Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 27 April 2020

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1. Consider the following statement regarding the Migratory Birds.
1. India lies on four flyways (flight paths used by birds): the Central Asian flyway, East Asian flyway,  East Asian–Australasian flyway and east atlantic flyway
2. The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) had for the first time compiled the list of migratory species of India under the CMS before the COP13.
3. The bird family Muscicapidae has the highest number of migratory species.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation

With new additions to the wildlife list put out by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), scientists say that the total number of migratory fauna from India comes to 457 species. Birds comprise 83% (380 species) of this figure.
The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) had for the first time compiled the list of migratory species of India under the CMS before the Conference of Parties (COP 13) held in Gujarat recently.
They are the Asian elephant, great Indian bustard, Bengal florican, oceanic whitetip shark, urial and smooth hammerhead shark.
India’s role
Globally, more than 650 species are listed under the CMS appendices and India, with over 450 species, plays a very important role in their conservation.
The bird family Muscicapidae has the highest number of migratory species. The next highest group of migratory birds is raptors or birds of prey, such as eagles, owls, vultures and kites which are from the family Accipitridae.
The country has three flyways (flight paths used by birds): the Central Asian flyway, East Asian flyway and East Asian–Australasian flyway.
In India, their migratory species number 41, followed by ducks (38) belonging to the family Anatidae. The estimate of 44 migratory mammal species in India has risen to 46 after COP 13.
The Asian elephant was added to Appendix I and the urial to Appendix II.
The largest group of mammals is definitely bats belonging to the family Vespertilionidae. Dolphins are the second


highest group of mammals with nine migratory species of dolphins listed.
COP 13 has focussed on transboundary species and corridor conservation.
The total number of migratory fish species from India under CMS now stands at 24. Seven reptiles, which include five species of turtles and the Indian gharial and salt water crocodile, are among the CMS species found in India.

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Gir national park.
1. Gir is often linked with Maldharis who have survived through the ages by having symbiotic relationship with the lion.
2. The Gir Forests is the only natural habitat of Asiatic lions.
3. Asiatic lions is categorised as Endangered and listed in Appendix I of the CITES and Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation
Gir National Park
The Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Junagadh district of Gujarat.
The Gir Forests is the only natural habitat of Asiatic lions.
It was declared as a sanctuary in 1965 and a national park in 1975.
The Gir Forests is the largest compact tract of dry deciduous forests in the semi-arid western part of India.
The Gir Forests forms a unique habitat for many mammals, reptiles, birds and insect species along with a rich variety of flora.
Gir is often linked with “Maldharis” who have survived through the ages by having symbiotic relationship with the lion.
Maldharis are religious pastoral communities living in Gir. Their settlements are called “nesses”.
Other National Parks in Gujarat
Black buck National Park
Vansda National park
Marine National Park
Asiatic Lion
Scientific Name: Panthera leo persica
Habitat: Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
Threats
They are vulnerable to disease, encroachment, forest fire, natural calamities, grazing, collection of fuelwood, Non-timber forest produce (NTFP), poaching, tourism, religious pilgrimage and accidental lion deaths due to human causes.
In 2018, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) was responsible for the death of more than 25 Lions in the Gir forest of Gujarat.
Also, there have been indications of poaching incidents in recent years.
Protection Status
IUCN Red List: Endangered
CITES: Appendix I
Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I

3. Consider the following statements regarding the Eurasian Otters.
1. This is categorised as near threatened and listed in Appendix II of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
2. These are the only species of otters that are found in India.
3. Recently, the presence of a Eurasian otter has also been recorded in Chilika Lake.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-c
Explanation
Eurasian Otter
Eurasian otter found in Chilika Lake
Scientific Name: Lutra lutra
Habitat: Throughout Europe and Asia from Ireland in the west as far as eastern Russia and China. They are also found in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and the Middle East (Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Iran).
Protection Status
IUCN Red List: Near Threatened
CITES: Appendix I
Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule II

India is home to 3 of the 13 species of otters found worldwide. These are – Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra); Smooth-coated Otter (Lutra perspicillata) and Small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus).

4. Consider the following statements about Jawaharlal Nehru.
1. He was the president of INC in the Lahore session in 1929 when the Poorna Swaraj declaration was made for the first time.
2. He was influenced by the works of G B Shaw, H G Wells, Bertrand Russell, J M Keynes, Meredith Townsend and Lowes Dickinson.
3. He became the president of the All India States Peoples Conference in 1935.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer-d
Explanation-
Jawaharlal Nehru
Biography
Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14th November 1889 to affluent barrister Motilal Nehru and his wife Swaruprani Thussu at Allahabad, United Provinces.
He had a privileged childhood thanks to his father’s successful career in the legal profession. He went to England to study at the Harrow School aged 15. He then pursued natural science from Cambridge University.
He was also interested in politics, literature, history and economics.
His father was a member of the Indian National Congress and an active participant in the freedom struggle. Nehru was also influenced by the Italian leader Garibaldi.
Nehru studied law and entered the Bar in 1912. He started his practice at the Allahabad High Court. However, he felt inclined towards the independence movement and drifted away from his profession to participate in the movement.
In 1912, he attended the Patna session of the INC and felt that the party was restricted in its membership to the upper classes of India. He had more radical ideas and espoused complete independence from British rule at a time when most people only demanded home rule or dominion status.
He came under the spell of Mahatma Gandhi when they met for the first time in 1916. He then advocated non-violence and non-cooperation.
He was influenced by the works of G B Shaw, H G Wells, Bertrand Russell, J M Keynes, Meredith Townsend and Lowes Dickinson. After acquiring a degree, Nehru studied to become a lawyer and entered the Bar in 1912.
When his father broke away from the INC in the wake of the cancelling off of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhi due to the violence at Chauri Chaura, Nehru remained with the original party.
Nehru was also a keen diplomat. Even during the freedom struggle days, he visited several countries where there were similar movements for democratic rights.
He also understood the importance of bringing together the people of the princely states in the national movement.
He became the INC’s General Secretary in 1923. He was the party president in the Lahore session in 1929 when the Poorna Swaraj declaration was made for the first time.
He was the head of the party several times and also was a major face of the freedom movement next to Gandhi. He was jailed on many occasions.
He headed the Interim Government in 1946. He played a major part in the framing of the Constitution of the country.
After the country achieved independence, he along with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and his aide V K Krishna Menon successfully integrated the country.
As a Prime Minister, he followed the Soviet Model of the economy. Nehru also believed in secularism but his selective implementation of this ideal has led to several debates even today. He is said to have secularized many personal laws for the majority community but has left the Muslim personal law from legislation.
He initiated many projects for the development of the country like the establishment of the IITs, defence academies and so on.
He also gave political support to the space and nuclear programs of the country.
Nehru was also responsible for the annexation of Goa after years of failed negotiations with the Portuguese.
He is the longest-serving PM of the country, having been in office for 17 years. He died in office on 27th May 1964 aged 74. He died of a heart attack.
His birth anniversary is observed as ‘Children’s Day’ in India.
Some of Nehru’s works:
• The Discovery of India
• Toward Freedom (Autobiography)
• Glimpses of World History
• Letters from a Father to His Daughter

5. Consider the following statements regarding the Press council of India.
1. This is a statutory body created by Press Council Act of 1978.
2. It arbitrates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Answer-c
Explanation-
It was first set up in the year 1966 by the Parliament on the recommendations of the First Press Commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of press in India.
The Press Council of India is a statutory body created by Press Council Act of 1978.
It is the apex body for the regulation of the Press in India. It enjoys independence from the government.
It acts as the regulator that defines and discharge professional standards for the print media in India.
It is considered as the most important bodies that sustain democracy and to ensure that freedom of speech.
The objective of Press Council of India is to preserve the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of the press in India.
It arbitrates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
Composition
The Press Council is headed by a Chairman, who has by convention, been a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.
The Council consists of 28 other members of whom 20 represent the press and are nominated by the press organisations/news agencies recognised and notified by the Council as all India bodies of categories such as editors, working journalists and owners and managers of newspaper and news agencies, five members are nominated from the two Houses of Parliament and three represent cultural, literary and legal fields as nominees of the Sahitya Academy, University Grants Commission and the Bar Council of India.
The members serve on the Council for a term of three years.
A retiring member shall be eligible for renomination for not more than one term. (Max 2 consecutive terms)
FUNDING
The Council is funded by the revenue collected by it as fee levied on the registered newspapers in the country on the basis of their circulation.
No fee is levied on newspapers with circulation less than 5000 copies. The deficit is made good by way of grant by the Central Government.
Limitations
The powers of the PCI are restricted in two ways-
 The PCI has limited powers of enforcing the guidelines issued. It cannot penalize newspapers, news agencies, editors and journalists for violation of the guidelines.
 The PCI only overviews the functioning of press media. That is, it can enforce standards upon newspapers, journals, magazines and other forms of print media. It does not have the power to review the functioning of the electronic media like radio, television and internet media.