Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 26 FEB 2020

CLICK HERE FOR PREVIOUS UPDATES on MCQs

1. Consider the following statements regarding Biological Safety Levels (BSL).
1. BSL-1 refers to the lowest biosafety lab level whereas BSL-4 refers to the highest and most stringent lab level.
2. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) specifies BSLs, each of which corresponds to a level of exposure danger and a set of design features and operational protocol.
3. They are a series of protections designed to protect laboratory personnel, as well as the surrounding environment and community.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3


2. Which of the following statement is correct in reference to SPICe+?
(a) Doubling Farmers Income through increase in Spice production.
(b) Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Programme 2.0
(c) Continuing efforts to improve the ease of doing business.
(d) None of the above

3. Consider the following statements with respect to BBIN Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA).
1. Asian Development Bank is providing technical, advisory, and financial support to BBIN MVA initiative.
2. This Agreement is signed and ratified by all the member countries.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements regarding Lithium-ion Battery.
1. It is much cleaner technology and is safer for environment in comparison to lead acid battery.
2. It is a lightweight, rechargeable and powerful battery used in portable electronic devices.
3. It has high energy density i.e. it stores more energy per unit of weight when compare to other kind of batteries.
4. India has self reliance in the production of Lithium-ion Battery.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
5. Consider the following statements with respect to Cauvery River Delta.
1. Grand Anicut dam is situated on this river which was built by the Great Chola Emperor Karikala Cholan in the 2nd Century AD.
2. Recently, Tamil Nadu declares Cauvery delta a protected agricultural zone.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

1.Answer-d
Explanation
The Indian government has sharply censured the U.S. government’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for funding an “unapproved” Indian laboratory in Manipal, and not securing the necessary permissions for undertaking training in India for work on Nipah virus, considered a potential bio-weapon.
A Union Health Ministry communication to CDC said the work was undertaken despite knowing that high risk pathogens can be tested only in BSL4 lab.
As the highest level of biological safety, a BSL4 lab consists of work with highly dangerous and exotic microbes.
Infections caused by these microbes, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, are frequently fatal.
What is BSL?
Biological Safety Level (BSL) is a bio-containment designation system with requirements intended to protect personnel from potentially harmful pathogenic exposure in a research or manufacturing environment.
What are the differences among the BSL designations?
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) specifies four broad Biological Safety Levels, each of which corresponds to a level of exposure danger and a set of design features and operational protocol. Each increasing level builds on the previous level(s):
 BSL-1: Required in the presence of microbes that do not consistently cause disease, such as E. coli. Work can be done on an open bench, and minimal Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) is required. Doors separate the BSL-1 lab from the rest of the facility.
 BSL-2: Required in the presence of moderately hazardous microbes, such as Staphylococcus aureus. The lab is restricted behind self-closing doors. Personnel wear minimal PPE plus face shields; many operations are performed within biological safety cabinets (BSCs – see explanation below). Negative-pressure containment is generally advised, and exhausted air may require filtration.
 BSL-3: Required in the presence of potentially lethal, often “exotic” airborne microbes, such as tuberculosis. The lab is restricted behind two sets of doors. Workers may require immunizations, and PPE plus respirators are advised. All work is performed within a BSC. Filtered room air must be exhausted.
 BSL-4: Required in the presence of high risk of airborne transmission; infections are frequently fatal, as from Ebola. Decontaminate all material before exiting lab; shower after exiting. Full body, positive-pressure clean room suit. All work performed in Class III BSC. Lab is in a separate building.

All BSL facilities require that personnel follow “standard microbial practices”: no food or drink; no cosmetics; hands and gloves are frequently washed and surfaces routinely decontaminated. Sterilization and entry/exit protocol vary by BSL level.
How do BSL designations correlate to clean room levels (e.g, ISO 5 or ISO 6)?
There is no necessary correlation between a BSL and an ISO cleanliness level since they correspond to two different sets of concerns: protection of personnel and the environment from biological exposure vs. protection of a sensitive sample from contaminant exposure.

 

2.Answer-c
Explanation
Continuing efforts to further improve the Ease of Doing Business, the government will introduce an integrated electronic form for incorporating new companies from February 15, 2020 wherein EPFO and ESIC registration numbers will also be allotted at the same time. The Corporate Affairs Ministry would introduce the form — SPICe+ through portal MCA21— to offer 10 services. Currently, the Ministry has the electronic form SPICe (Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically) and that would be replaced with SPICe+. The 10 services offered through the new form would help in “saving as many procedures, time and cost for starting a business in India,” the Ministry said in a public notice.

 

3.Answer-a
Explanation
It is the regional sub-grouping India had planned for ease of access among the four countries.
It was an alternative proposed by the government after Pakistan rejected the Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA) at the SAARC summit in Kathmandu in 2014.
It seeks to allow trucks and other commercial vehicles to ply on one another’s highways to facilitate trade.
Of the other SAARC members, Sri Lanka and the Maldives are not connected by land, and Afghanistan could only be connected if Pakistan was on board.
Bhutan did not ratify it, demanding a cap on vehicles entering its territory for some time.
After Bhutan’s decision, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will have to decide whether to wait for Bhutan to reconsider or to press ahead with a truncated ‘BIN’ arrangement.
Reconsidering will not be easy as the main concern expressed by Bhutanese citizen groups and politicians is over increased vehicular and air pollution.
The upper house of parliament has refused to ratify the MVA that was originally signed by all four BBIN countries in 2015.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is providing technical, advisory, and financial support to BBIN MVA initiative as part of its assistance to South Asia Sub-regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) program.

 

4. Answer-c
Explanation-
India has quadrupled its imports of Li-ion batteries and more than tripled its import bill on the product, vital for powering a range of devices from cell phones to electric vehicles, from 2016-2018.


 Scientists have recently developed novel lithium-ion batteries with components that prevent them from catching fire and causing injuries to users.
 Lithium-ion batteries are all about the movement of lithium ions.
 The ions move one way when the battery charges (when it’s absorbing power); they move the opposite way when the battery discharges (when it’s supplying power).
 Lithium ion batteries are more reliable than older technologies such as nickel-cadmium.
 Nickel batteries appear to become harder to charge unless they’re discharged fully first, it is not the case with lithium ion batteries.
 Lithium-ion batteries don’t contain cadmium, a toxic, heavy metal.
 It has high energy density i.e. it stores more energy per unit of weight when compare to other kind of batteries.
 But it still stores a hundred times less energy dense than gasoline (which contains 12,700 Wh/kg by mass or 8760 Wh/L volume).
 It is used in every modern cellphone, laptop, tablet, and most other rechargeable gadgets.
 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has entered into Technology Transfer Agreement (TTA) with Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) to transfer technology for manufacturing space grade Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) cells.The technology transfer will enable BHEL to produce space grade Li-Ion cells which can meet country’s space programme requirements.
 Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI), Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd have signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Battery project.
 CECRI is under Central Science and Industrial Research (CSIR).
 CSIR-CECRI has set up a demo facility in Chennai to manufacture prototype Lithium-Ion cells.