Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 27 FEB 2020

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1. Consider the following statements with respect to ‘The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act, 2018’.
1. Anticipatory bail will not be provided for a person accused of atrocities against people from SC/ST communities.
2. The investigating officer will not require the approval of any authority for the arrest of an accused.
3. The preliminary enquiry will be required for the registration of a First Information Report against a person accused under the Act.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1 only

2. Consider the following statements regarding Fundamental Duties.
1. The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of Russia.
2. After the 44th constitutional amendment Fundamental Duties have been added to the Constitution of India.
3. Swarn Singh Committee advocated the Fundamental Duties in the Indian constitution.
4. Fundamental Duties are non-justiciable in nature.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

3. Consider the following statements regarding Gaganyaan.
1. Environment Control and Life Support Systems are key elements to Gaganyaan.
2. India will become the 3rd country after Russia and USA to launch human spaceflight mission.
3. ISRO’s GSLV Mk III, the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
1. UNHCR is governed by the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
2. UNHCR) was created in 1950, during the aftermath of the Second World War, to help millions of people.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements regarding Climate Change.
1. Countries like the U.K., Canada, France and Ireland have declared climate emergencies.
2. Greenhouse gas bulletin is released by World Meteorological Organisation.
3. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund established within the framework of the UNFCCC to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
4. Ocean temperature is better indicator of climate emergency than surface temperature.
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1, 2 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

1. Answer-a
Explanation
Supreme Court upholds changes to SC/ST atrocities law
The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment, Mr. Thaawarchand Gehlot, on August 3, 2018. It seeks to amend the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. The Act prohibits the commission of offences against members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and establishes special courts for the trial of such offences and the rehabilitation of victims.
In 2018, the Supreme Court stated that for persons accused of committing an offence under the Act, approval of the Senior Superintendent of Police will be required before an arrest is made. Further, the Deputy Superintendent of Police may conduct a preliminary enquiry to find out whether there is a prima facie case under the Act.
The Bill states that the investigating officer will not require the approval of any authority for the arrest of an accused. Further, it provides that a preliminary enquiry will not be required for the registration of a First Information Report against a person accused under the Act.
The Act states that persons accused of committing an offence under the Act cannot apply for anticipatory bail. The Bill seeks to clarify that this provision will apply despite any judgements or orders of a court that provide otherwise.

 

2.Answer-b
Explanation
The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of Russia. These were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 on the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
Originally 10 in number, one more duty was added through the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002. All the eleven duties are listed in Article 51-A of the Constitution (the sole Article in Part-IV-A).
The fundamental duties serve as a reminder to citizens that while enjoying their rights, they have also to be quite conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow-citizens. However, like the Directive Principles, the duties are also non-justiciable in nature.
List of Fundamental Duties
 To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
 To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom;
 To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
 To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
 To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
 To value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture;
 To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
 To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
 To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
 To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; and
 To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years (added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002).

 

3.Answer-c
Explanation
 Gaganyaan is the human space flight Programme that is set to be completed by 2022. It will be launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
 ISRO has decided to send 4 air force pilots to Russia to train them as astronauts for the country’s maiden human spaceflight, Gaganyaan.
 The spacecraft is being developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Gaganyaan programme, an indigenous mission that would take Indian astronauts to space.
 It consists of a Service module and a Crew module, collectively known as the Orbital Module. The Crew modules house the astronauts and a Service module maintains the speed and orientation of the spacecraft.
 ISRO has developed some critical technologies like re-entry mission capability, crew escape system, crew module configuration, thermal protection system, deceleration and floatation system, sub-systems of life support system etc. required for this programme. Some of these technologies have been demonstrated successfully through the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-2007), Crew module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE-2014) and Pad Abort Test (2018). These technologies will enable ISRO in accomplishing the programme objectives in a short span of 4 years.
 ISRO’s GSLV Mk III, the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan.
 The programme will make India the 4th nation in the world to launch a Human Spaceflight Mission. So far, only the USA, Russia and China have launched human spaceflight missions.
 The total fund requirement for the Gaganyaan Programme is within Rs.10, 000 crore and includes cost of technology development, flight hardware realization and essential infrastructure elements. Two unmanned flights and one manned flight will be undertaken as part of Gaganyaan Programme.
Objectives of the Mission as:
1) Enhancement of science and technology levels in the country
2) A national project involving several institutes, academia and industry
3) Improvement of industrial growth
4) Inspiring youth
5) Development of technology for social benefits
6) Improving international collaboration

GSLV Mk III Launch Vehicle
 GSLV MkIII, chosen to launch Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft, is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO.
 The vehicle has two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage.
 GSLV Mk III is designed to carry 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is about twice the capability of the GSLV Mk II.
 The two strap-on motors of GSLV Mk III are located on either side of its core liquid booster. Designated as ‘S200’, each carries 205 tons of composite solid propellant and their ignition results in vehicle lift-off. S200s function for 140 seconds. During strap-ons functioning phase, the two clustered Vikas liquid Engines of L110 liquid core booster will ignite 114 sec after lift -off to further augment the thrust of the vehicle. These two engines continue to function after the separation of the strap-ons at about 140 seconds after lift -off.
 The first experimental flight of LVM3, the LVM3-X/CARE mission lifted off from Sriharikota on December 18, 2014 and successfully tested the atmospheric phase of flight. Crew module Atmospheric Reentry Experiment was also carried out in this flight. The module reentered, deployed its parachutes as planned and splashed down in the Bay of Bengal.
 The first developmental flight of GSLV Mk III, the GSLV-Mk III-D1 successfully placed GSAT-19 satellite to a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) on June 05, 2017 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.
 GSLV-MkIII-D2, the second developmental flight of GSLV MkIII successfully launched GSAT-29, a high throughput communication satellite on November 14, 2018 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.
 GSLV-MkIII-M1, successfully injected Chandrayaan-2, India’s second Lunar Mission, in to Earth Parking Orbit on July 22, 2019 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.
 Cryogenic Upper Stage: C25-The C25 is powered by CE-20, India’s largest cryogenic engine, designed and developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.

 

4.Answer-c
Explanation-
 The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was created in 1950, during the aftermath of the Second World War, to help millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes.
 UNHCR is governed by the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
 The UNHCR Executive Committee approves the agency’s biennial programmes and the corresponding budget. These are presented by the High Commissioner, who is appointed by the UN General Assembly.
 The UNHCR mandate is defined by the 1950 UNHCR Statute. In 2003, the General Assembly extended the organization’s mandate “until the refugee problem is solved.” The High Commissioner reports annually to ECOSOC and the General Assembly on the work of UNHCR.
 The High Commissioner is responsible for the direction and control of UNHCR. He or she directs our work with the assistance of a Deputy High Commissioner and Assistant High Commissioners for Protection and Operations.
 The Inspector General’s Office provides the High Commissioner with independent assurance and oversight of UNHCR’s activities and operations. It protects the integrity and improves the efficiency of our programmes and operations. It also deters fraud and abuse through internal audits, investigations and other oversight advisory services.
 The worldwide operation has become highly complex, ranging from recruitment of new colleagues and ensuring their security in dangerous situations to the procurement of everything from medical supplies to aircraft charters.
 Specific departments, mostly based in the Geneva headquarters, oversee key areas, such as operations, protection, external relations, human resources and finances. A number of regional bureaux liaise between overseas offices and headquarters.

 

5.Answer-d
Explanation-
The Atmospheric Environment and Research Division of WMO’s Research Department publishes the WMO-GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletins. Each year, these bulletins will report the latest trends and atmospheric burdens of the most influential, long-lived greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as a summary of the contributions of the lesser gases.
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund established within the framework of the UNFCCC to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. The objective of the Green Climate Fund is to “support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties using thematic funding windows”. It is intended that the Green Climate Fund be the centrepiece of efforts to raise Climate Finance under the UNFCCC, and raise $100 billion a year by 2020.