Current based PRELIMS QUESTION 4 April 2020

1. Consider the following statements regarding the economic slowdown and recession.
1. Recession is not just declining GDP growth but declining GDP itself.
2. A slowdown is a situation of declining growth rate of GDP, but economy is moving forward.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

  1. Answer-C
    A slowdown is a situation of declining growth rate of GDP. The economy is moving forward, but its growth rate is falling. There
    need not be a contraction of GDP actually in the case of slow down.
    For India, the GDP growth rate has been falling over the last five quarters. Hence, we can say that the economy is undergoing a slowdown and not a recession.  recession is declining economic activity measured by contraction of GDP for two or more successive quarters. It is not just declining GDP growth but declining GDP itself – that is the difference. Decline in GDP happens when the economy registers negative growth rate.

2. With reference to the administration under the Shivaji rule, consider the following list:
List I (Post) List II (Department)
1. Peshwa a. Foreign Affairs
2. Amatya b. Accountant general
3. Sachiv c. He looked after general administration.
4. Sumant d. Royal correspondence
Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
(a) 1-c; 2-d; 3-a; 4-b
(b) 1-d; 2-c; 3-b; 4-a
(c) 1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d
(d) 1-c; 2-b; 3-d; 4-a

2. Answer-d
Explanation
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, great Maratha ruler was born on 19 February 1630 at Shivneri Fort in District Pune in the present-day state of Maharashtra. Some records claim Shivaji’s date of birth as 6 April 1627 but 19 February 1630 is the official version. Shivaji Jayanti is observed on this day. Shivaji was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who held the jagirs of Pune and Supe under the Bijapur Sultanate. Shivaji’s mother was Jijabai, a pious woman whose religious qualities had a profound influence on him. Shahaji had also served the Ahmednagar and Deccan sultanates.
Shivaji was given excellent training in military warfare and administration. He was married for the first time in 1640 to Saibai. Shivaji displayed his military zeal for the first time in 1645, when as a teenager; he successfully got control of the Torna Fort which was under Bijapur.
He also acquired the Kondana Fort. Both these forts were under Adil Shah of Bijapur. Shah then got Shahaji imprisoned in a bid to contain Shivaji. Some accounts say that Shivaji surrendered these forts to get his father released. Shahaji died in 1664-65 in an accident. After this, Shivaji resumed his raids and extended his territories.
He achieved great name when he defeated Afzal Khan, a veteran general of Adil Shah.
In the Battle of Pratapgarh in 1659, Shivaji’s forces vanquished the Bijapur Sultanate’s army. From this victory, he acquired a large quantity of weapons and horses which greatly added to his growing Maratha army’s strength.
In the same year, another battle was fought with the Adilshahi camp at Kolhapur where Shivaji’s outnumbered army defeated the enemy force. Shivaji displayed great military prowess during this battle. This victory now alarmed Aurangzeb.
Shivaji raided Mughal territory near Ahmednagar and in Junnar. Aurangzeb’s forces under Nasiri Khan did defeat Shivaji at Ahmednagar in 1657 but the Mughal prince soon became engaged with his own battles with his brothers for the possession of the Mughal throne upon his father’s illness.

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Kathak.
1. Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.
2. It was primarily a temple or village performance wherein the dancers narrated stories from ancient scriptures.
3. The focus is more on footwork; the movements are skilfully controlled and performed straight legged by dancers wearing ankle-bells.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

3. Answer-d
Explanation
Kathak
The word Kathak has been derived from the word Katha which means a story.
It was primarily a temple or village performance wherein the dancers narrated stories from ancient scriptures.
Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement.
The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style.
Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form.
Usually a solo performance, the dancer often pauses to recite verses followed by their execution through movement.
The focus is more on footwork; the movements are skillfully controlled and performed straight legged by dancers wearing ankle-bells.
Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.
Lady Leela Sokhey (Menaka) revived the classical style. Some prominent dancers include Birju Maharaj, Sitara Devi.

4. Consider the following statements regarding the Khajuraho Group of Monuments.
1. Khajuraho is located in the State of Madhya Pradesh and was the principal seat of authority of the Chandella rulers.
2. Temples of Khajuraho are world famous for their architectural art and have been declared world heritage by UNESCO.
3. The Visvanatha, Parsvanatha and Vaidyanatha Temples belong to the time of king Dhanga, the successor of Yasovarman.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

4. Answer-d
Explanation-
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Khajuraho, the ancient Kharjjuravahaka, is located in the State of Madhya Pradesh and was the principal seat of authority of the Chandella rulers who adorned it with numerous tanks, scores of lofty temples of sculptural grace and architectural splendour.
Yasovarman (A.D. 954) built the temple of Vishnu, which is now famous as Lakshmana temple, and is an ornate and evolved example of its time proclaiming the prestige of the Chandellas.
Temples of Khajuraho are world famous for their architectural art and have been declared world heritage by UNESCO. The Visvanatha, Parsvanatha and Vaidyanatha Temples belong to the time of king Dhanga, the successor of Yasovarman. The Jagadambi, Chitragupta, are noteworthy among the western group of royal temples of Khajuraho. The largest and grandest temple of Khajuraho is the immortal Kandariya Mahadeva, which is attributed to king Ganda (A.D. 1017-29). The other examples that followed viz., Vamana, Adinatha, Javari, Chaturbhuj and Duladeo, are smaller but elaborately designed. The Khajuraho group of temples is noted for lofty terraces (jagati) and functionally effective plans. The sculptural embellishments include, besides the cult images; parivara, parsva, avarana devatas, dikpalas, the apsarases and sura-sundaris, which win universal admiration for their delicate, youthful female forms of ravishing beauty. The attire and ornamentation embrace the winsome grace and charm.
https://www.clearias.com/temple-architecture-sculpture/

5. Which of the following rivers flows through Kaziranga National Park?
1. Brahmaputra
2. Diphlu
3. Mora Dhansiri
4. Mora Diphlu
Choose the correct option.
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

5. Answer-d
Explanation-
Kaziranga National Park
Location: It is located in the State of Assam and covers 42,996 ha. It is the single largest undisturbed and representative area in the Brahmaputra Valley floodplain.
Legal Status
It was declared as a National Park in 1974.
It has been declared a tiger reserve since 2007. It has a total tiger reserve area of 1,030 sq km with a core area of 430 sq. km.
International Status
It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.
Important Species Found
It is the home of the world’s most one-horned rhinos.
Much of the focus of conservation efforts in Kaziranga are focused on the ‘big four’ species— rhino, elephant, Royal Bengal tiger and Asiatic water buffalo.
The 2018 census had yielded 2,413 rhinos and approximately 1,100 elephants.
Kaziranga is also home to 9 of the 14 species of primates found in the Indian subcontinent.
Rivers and Highways
The National Highway 37 passes through the park area.
The park also has more than 250 seasonal water bodies, besides the Diphlu River running through it.
Kaziranga is crisscrossed by four main rivers —Brahmaputra, Diphlu, Mora Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri and has numerous small water bodies.