Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 25 July 2020

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1. Consider the following statements about the Nizamuddin Auliya.
1. He was the disciple of Baba Farid Ganjshakar and was belong to the Chishti silsilas of the Sufi order in India.
2. He was accorded with titles of Mehboob-e-Ilahi and Zari Zar Baksh.
3. Nizamuddin Auliya was the founder of the Chisti Nizami order.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Nizamuddin Auliya
Born in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh to Khwaja Syed Ahmed and Bibi Zulekha — both natives of Bukhara (present day Uzbekistan) — a boy named Muhammad became disciple of Baba Farid Ganjshakar (disciple of Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki), and was to grow up to further the Chishti silsila (spiritual lineage) of the Sufi order in India. We know him as Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
Auliya was accorded with many titles. Among them, the most famous is Mehboob-e-Ilahi (Beloved of God). Another title is Zari Zar Baksh (giver of gold).
Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya believed that service is more important than ritual.
He would put silver and gold coins under people’s plates. His langar was legendary.
He nurtured Delhi’s cultural landscape and made it composite. It was a coming together of Indian, Turkish, Persian and Arab cultures.
Qawwalis have always been a part of Sufism, but became commonplace with the khanqah (spiritual retreat) of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
His disciple, poet Amir Khusrau composed several qawwalis using tabla and harmonium. He is called the Tuti-e-Hind (songbird of India).
Khusrau is also credited with the origins of Khayal School of music and the development of Urdu.
Khusrau is acknowledged as the first poet of Urdu, and then called Hindvi.
He created songs to provide novelty to the musical assemblies of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
The love of the guru and his disciple was so deep that Khusrau died six months after Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
Chisti Order
The Saints of Chisti Order were lived in poverty and lead a hermit life. They did not accept State service. This order is primarily followed in Afghanistan and Indian Subcontinent.
The Chisti order in India was established in India by Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti in 1192, shortly after the death of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
He died in 1236 and his tomb in Ajmer was constructed by Ghiasuddin Khalji of Malwa. Mohammed Bin Tuqlaq visited the tomb and later it came under State Management during Mughal Ruler Akbar’s reign.
One of the other notable Sufi saints was Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki who organized work in Delhi and the contemporary Delhi Sultanate Ruler was Illtutmish who was deeply devoted to Chisti Order.
Another famous Sufi saint was Nizamuddin Auliya and he adopted yogic breathing exercises, so much so that the yogis called him sidh or ‘perfect.’
Auliya’s famous disciple was Amir Khusrow who is called as “father of Qawwali” and “Parrot of India” and introduced the Ghazal Style to India.
After the death of Nasruddin Chiragh-i-Delhi in the 14th century, the chishtis order declined.
https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/hazrat-nizamuddin-auliya-celebrating-the-mystic-s-life-and-times/story-dqqll8dS23TMhwmZKcc0PP.html

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).
1. It is a key instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites.
2. Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth’s surface every 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands, or groups of wavelengths.
3. It measures the photosynthetic activity of land and marine plants to yield better estimates of how much of the greenhouse gas is being absorbed and used in plant productivity.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)
MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (originally known as EOS AM-1) and Aqua (originally known as EOS PM-1) satellites.
Terra’s orbit around the Earth is timed so that it passes from north to south across the equator in the morning, while Aqua passes south to north over the equator in the afternoon.
Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth’s surface every 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands, or groups of wavelengths.
Consequently, MODIS tracks a wider array of the earth’s vital signs than any other Terra sensor. For instance, the sensor measures the percent of the planet’s surface that is covered by clouds almost every day.
This wide spatial coverage enables MODIS, together with MISR and CERES, to help scientists determine the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth’s energy budget.
In addition to recording the frequency and distribution of cloud cover, MODIS measures the properties of clouds such as the distribution and size of cloud droplets in both liquid water and ice clouds.
MODIS also measures the properties of aerosols—tiny liquid or solid particles in the atmosphere. Aerosols enter the atmosphere from manmade sources like pollution and biomass burning and natural sources like dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires.
MODIS helps scientists determine the amount of water vapor in a column of the atmosphere and the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor—measurements crucial to understanding Earth’s climate system.
MODIS is ideal for monitoring large-scale changes in the biosphere that are yielding new insights into the workings of the global carbon cycle. MODIS measures the photosynthetic activity of land and marine plants (phytoplankton) to yield better estimates of how much of the greenhouse gas is being absorbed and used in plant productivity.
Coupled with the sensor’s surface temperature measurements, MODIS’ measurements of the biosphere are helping scientists track the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in response to climate changes.
Almost every day over the entire globe, the sensor monitors changes on the land surface, thereby building upon and extending the heritage begun by Landsat.
MODIS maps the areal extent of snow and ice brought by winter storms and frigid temperatures. The sensor observes the “green wave” that sweeps across continents as winter gives way to spring and vegetation blooms in response.
It sees where and when disasters strike—such as volcanic eruptions, floods, severe storms, droughts, and wildfires—and will hopefully help people get out of harm’s way.
MODIS’ bands are particularly sensitive to fires; they can distinguish flaming from smoldering burns and provide better estimates of the amounts of aerosols and gases fires release into the atmosphere.
MODIS sees changes in the Pacific phytoplankton populations that may signal the onset of the famous El Niño/La Niña climatic siblings well ahead of their arrival. In turn, by coupling its sea surface temperature and ocean color measurements, MODIS has observed the impacts El Niño and La Niña have on the microscopic marine plant.
MODIS also has a unique channel for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence.
All plants bombarded with light begin to glow, or fluoresce, but in wavelengths that our eyes cannot see.
The more plants fluoresce, the less energy they are using for photosynthesis. Thus, MODIS not only maps the distribution of phytoplankton, it also helps us gauge its health.
https://terra.nasa.gov/about/terra-instruments/modis

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF).
1. This was established with public contributions to assist displaced persons from Pakistan.
2. The disbursement out of the fund is made at the discretion of the Prime Minister, and in accordance with the Prime Minister’s directions.
3. The fund is administered on an honorary basis by Joint Secretary to the Prime Minister as Secretary of the fund.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF)
In pursuance of an appeal by the then Prime Minister, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in January, 1948, the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) was established with public contributions to assist displaced persons from Pakistan.
The resources of the PMNRF are now utilized primarily to render immediate relief to families of those killed in natural calamities like floods, cyclones and earthquakes, etc. and to the victims of the major accidents and riots.
Assistance from PMNRF is also rendered, to partially defray the expenses for medical treatment like heart surgeries, kidney transplantation, cancer treatment and acid attack etc.
The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any budgetary support.
The corpus of the fund is invested in various forms with scheduled commercial banks and other agencies.
Disbursements are made with the approval of the Prime Minister.
PMNRF has not been constituted by the Parliament.
The fund is recognized as a Trust under the Income Tax Act and the same is managed by Prime Minister or multiple delegates for national causes.
PMNRF operates from the Prime Minister’s Office, South Block, New Delhi-110011 and does not pays any license fee.
PMNRF is exempt under Income Tax Act, 1961 under Section 10 and 139 for return purposes. Contributions towards PMNRF are notified for 100% deduction from taxable income under section 80(G) of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Prime Minister is the Chairman of PMNRF and is assisted by Officers/ Staff on honorary basis.
https://pmnrf.gov.in/en/about

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Prudential Framework for Resolution of Stressed Assets Directions, 2019.
1. These directions were issued with a view to providing a framework for early recognition; reporting and time bound resolution of stressed assets.
2. The provisions of these are apply to the Scheduled Commercial Banks, All India Term Financial Institutions, Small Finance Banks and Non-Banking Financial Companies.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
Prudential Framework for Resolution of Stressed Assets Directions, 2019
In exercise of the powers conferred by the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, the Reserve Bank, being satisfied that it is necessary and expedient in the public interest so to do, hereby, issues the directions hereinafter specified.
Applicability
The provisions of these directions shall apply to the following entities:
a. Scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding Regional Rural Banks);
b. All India Term Financial Institutions (NABARD, NHB, EXIM Bank, and SIDBI);
c. Small Finance Banks; and,
d. Systemically Important Non-Deposit taking Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC-ND-SI) and Deposit taking Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC-D).
Purpose
These directions are issued with a view to providing a framework for early recognition; reporting and time bound resolution of stressed assets.
These directions are issued without prejudice to issuance of specific directions, from time to time, by the Reserve Bank to banks, in terms of the provisions of Section 35AA of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, for initiation of insolvency proceedings against specific borrowers under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=11580&Mode=0

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
1. It is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Science and Technology and the largest research and development (R&D) organization in India.
2. Prime Minister of India acts as ex-officio chairman of CSIR.
3. Dr Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was the Founder Director and later first Director-General of CSIR.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
It is the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in India. CSIR has a pan-India presence and has a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units.
Established: September 1942
Located: New Delhi
CSIR is funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology and it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
CSIR covers a wide spectrum of streams – from radio and space physics, oceanography, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and information technology.
It provides significant technological intervention in many areas with regard to societal efforts which include the environment, health, drinking water, food, housing, energy, and farm and non-farm sectors.
Organisation Structure
President: Prime Minister of India (Ex-officio)
Vice President: Union Minister of Science and Technology (Ex-officio)
Governing Body: The Director-General is the head of the governing body.
The other ex-officio member is the finance secretary (expenditures).
Other members’ terms are of three years.
CSIR Advisory Board: 15-member body composed of prominent members from respective fields of science and technology.
Its function is to provide science and technology inputs to the governing body.
Member terms are of three years.
Objectives
The objectives of the Council are scientific and industrial/applied research of national importance.
The activities include:
Promotion, guidance and coordination of scientific and industrial research in India including the institution and the financing of specific researchers.
Establishment and assistance to special institutions or departments of existing institutions for the scientific study of problems affecting particular industries and trade.
Establishment and award of research studentships and fellowships.
Utilization of the results of the research conducted under the auspices of the Council towards the development of industries in the country.
Payment of a share of royalties arising out of the development of the results of research to those who are considered as having contributed towards the pursuit of such research.
Establishment, maintenance and management of laboratories, workshops, institutes and organisations to further scientific and industrial research.
Collection and dissemination of information in regard not only to research but to industrial matters generally.
Publication of scientific papers and a journal of industrial research and development.
Vision & Strategy 2022
Vision: Pursue science which strives for global impact, the technology that enables innovation-driven industry and nurtures trans-disciplinary leadership thereby catalyzing inclusive economic development for the people of India.
Awards
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prize for Science and Technology is named after the founder Director of the CSIR, the late Dr Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.
It was instituted in 1957 as the most coveted and revered prize in the field of science and technology in the country.
Dr Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was the Founder Director (and later first Director-General) of CSIR who is credited with establishing twelve national laboratories.
https://www.csir.res.in/about-us/about-csir