency or genetic drift, Fingerprinting can be used to trace the role of this change in evolution.
    For criminal identification
    To resolve disputes of maternity /paternity
    To identify mutilated remains
    In cases of exchange of babies in hospital wards,
    In forensic wildlife (The arrangement of the nucleotides is unique to any living form (except identical twins) be animals, plants, or microbes.
    DNA Fingerprinting Steps
    Alec Jeffreys developed this technique in which he used satellite DNAs also called VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) as a probe because it showed the high level of polymorphism.
    Following are the steps involved in DNA fingerprinting:


2. Consider the following statements regarding the Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS).
1. It is a ‘real time monitoring’ platform for the prices of tomato, onion and potato (TOP) and for simultaneously generating alerts for intervention under the terms of the Operation Greens (OG) scheme.
2. Union Ministry of Food Processing Industries, launched this Web Portal.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Answer-c
Explanation-
Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS) Web Portal
Union Minister of Food Processing Industries, launched the– Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS) Web Portal. Addressing the media during the event, the Minister said that the MIEWS Dashboard and Portal is a ‘first-of-its-kind’ platform for ‘real time monitoring’ of prices of tomato, onion and potato (TOP) and for simultaneously generating alerts for intervention under the terms of the Operation Greens (OG) scheme. The portal would disseminate all relevant information related to TOP crops such as Prices and Arrivals, Area, Yield and Production, Imports and Exports, Crop Calendars, Crop Agronomy, etc in an easy to use visual format.

3. Consider the following statements regarding the 1000 Spring Initiatives
1. It is launched by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
2. It aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in difficult and inaccessible part of rural areas in the country.
3. This includes provisions for piped water supply for drinking and also for irrigation and for backyard nutrition gardens.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Answer-d
Explanation-
1000 Springs Initiative
The initiative aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in difficult and inaccessible part of rural areas in the country.
It is an integrated solution around natural springs.
It includes provision of infrastructure for piped water supply for drinking; provision of water for irrigation; community-led total sanitation initiatives; and provision for water for backyard nutrition gardens, generating sustainable livelihood opportunities for the tribal people.
Background
Springs are natural sources of groundwater discharge and have been used extensively in the mountainous regions across the world, including India. However, in the central and eastern Indian belt with more than 75% tribal population, it remains largely unrecognized and under-utilized.
The initiative will help in harnessing the potential of perennial springs’ water to address natural scarcity of water in tribal areas.
Under this initiative, more than 70 young tribal youths from the rural belt of three districts of Odisha namely, Kalahandi, Khandamal and Gajapati have been trained as barefoot hydro geologists by combining traditional and scientific knowledge for identification and mapping of springs, and undertaking rejuvenation and protection measures in their habitations.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the “Programme for Capacity Building of Scheduled Tribe Representatives in Local Self Governments”.
1. It is aimed at empowering tribal Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI) representatives by enhancing their decision making capabilities at local government level.
2. It was launched by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Answer-c
Explanation-
Programme for Capacity Building of Scheduled Tribe Representatives in Local Self Governments
The Capacity Building initiative is aimed at empowering tribal PRI representatives by enhancing their decision making capabilities at local government level.
Among other issues concerning tribal development, it also focuses on constitutional and legal provisions that protect and promote the rights and welfare of the tribal population.
The programme will ensure greater participation of ST PRI’s representatives in planning, execution and monitoring of government policies and programmes.
Their better participation in the development process would ensure better prioritization of the tribal development agenda.

 5. Consider the following statements regarding the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS).
1. It is an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
2. It is a unit of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).
3. It was registered as a society under the Andhra Pradesh (Telangana) Public Societies Registration Act.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Answer-d
Explanation-
Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)
The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad has launched a trio of products to better cater to its diverse users.
ESSO-INCOIS
ESSO-INCOIS is an autonomous institute under the administrative control of Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India and a member of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).
ESSO-INCOIS was registered as a society under the Andhra Pradesh (Telangana) Public Societies Registration Act (1350, Falsi), at Hyderabad on 3 February 1999.
The affairs of the society are managed, administered, directed and controlled by the Governing Council, subject to the Bye Laws of the Society.
Its mission is to provide ocean data, information and advisory services to society, industry, the government and the scientific community through sustained ocean observations and constant improvements through systematic and focused research in information management and ocean modelling.